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新涂层材料可以防止管道堵塞

New coating could prevent pipeline clogging

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当一些甲烷分子
When some molecules of methane are
被困在水的晶体结构中时
trapped within a crystal structure of water,
它们就形成了一种类似于冰的固体
they form a solid similar to ice.
这种像冰的固体
The name of these ice-like structures
被命名为甲烷水合物
is methane clathrates.
它们要为墨西哥湾漏油之初
And they are largely responsible for
工作人员尝试控制泄露却以失败告终
the initial unsuccessful attempt in containing the oil
负很大责任
spill that rocked the Gulf of Mexico
这次事件发生在2010年春天
back in the spring of 2010.
当深水地平线油井发生爆炸时
When the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil
操作人员试图将泄漏的油集入一根管道中
well occurred, operators tried to funnel the leaking oil
将其输送到上面的油轮中
into a pipe to be carried to a tanker ship above,
从而防止油不断泄漏到海水中
thus preventing the ongoing leakage into the water.
然而这个计划没有成功
However, this plan didn’t succeed.
由于海床附近
Instead, due to the low temperatures and high pressure
低温高压的条件
near the sea floor, methane clathrates
在控制罩内部形成了甲烷水合物
built up inside the containment dome
堵住了出口管道
and blocked the outlet pipe, preventing it
阻止了它重新定向流动
from redirecting the flow.
要是甲烷水合物没有形成的话
Perhaps if methane clathrates had not been formed,
控制罩或许还可以正常工作
the containment might have worked.
现在麻省理工学院的一组研究人员
Now a team of researchers at MIT has come up
想出了一个解决方案
with a solution that just may prevent
防止下次泄漏时发生这种灾难性的后果
such a disastrous outcome the next time a leak occurs.
他们的新方法还可以
And their new method may also prevent blockages
预防在甲烷水合物环境下
inside oil and gas pipelines that
石油和天然气管道中形成的堵塞物
are located in environments where methane clathrates can form.
新系统的关键是管道内的涂层
The key to their novel system is the coating inside the pipe.
在同组研究人员之前的工作中
In previous work by the same group,
设计出一种方法
they were able to design a way to keep anything
能够防止从番茄酱到颜料的任何东西粘附在容器壁上
from ketchup to paint from sticking to the container walls
首先在容器内壁上做一层有特定结构的涂层
by first creating a textured coating on the walls
然后加入一种能被这种结构锁住的润滑剂
and then adding a lubricant that gets trapped by the texture
防止粘附
and prevents content from adhering.
在这种情况下
In this case, the lubricant is already
润滑剂已经以油的形式存在
present in the form of oil.
所以他们需要的是一个
So all they need is a coating on the surface that is chemically
化学上亲石油中烃类
attracted to hydrocarbons present in the petroleum
而排斥水的表面涂层
but repels water.
只要水远离管壁
As long as water is kept away from the pipe wall,
甲烷水合物的积累就会停止
clathrate buildup can be stopped.
在实验室试验中 使用一种化学品代替了甲烷
In lab tests, which used a proxy chemical for the methane
因为实际情况是在高压条件下
because actual methane clathrates form
形成的甲烷水合物
under high-pressure conditions that
在实验室中很难重现
are hard to reproduce in the lab,
试验表明这个系统非常有效
the system performed very effectively.
研究人员声称他们没有在基底上
The researchers say they didn’t see any hydrates adhering
看到任何水合物
to the substrates.
不同于以往的方法
Unlike previous methods, such as heating
如管壁加热 减压
of the pipe walls, depressurization,
或使用化学添加剂
or using chemical additives, which
这些添加剂既昂贵 又有潜在的污染
can be expensive and potentially polluting,
新的方法是完全自发的
the new method is completely passive.
也就是说 一旦就位
That is, once in place, it requires no further addition
就不再消耗能量或其他材料
of energy or material.
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视频概述

一种在管道上设计涂层,亲油斥水,可以防止管道堵塞

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收集自网络

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HJF再来三碗饭

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Al8swFTN82E

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