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为什么说“网络”是连接世界的病毒

Network theory

互联网上“病毒”的真正意思是什么?
What does “going viral” on the internet really mean,
为什么“病毒”发生的如此之快?
and why does it happen so quickly?
为什么金融机构规模越大越稳定
Why is a financial institution too big to fail?
一个非洲的病毒是如何
How does a virus in Africa end up
在美国在几个小时内被终止
in the United States in a matter of hours?
为什么像脸书和谷歌这类公司
Why are Facebook and Google such powerful companies
在创造全球连接方面极具影响力
at creating global connections?
总而言之 一个词
Well, in a word:
网络
networks.
那么什么是网络呢
But what are networks?
每个人都很熟悉社交网络
Everyone knows about their social network,
但是网络包含了各种不同的网络类型
but there are all different kinds of networks
那些你也许从未想到过的类型
you probably haven’t thought about.
网络是连接的集合
Networks are collections of links
网络结合了具体的规则和有活力的行为
which combine by specific rules and behaviors if they are alive.
我们说网络是有活力的的
We say that networks are alive
因为它们一直在改变着
because they are in constant change.
随着时间改变 网络里的连接
Over time, the connections within a network
转移和集中到了新的方面
migrate and concentrate in new places,
形成了进化结构
forming evolving structures.
发生在不断变化的
How the evolution and concentration
连接中的进化和集中
of constantly changing connections occurs
是整个学科的主题
is the subject of a whole discipline called
它被称为网络理论
network theory.
我们可以把社区当作网络的例子
We can think of networks as neighborhoods.
社区的范围是由地图标出来的
Neighborhoods are defined by maps.
谷歌地图说明了
A Google map demonstrates the relationship
不同地点之间的联系
between locations in exactly the same fashion
而网络也以同样的方式将枢纽 节点(节点: 节点是网络任何支路的终端或网络中两个或更多支路的互连公共点)
a network connects hubs and nodes,
街道将社区连接起来
using streets as links to connect neighborhoods.
一个网络可以迅速扩张和进化的原因
The reason a network can expand and evolve so quickly
取决于一个数学概念
is based upon a mathematical concept called
幂函数
power functions.
幂函数是数学中的放大机制
A power function is a mathematical amplification mechanism,
是指在一个特定的小范围内
which over specific and very small ranges,
以对数加速改变
accelerates changes logarithmically.
也就是说 当一个参数发生一个极小的改变
That is, a very small change in one parameter
会导致其他参数在特定范围内
produces a huge change in another
发生极大的变化
over a very specific range of values.
另一个展现了网络结构的例子是
An example of how network structure emerges
谷歌用的运算法则
is the algorithm used by Google.
以“朋友”一词为例 当搜索“朋友”的连接越来越多
As the number of links around a search term, say “friends”, increases,
在数百万不同的搜索者之间
connections begin to form among millions
连接就被建立了
of different searches using the term “friend”.
谷歌已经巧妙地完成了
What Google has cleverly accomplished
一个实时数学模型
is a real-time mathematical model
用于在数十亿搜索词中
for how to predict the emergence of growing connections
预测会出现增长的连接
among billions of search terms.
谷歌使用的计算方法收集了
The algorithm Google derived collects
对任何一个搜索词的引用量
the number of references to any search object.
当一个搜索词的引用量增加时
As references to a search object increase,
链接的数量也会增加 从而创造出一个节点
the number of links also increases, creating a node.
随着节点的规模变大
As the node increases in size,
最终会形成一个枢纽
it eventually becomes a hub,
枢纽会把各个节点链接起来
which links to many nodes.
新的网络会不断出现
Networks will continue to emerge
因为有更多连接和创建社区的新方法被找到
as new ways of connecting and creating neighborhoods are defined.
也许你开始在想 为什么网络有如此强大的力量
Perhaps you can begin to see why networks are so powerful.
当谷歌继续收集数十亿的当日搜索内容
As Google continues to collect the billions of daily searches,
新集群的连接将会迅速出现
new clusters of links will rapidly emerge,
去形成传统的和不断增长的网络
forming additional and growing networks.
尽管你的网络成对数增长
Despite the logarithmic expansion of your network,
但六度分离定律仍然适用
the laws of six degrees of separation still apply.
因此 你会发现一个你在脸书上的
Therefore, if you explore a close friend or acquaintances
密友或是认识的人
in you Facebook network,
每个人会被平均分为
everyone on average will be separated
六个人或是更少
by six individuals or less
你的社会网络图会形成社区
and a map of your social network will create neighborhoods
社区会由朋友之间的共同联系链接起来
linked by common connections among friends.

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eM1KaaTez0A

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