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暗物质、暗引力、幽灵粒子和物质本源 – 译学馆
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暗物质、暗引力、幽灵粒子和物质本源

Neil deGrasse Tyson: Dark Matter, Dark Gravity, Ghost Particles, & the Essence of All Objects

别相信暗物质的宣传
The question isn’t about whether dark matter exists or not.
问题不是暗物质是否存在
What’s going on is,
问题在于
when we measure gravity in the universe—
当我们测量宇宙中的引力时——
the collective gravity of the stars, the planets, the moons,
恒星 行星 卫星 星云 黑洞
the gas clouds, the black holes, whole galaxies—
整个银河系的总引力
when we do this, 85 percent has no known origin.
其中 有85%测不到来源
So it’s not a matter of whether dark matter exists or not,
所以 这个问题与暗物质是否存在无关
it’s a measurement—period. Now,
它是一种测量上的结果 句号
“ dark matter ” is not
我们甚至不应该叫它“暗物质”
even what we should be calling it because that implies
因为这样暗示了
that it is matter;
它是种物质
it implies we know something about it that we actually don’t.
它意味着我们对它有所了解 而实际上我们并不了解
So a more precise labeling for it would be “dark gravity.” Now,
所以 更准确的说法应该是“暗引力”
if I called it dark gravity, are you going to say: “Does dark gravity really
如果我叫它“暗引力” 你就会问:
exist?”
“暗引力真的存在吗”
I’d say yeah,
我会说 是的
because 85 percent of the gravity has no known origin.
因为85%的引力不知道来源
There it is.
就是这样子
Let’s figure out what’s causing it.
我来说说原因
The fact that the word “ matter ” got
事实上 “物质”这个词
into that word is forcing people to say, “ Well
会促使人们说:
I have another idea, I bet it’s not matter,
“我有另外一个想法 我敢说它不是物质
it could be something else! ”
它可能是别的东西”
We’re overreacting to a label
我们对标签反应过度了
that overstates our actual insights or knowledge into what
而且这种标签夸大了我们对所描述事物的
it is we’re describing.
真实见解或认识
Then I just joke we should just call it Fred.
开玩笑的说 我们应该叫它“佛雷德”
Fred or Wilma,
“佛雷德”或“威尔玛”
something where there is no reference to what we think it is because in
那种我们没有参考标准的名字
fact we have no idea.
因为事实上 我们对它一无所知
So here’s how you actually measure the stuff.
现在说说我们怎么测量这种东西
In a galaxy, which is the smallest aggregation
证明暗物质存在的最小的聚集物
of matter where dark matter manifests, you
即银河系
look how fast it’s rotating and we know
你可以看出它的旋转速度有多快
from laws of gravity first laid down by Johannes
我们知道由约翰尼斯·开普勒提出
Kepler and then enhanced and given
然后被艾萨卡·牛顿强化
further detail and deeper understanding by Isaac Newton,
以及赋予更详尽细节 更深刻认识的万有引力定理
you write down these equations and say,
你写下那些方程式
look how fast it’s rotating, you invoke that rotation
并说 “看看它转得有多快”
rate in the equation and out the other side says how much gravity,
你希望方程式左边的转速 能得出右边的引力是多少
how much mass should be there attracting you.
这里应该有多少质量
And the more mass that’s there the
质量越高
faster we expect you to be orbiting.
旋转的速度就越快
That kind of makes sense.
这样才说得通
So when you do this calculation on a galactic scale,
当你这样计算银河系的质量时
we get vastly more mass attracting
得到的质量数值远远超过
you than we actually can detect.
我们实际上能探测到的数值
I’m adding up stars, gas clouds, moon,
我把恒星 星云 卫星
planets, black holes—add it all up.
行星 黑洞的质量都加起来
It’s a fraction of what we know is attracting you in this orbit,
在这个范围内 它也只占结果的一小部分
and we can not detect the rest,
我们探测不出剩余的部分
and so we hand it this title dark matter.
所以 我们给它贴上“暗物质”的标签
Understandably, I suppose.
我觉得可以理解
But it implies that we know that it’s matter,
但它意味着我们知道它是种物质
but we don’t.
实际上我们并不清楚
We know we can’t detect it in any known way
我们只知道无法用任何已知方法检测出它
and we know it has gravity,
我们也知道它有引力
so it really should be called dark gravity.
所以 它真的应该 被称为“暗引力”
I think the over–under on what dark matter might be, today,
我认为对暗物质可能是什么的不同看法……
I think we’re all kind of leaning
目前 我认为大家都有点
towards a family of particles, subatomic particles,
向粒子族 亚原子的方向去研究
that have hardly any ability to interact
这几乎没办法和我们已知的粒子
with the particles we have come to know and love,”ordinary matter”.
即和那些“普通物质” 联系起来
And that would make it matter,
