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暗物质、暗引力、幽灵粒子和物质本源 – 译学馆
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暗物质、暗引力、幽灵粒子和物质本源

Neil deGrasse Tyson: Dark Matter, Dark Gravity, Ghost Particles, & the Essence of All Objects

别相信暗物质的宣传
问题不是暗物质是否存在
The question isn’t about whether dark matterexists or not.
问题在于
What’s going on is,
当我们测量宇宙中的引力时——
when we measure gravity in the universe—
恒星 行星 卫星 星云 黑洞
the collective gravity of the stars, the planets, the moons,
整个银河系的总引力
the gas clouds, the black holes, whole galaxies—
其中 有85%测不到来源
when we do this, 85 percent has no known origin.
所以 这个问题与暗物质是否存在无关
So it’s not a matter of whether dark matter exists or not,
它是一种测量上的结果 句号
it’s a measurement—period. Now,
我们甚至不应该叫它“暗物质”
“ dark matter ” is not
因为这样暗示了
even what we should be calling it because that implies
它是种物质
that it is matter;
它意味着我们对它有所了解 而实际上我们并不了解
it implies we know something about it that we actually don’t.
所以 更准确的说法应该是“暗引力”
So a more precise labeling for it would be“dark gravity.” Now,
如果我叫它“暗引力” 你就会问:
if I called it dark gravity, are yougoing to say: “Does dark gravity really
“暗引力真的存在吗”
exist?”
我会说 是的
I’d say yeah,
因为85%的引力不知道来源
because 85 percent of the gravity has no known origin.
就是这样子
There it is.
我来说说原因
Let’s figure out what’s causing it.
事实上 “物质”这个词
The fact that the word “ matter ” got
会促使人们说:
into that word is forcing people to say, “ Well
“我有另外一个想法 我敢说它不是物质
I have another idea, I bet it’s not matter,
它可能是别的东西”
it could be something else! ”
我们对标签反应过度了
We’re overreacting to a label
而且这种标签夸大了我们对所描述事物的
that overstates our actual insights or knowledge into what
真实见解或认识
it is we’re describing.
开玩笑的说 我们应该叫它“佛雷德”
Then I just joke we should just call it Fred.
“佛雷德”或“威尔玛”
Fred or Wilma,
那种我们没有参考标准的名字
something where there is no reference to what we think it is because in
因为事实上 我们对它一无所知
fact we have no idea.
现在说说我们怎么测量这种东西
So here’s how you actually measure the stuff.
证明暗物质存在的最小的聚集物
In a galaxy, which is the smallest aggregation
即银河系
of matter where dark matter manifests, you
你可以看出它的旋转速度有多快
look how fast it’s rotating and we know
我们知道由约翰尼斯·开普勒提出
from laws of gravity first laid down by Johannes
然后被艾萨卡·牛顿强化
Kepler and then enhanced and given
以及赋予更详尽细节 更深刻认识的万有引力定理
further detail and deeper understanding by Isaac Newton,
你写下那些方程式
you write down these equations and say,
并说 “看看它转得有多快”
look how fast it’s rotating, you invoke that rotation
你希望方程式左边的转速能得出右边的引力是多少
rate in the equation and out the other side says how much gravity,
这里应该有多少质量
how much mass should be there attracting you.
质量越高
And the more mass that’s there the
旋转的速度就越快
faster we expect you to be orbiting.
这样才说得通
That kind of makes sense.
当你这样计算银河系的质量时
So when you do this calculation on a galactic scale,
得到的质量数值远远超过
we get vastly more mass attracting
我们实际上能探测到的数值
you than we actually can detect.
我把恒星 星云 卫星
I’m adding up stars, gas clouds, moon,
行星 黑洞的质量都加起来
planets, black holes—add it all up.
在这个范围内 它也只占结果的一小部分
It’s a fraction of what we know is attracting you in this orbit,
我们探测不出剩余的部分
and we can not detect the rest,
所以 我们给它贴上“暗物质”的标签
and so we hand it this title dark matter.
我觉得可以理解
Understandably, I suppose.
但它意味着我们知道它是种物质
But it implies that we know that it’s matter,
实际上我们并不清楚
but we don’t.
我们只知道无法用任何已知方法检测出它
We know we can’t detect it in any known way
我们也知道它有引力
and we know it has gravity,
所以 它真的应该 被称为“暗引力”
so it really should be called dark gravity.
我认为对暗物质可能是什么的不同看法……
I think the over–under on what dark matter might be, today,
目前 我认为大家都有点
I think we’re all kind of leaning
向粒子族 亚原子的方向去研究
towards a family of particles, subatomic particles,
这几乎没办法和我们已知的粒子
that have hardly any ability to interact
即和那些“普通物质” 联系起来
with the particles we have come toknow and love,”ordinary matter”.
那会让它成为一种“物质”
