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生活不缺少自然—只是缺少发现它的眼睛

Nature is everywhere -- we just need to learn to see it | Emma Marris

我们正在从后代手中偷走大自然
We are stealing nature from our children.
我这么说 并不是指我们在破坏大自然
Now, when I say this, I don’t mean that we are destroying nature
那个孩子们想让我们保护的大自然
that they will have wanted us to preserve,
尽管很不幸 但事情确实是这样的
although that is unfortunately also the case.
我想说的是 我们给自然
What I mean here is that we’ve started to define nature in a way
下了一个纯粹又严格的定义
that’s so purist and so strict
在这个我们为自己创造的定义之下
that under the definition we’re creating for ourselves,
当我们的孩子长大成人后
there won’t be any nature left for our children
他们的自然将会所剩无几
when they’re adults.
但这个问题有办法解决
But there’s a fix for this.
让我来解释一下
So let me explain.
现在 人类把半个地球
Right now, humans use half of the world
用于生活 种植农作物和木材
to live, to grow their crops and their timber,
以及饲养牲畜
to pasture their animals.
如果把所有人类体重加总
If you added up all the human beings,
其质量相当于所有野生哺乳动物的10倍
we would weigh 10 times as much as all the wild mammals put together.
我们砍伐森林以修建道路
We cut roads through the forest.
我们把塑料颗粒混在了海滩的沙粒中
We have added little plastic particles to the sand on ocean beaches.
我们用人造化肥改变了土壤的化学性质
We’ve changed the chemistry of the soil with our artificial fertilizers.
当然我们也改变了空气的化学成分
And of course, we’ve changed the chemistry of the air.
所以 当你吸入下一口空气时
So when you take your next breath,
吸入的二氧化碳
you’ll be breathing in 42 percent more carbon dioxide
比1750年的人多42%
than if you were breathing in 1750.
所有这些改变 以及其它的
So all of these changes, and many others,
都集合在”人类世”这个醒目的大标题下
have come to be kind of lumped together under this rubric of the “Anthropocene.”
这是一个由地质学家们建议的
And this is a term that some geologists are suggesting
定义当前时代的一个术语
we should give to our current epoch,
它所考虑的是人类对自然的影响是多么普遍
given how pervasive human influence has been over it.
现在 它仍只是一个被建议使用的名词
Now, it’s still just a proposed epoch, but I think it’s a helpful way
但我认为这可以帮助人类 思考自己对这个星球的巨大影响
to think about the magnitude of human influence on the planet.
所以这对自然有什么影响?
So where does this put nature?
在这个遍布人类影响的世界 什么才算自然呢?
What counts as nature in a world where everything is influenced by humans?
25年前 环保作家比尔·麦克基本认为
So 25 years ago, environmental writer Bill McKibben said
因为自然是除人类之外的东西
that because nature was a thing apart from man
而气候变化意味着
and because climate change meant
地球的每个角落都已被人类改变了
that every centimeter of the Earth was altered by man,
自然已经不存在了
then nature was over.
其实他的书就叫《自然的终结》
In fact, he called his book “The End of Nature.”
我不同意这观点 我无法同意
I disagree with this. I just disagree with this.
我不同意这个对自然的定义 因为从根本上来说 我们人类是动物
I disagree with this definition of nature, because, fundamentally, we are animals.
对吧?我们在这个星球上进化
Right? Like, we evolved on this planet
我们同所有动物
in the context of all the other animals with which we share a planet,
所有植物 所有微生物共享这个星球
and all the other plants, and all the other microbes.
我认为 自然不应该是一个
And so I think that nature
未经人类碰触的地方
is not that which is untouched by humanity, man or woman.
相反 任何一个生命欣荣的地方
I think that nature is anywhere where life thrives,
万物共同生长的地方
anywhere where there are multiple species together,
有绿色和蓝色 充盈着旺盛的生命力的地方
anywhere that’s green and blue and thriving and filled with life
都可以称之其为自然
and growing.
在这个定义之下
And under that definition,
事情就会变得有些不同
things look a little bit different.
现在 我深知自然中某些部分
Now, I understand that there are certain parts of this nature
会用一种特殊的方式和我们对话
that speak to us in a special way.
有很多地方 像黄石公园
Places like Yellowstone,
蒙古草原
or the Mongolian steppe,
大堡礁
or the Great Barrier Reef
还有塞伦盖蒂
or the Serengeti.
这些地方在我们心里是伊甸园一样的存在
Places that we think of as kind of Edenic representations
我们还没有把一切弄得太糟
of a nature before we screwed everything up.
换句话说 它们很少受到我们日常活动的影响
And in a way, they are less impacted by our day to day activities.
它们中很多地方很少甚至没有道路
Many of these places have no roads or few roads,
或者诸如此类的人类印记
so on, like such.
但不得不说 这些伊甸园还是被人类深深影响
But ultimately, even these Edens are deeply influenced by humans.
现在 让我们用北美举个例子
Now, let’s just take North America, for example,
因为我们现在就在这里
since that’s where we’re meeting.