那会让它成为一种“物质”
dark matter, as we’ve all been describing it.
一种“暗物质” 就如同我们描述的那样
And it’s not a weird thing
可能存在一种粒子
that you could have a particle that doesn’t interact
不会跟我们所知的粒子相互作用
with our particles.
这并不奇怪
Within our own family
在我们自己体系的粒子族里
of particles there are examples where the interaction is very weak
也有粒子间的作用非常微弱
or nonexistent.
或不存在的例子
You might have heard of neutrinos,
你可能听说过中微子
this is a ghost-like particle that permeates the universe
这是种像幽灵一样的粒子 弥漫在宇宙之中
and hardly interacts with familiar matter at all,
几乎不与我们熟知的物质反应
yet it is part of our family of particles
然而 它是那些我们已知其存在
that we know exist and that we can detect and interact with.
并且能够探测和相互反应的粒子族的一部分
So if we can have an elusive particle
所以 如果我们熟悉的粒子族中存在
that’s part of our own familiar family of particles
部分难以捉摸的粒子
it’s not much of a stretch to think
不难想象
of a whole other category of particles where none of
在整个另一套粒子种类中
them give a rat ’ s ass about the rest of us,
没有任何粒子会在乎我们
and they just pass right through us as
它们穿过我们
though we’re not even there. Now,
好像我们根本不存在
here’s what’s interesting about dark matter:
关于暗物质 有趣的一部分是:
we know it doesn’t interact with us
除了引力方面
except gravitationally.
我们无法检测到其它任何迹象
By the way, what do I mean by interact?
顺便提下 我说的“反应”是什么意思呢?
Does it bind and make atoms and molecules and solid objects? No,
是指它把原子 分子聚集在一起 形成固体物质吗 不是的
it does not interact with us in any important known way.
它不以任何我们已知的重要方式 与我们反应
But it also doesn’t interact with itself.
它们自己相互之间也不起反应
That’s what’s interesting.
这就是有意思的地方
So if it interacted with itself,
那么 如果它们自己会相互反应
you could imagine finding dark matter planets, dark
你就能想象 发现暗物质行星
matter galaxies,
暗物质星系
because to interact with yourself is what allows you to accumulate
因为自我反应能让它积累物质
and have a concentration of matter in one place versus another.
把物质集中在一个地方而不是到处都是
These are the atomic bonds and the molecular bonds that create solid objects.
原子键和分子键创造了固体物质
And if particles do not interact with one another,
如果粒子不相互反应
they just pass through, you just
它们就只会相互穿过
have this zone of mass not really doing anything interesting.
你就只能有质量区 而不能真正形成气候
So dark matter not only doesn’t interact with us,
所以 暗物质不仅不会与我们相互反应
it doesn’t interact with itself.
它们彼此之间也不会相互反应
And that’s why when we find dark matter
这就是我们发现暗物质
across the universe it’s very diffusely spread out.
在宇宙中分布十分广泛的原因
It’s like over here.
它就像遍布这里
It’s not in this one spot and look at this concentration. No,
它不是浓缩在这一个点上 不是的
that’s not how that works.
它不是这样运行的
An example of this: What is a rock?
举个例子:什么是石头?
It’s a collection of atoms and molecules
它是一种由电磁力将原子和分子
that are stuck together by electromagnetic forces.
紧密联系在一起的聚合体
We don’t think of them that way,
我们不会用这种方法来看待它们
we just think of them as rocks,
它们就是石头
but they are held together by forces on the atomic and molecular scale,
它们被原子和分子层面的力 紧密地联系在一起
and they bind together and then we get what
它们粘合在一起
we call the solid object called a rock.
然后我们就管这种固体叫做“石头”
If those forces did not work on you as a particle,
如果微粒上的那些力不能在你身上起作用
you have no occasion to bind with any other particle.
你就没机会和其它微粒粘合在一起
You have no occasion—you have no ambitions of ever becoming a solid object.
你没有机会—— 你没有任何可能成为一个固体物质
It’s a different kind of world, that would be.
那会是另外一种世界
We would not expect that world to have life as we know it,
不能期望那种世界会存在生命
because life requires an assembly of molecules to turn it
生命要求分子聚合在一起
into some separate entity distinct from everything else that
以成为某种独立的实体 和其他物体区别开来
then has fascinating chemical properties that we call life.
然后具有独特的化学特性 我们才称之为“生命”

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视频概述

什么是暗物质?它为什么叫做“暗物质”?相信你跟我一样好奇哦!

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lr-DB3Z_5_c

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