And that would make it matter,
一种“暗物质” 就如同我们描述的那样
dark matter, as we’ve all been describing it.
可能存在一种粒子
And it’s not a weird thing
不会跟我们所知的粒子相互作用
that you could have a particle that doesn’t interact
这并不奇怪
with our particles.
在我们自己体系的粒子族里
Within our own family
也有粒子间的作用非常微弱
of particles there are examples where the interaction is very weak
或不存在的例子
or nonexistent.
你可能听说过中微子
You might have heard of neutrinos,
这是种像幽灵一样的粒子 弥漫在宇宙之中
this is a ghost-like particle that permeates the universe
几乎不与我们熟知的物质反应
and hardly interacts with familiar matter at all,
然而 它是那些我们已知其存在
yet it is part of our family of particles
并且能够探测和相互反应的粒子族的一部分
that we know exist and that we can detect and interact with.
所以 如果我们熟悉的粒子族中存在
So if we can have an elusive particle
部分难以捉摸的粒子
that’s part of our own familiar family of particles
不难想象
it’s not much of a stretch to think
在整个另一套粒子种类中
of a whole other category of particles where none of
没有任何粒子会在乎我们
them give a rat ’ s ass about the rest of us,
它们穿过我们
and they just pass right through us as
好像我们根本不存在
though we’re not even there. Now,
关于暗物质 有趣的一部分是:
here’s what’s interesting about darkmatter:
除了引力方面
we know it doesn’t interact with us
我们无法检测到其它任何迹象
except gravitationally.
顺便提下 我说的“反应”是什么意思呢?
By the way, what do I mean by interact?
是指它把原子 分子聚集在一起形成固体物质吗 不是的
Does it bind and make atoms and moleculesand solid objects? No,
它不以任何我们已知的重要方式与我们反应
it does not interact with us in any important known way.
它们自己相互之间也不起反应
But it also doesn’t interact with itself.
这就是有意思的地方
That’s what’s interesting.
那么 如果它们自己会相互反应
So if it interacted with itself,
你就能想象 发现暗物质行星
you could imagine finding dark matter planets, dark
暗物质星系
matter galaxies,
因为自我反应能让它积累物质
because to interact with yourself is what allows you to accumulate
把物质集中在一个地方而不是到处都是
and have a concentration of matter in oneplace versus another.
原子键和分子键创造了固体物质
These are the atomic bonds and the molecular bonds that create solid objects.
如果粒子不相互反应
And if particles do not interact with one another,
它们就只会相互穿过
they just pass through, you just
你就只能有质量区 而不能真正形成气候
have this zone of mass not really doing anythinginteresting.
所以 暗物质不仅不会与我们相互反应
So dark matter not only doesn’t interact with us,
它们彼此之间也不会相互反应
it doesn’t interact with itself.
这就是我们发现暗物质
And that’s why when we find dark matter
在宇宙中分布十分广泛的原因
across the universe it’s very diffusely spread out.
它就像遍布这里
It’s like over here.
它不是浓缩在这一个点上 不是的
It’s not in this one spot and look at thisconcentration. No,
它不是这样运行的
that’s not how that works.
举个例子:什么是石头?
An example of this: What is a rock?
它是一种由电磁力将原子和分子
It’s a collection of atoms and molecules
紧密联系在一起的聚合体
that are stuck together by electromagnetic forces.
我们不会用这种方法来看待它们
We don’t think of them that way,
它们就是石头
we just think of them as rocks,
它们被原子和分子层面的力紧密地联系在一起
but they are held together by forces on the atomic and molecular scale,
它们粘合在一起
and they bind together and then we get what
然后我们就管这种固体叫做“石头”
we call the solid object called a rock.
如果微粒上的那些力不能在你身上起作用
If those forces did not work on you as a particle,
你就没机会和其它微粒粘合在一起
you have no occasion to bind with any other particle.
你没有机会——你没有任何可能成为一个固体物质
You have no occasion—you have no ambitions of ever becoming a solid object.
那会是另外一种世界
It’s a different kind of world, that wouldbe.
不能期望那种世界会存在生命
We would not expect that world to have life as we know it,
生命要求分子聚合在一起
because life requires an assembly of molecules to turn it
以成为某种独立的实体 和其他物体区别开来
into some separate entity distinct from everything else that
然后具有独特的化学特性 我们才称之为“生命”
then has fascinating chemical properties thatwe call life.

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视频概述

什么是暗物质?它为什么叫做“暗物质”?相信你跟我一样好奇哦!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lr-DB3Z_5_c

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