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忽视理论:罗马尼亚孤儿的故事

Neglect Theory: The Story of the Romanian Orphans

Children who experience physical, cognitive or emotional neglect,
因为母亲生病 父亲忙碌
say because their mother was sick and their father was busy,
而经历过身体 认知或情感忽视的孩子
often face anxiety.
通常会面临焦虑
As a result, their body produces stress hormones.
因此 他们的身体会产生应激激素
If this happens a lot,
如果这种情况经常发生
these hormones become toxic for their developing brain,
这些激素会对他们发育中的大脑产生毒性
which then later can repress emotional and cognitive well-being for life.
随后会抑制他们一生的情感和认知健康
The real story of Daniel Rucareanu,
这是发生在丹尼尔·鲁卡里亚努身上的真实故事
who spent part of his early childhood in a Romanian orphanage,
他在罗马尼亚一家孤儿院
in a Romanian orphanage,
度过了一段早期的童年时光
shows the full impact neglect can have.
这个故事展现了忽视所带来的全方位的影响
The story began in 1966,
故事始于1966年
when Romania’s then leader Nikolai Ceausescu
当时的罗马尼亚领导人尼古拉·齐奥塞斯库
wanted to make his country a world powerhouse
希望把国家发展成世界强国
and came up with laws to increase the country’s population.
并制定了法律来增加国家人口
Abortion and contraception were declared mostly illegal.
堕胎和避孕大多被视为是违法的
While the law led to a rapid rise in birth rates,
虽然这项法律导致生育率快速提高
many of the poorer families were unable to take care of all their children,
但许多贫困家庭却没有能力养育所有孩子
and Daniel, and around half a million others,
有大约50万和丹尼尔一样的孩子
were sent to state-run institutions.
被送往国营机构抚养
In most orphanages, there were no toys, no books,
大多数的孤儿院里没有玩具和书
or anything else to stimulate cognitive development.
或任何促进认知能力提升的东西
Many kids just stared at the bare ceilings,
很多孩子只能盯着光秃秃的天花板
waiting for their next meal.
等待着他们的下一餐
Due to the lack of human contact,
由于缺乏与人接触
some babies developed strategies for self stimulation,
一些孩子开发了一项自我刺激的应对策略
such as rocking back and forth.
比如前后摇晃
The cognitive neglect often led to lower IQ scores,
认知忽视通常会导致智商较低
delayed language development and a lack of creative thinking.
语言能力迟缓以及缺乏创造性思维
This happens because our brains build connections
会这样是因为我们的大脑需要
with every new experience and stimulation.
每一次新的体验和刺激来建立联系
If there are no rich experiences during the first years of life
幼儿时期是大脑发育最快的阶段
– the period in which the brain develops the fastest-
如果这期间没有丰富的经历
children cannot build the foundations necessary for optimal future learning.
孩子就不能为未来理想的学习打下必要的基础
They miss out for life.
他们错过了一生
Daniel lived with over 400 other children
丹尼尔和其他400多个孩子
and their shared bedrooms were hardly ever cleaned.
挤在肮脏的房间里
The meals were mostly tiny portions of boiled cabbage,
吃的大多是小份的水煮生菜
which the staff would sometimes steal to eat themselves.
员工们有时还会偷吃
Some supervisors used violence to control the orphans,
一些管理人员会使用暴力来控制孤儿们
others encouraged the older kids to beat Daniel,
还有一些会怂恿年长的孩子去打丹尼尔
to humiliate him and exercise authority.
去羞辱丹尼尔 还发号施令
The consequences of physical neglect and lack of basic nutrients
身体的忽视和基础营养的缺乏
caused most orphans to suffer from stunted growth
导致大多数孤儿发育不良
some children contracted HIV and Hepatitis B
由于重复使用医疗用品
as a result of the reusing of medical supplies.
一些儿童感染了艾滋病毒和乙型肝炎
The physical abuse caused severe bruising and other injuries.
身体虐待导致他们身上伤痕累累
The overworked and under-trained staff
由于劳累过度和缺乏训练
hardly ever soothed the crying children.
孤儿院的员工几乎不会安抚哭闹的孩子
In fact they barely spent any time with Daniel at all.
事实上 他们根本不会花时间在丹尼尔身上
Some children were left completely alone with their worries,
一些孩子完全没人管 只能独自面对焦虑
others hid their feelings from the very people who ought to protect them
另一些孩子则对那些要保护他们的人隐藏感情
since they feared being hurt.
因为他们害怕被伤害
Emotional neglect and anxiety lead to an excessive production
情绪忽视和焦虑会使应激激素过度分泌
of the stress hormones known as adrenaline and cortisol,
例如肾上腺素和皮质醇
which is like poison for the developing brain.
这对发育中的大脑来说就像毒药
But the experience also distorted the children’s understanding
而且这样的经历也会扭曲孩子对
of love and human relationships.
爱和人际关系的理解
They learned to trust nobody and as adults,
他们开始不信任任何人 并且在长大后
often suffered from depression, insomnia and social anxiety.
常常被抑郁 失眠和社交焦虑所折磨
When Ceausescu’s regime was eventually overthrown
当齐奥塞斯库的政权最终被推翻
and the conditions inside the orphanage were shown on television.
孤儿院内的情况在电视上播出
researchers from around the world came to examine the nameless children
世界各地的研究人员去调查这些无名儿童
MRI scans later showed that
随后 核磁共振扫描显示
some had smaller volumes of brain mass.
一些孩子的脑容量较小
The resulting research made a strong case that
研究结果有力地证明了
not only is nutrition vital to a child’s development
不仅营养对孩子的成长至关重要
but so is human contact.
人际交往也非常重要
To help the children, a large number were adopted into foreign families.
为了帮助这些孩子 外国家庭收养了很多孩子
But even after being adopted,
但即使被收养了
many had problems forming loving bonds to their new parents.
许多孩子依旧无法与新父母建立爱的纽带
This aligns with the attachment theory
这与依恋理论相一致
and the notion that a child needs to establish a loving relationship
该理论指出 孩子在幼儿时期需要与
with at least one primary caregiver early in life.
至少一个主要照顾者建立爱的关系
Daniel was quite lucky with his family.
丹尼尔很幸运能找到一个这样的家庭
While he continued to experience trauma and anxiety,
虽然他要继续经历创伤和焦虑
he went on to have a university education, started a family of his own
但他接受了大学教育 建立了自己的家庭
and later he founded an on-profit organization for neglected children.
后来还给被忽视的儿童成立了非盈利组织
If you grew up in a loving environment,
如果你成长的环境充满爱
count yourself really, really lucky.
那你就真的很幸运 很幸运
If you experienced forms of neglect,
如果你经历过各种形式的忽视
try to internalize the idea that it was never your fault
努力说服自己 这从来都不是你的错
and maybe not even your parents’ fault either.
甚至可能也不是你父母的错
To read what we think can be done if you have ever experienced neglect,
如果你曾经历过忽视 请阅读下面的文字
read the descriptions below.
可以做些什么 看看我们的观点
One way is to share your thoughts about neglect
一种方法是分享你对被忽视的看法
and how you think it affects you today.
以及你认为它是如何影响你的
This and all other Sprouts’ videos are licensed
本视频和其他所有铅绘视频都是
under the Creative Commons.
知识共享协议授权的
That means teachers from all around the world use them in classrooms,
这意味着世界各地的教师都可以在课堂上
online courses or to start projects.
在网上课程或启动项目时使用它们
And today, thousands already do!
今时今日 成千上万的人已经这样做了
To learn how it works and download this video without Ads or background music,
想了解如何无广告无背景音乐下载本视频
checkout our website or read the description below.
请查看我们的网站或阅读以下描述
If you want to support our mission and help change education
如果你想支持我们的任务 帮助改变教育
visit our Patreon – that’s patreon.com/sprouts.
请访问我们的网站:patreon.com/sprouts

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视频概述

遭遇情感忽视,究竟会对孩子一生有什么样的影响?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

一只鸡腿子

审核员

审核员CF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hj1d8xJdPvU

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