大约15000年前 当人们第一次来到这片土地时
So between about 15,000 years ago when people first came here,
他们开始了对自然的改造
they started a process of interacting with the nature
这导致了大量巨型动物的灭绝
that led to the extinction of a big slew of large-bodied animals,
从乳齿象到巨型地懒
from the mastodon to the giant ground sloth,
到剑齿虎
saber-toothed cats,
我们再也无法看到这些很酷的动物
all of these cool animals that unfortunately are no longer with us.
当这些动物走向灭绝
And when those animals went extinct,
生态系统不可能还保持原样
you know, the ecosystems didn’t stand still.
涟漪效应使草原变成了森林
Massive ripple effects changed grasslands into forests,
使森林的树从一种变成了另一种
changed the composition of forest from one tree to another.
甚至那些伊甸园里
So even in these Edens,
那些绮丽之地也深受影响
even in these perfect-looking places
那些地方似乎提醒我们一段人类出现之前的过去
that seem to remind us of a past before humans,
但其实那些已是人类化的风景
we’re essentially looking at a humanized landscape.
不止这些史前人类 还有历史上的人和原著民
Not just these prehistoric humans, but historical humans, indigenous people
一直追溯到第一个殖民者到来的那一刻
all the way up until the moment when the first colonizers showed up.
并且这些情况在其他大陆也是一样的
And the case is the same for the other continents as well.
长久以来 人类已在自然之中
Humans have just been involved in nature
进行了富有影响力的进化
in a very influential way for a very long time.
就在刚刚 有个人对我说
Now, just recently, someone told me,
“啊 其实还有原生态的地方啊”
“Oh, but there are still wild places.”
我说 ”哪里啊?在哪?我想去 “
And I said, “Where? Where? I want to go.”
他说 ”亚马逊雨林啊 “
And he said, “The Amazon.”
我说:”哦 亚马逊啊 我之前还在那儿 “
And I was like, “Oh, the Amazon. I was just there.
那里很不错 国家地理派遣我去的马努国家公园
It’s awesome. National Geographic sent me to Manú National Park,
就在秘鲁境内的亚马逊
which is in the Peruvian Amazon,
那是一大片雨林 未开发 没有公路
but it’s a big chunk of rainforest, uncleared, no roads,
作为一个国家公园被保护着
protected as a national park,
实际上 这里是世界上生物多样性最多的公园之一
one of the most, in fact, biodiverse parks in the world.
当我撑着我的小舟来到这里 我找到的只有人
And when I got in there with my canoe, what did I find, but people.
人类已在这片雨林生活了成百上千年
People have been living there for hundreds and thousands of years.
人们住在这里 而不只是乘舟穿越这里的丛林
People live there, and they don’t just float over the jungle.
他们同这地方的关系源远流长
They have a meaningful relationship with the landscape.
他们打猎 种植农作物
They hunt. They grow crops.
他们培育农作物
They domesticate crops.
他们用自然资源搭建自己的房屋
They use the natural resources to build their houses,
用茅草盖屋顶
to thatch their houses.
他们甚至把我们眼中的野生动物当作宠物
They even make pets out of animals that we consider to be wild animals.
人们在那儿
These people are there
和环境互动
and they’re interacting with the environment
以一种你可以从环境中看到的 很有意义的方式
in a way that’s really meaningful and that you can see in the environment.
当时我和一位人类学家相伴而行
Now, I was with an anthropologist on this trip,
我们顺着河漂流
and he told me, as we were floating down the river,
他说 “在亚马逊没有人口空隙”
he said, “There are no demographic voids in the Amazon.”
这个说法着实让我很困惑
This statement has really stuck with me,
因为这意味着 整个亚马逊
because what it means is that the whole Amazon is like this.
人类无处不在
There’s people everywhere.
并且其它热带雨林也是这样的
And many other tropical forests are the same,
并且不止是热带雨林
and not just tropical forests.
人们在过去影响了生态系统
People have influenced ecosystems in the past,
现在仍在影响
and they continue to influence them in the present,
即使在他们很难注意到的地方 影响依旧还在
even in places where they’re harder to notice.
所以 如果所有我们想要使用的对自然的定义
So, if all of the definitions of nature that we might want to use
包括那条:未被人类触及之地
that involve it being untouched by humanity
还有那个:没有人类的地方
or not having people in it,
如果所有这些明确地给了我们一个结论:自然已不复存在
if all of those actually give us a result where we don’t have any nature,
那么也许这些就是错误的定义
then maybe they’re the wrong definitions.
或许我们应该用多物种的存在
Maybe we should define it by the presence of multiple species,
用兴旺生命的存在 定义自然
by the presence of a thriving life.
如果我们这样想
Now, if we do it that way,
我们可以得到什么
what do we get?
说起来 这有点像奇迹
Well, it’s this kind of miracle.
忽然间 我们被自然环绕
All of a sudden, there’s nature all around us.
忽然间 我们可以看见君主蝶的毛虫
All of a sudden, we see this Monarch caterpillar
大口大口吃着叶片
munching on this plant,
并且我们意识到它就在那儿
and we realize that there it is,
在查塔努加的一片空地上
and it’s in this empty lot in Chattanooga.
看看这片空地
And look at this empty lot.
我是说 也许
I mean, there’s, like, probably,
这儿最少有十几种植物
a dozen, minimum, plant species growing there,
支撑着各种昆虫的生活
supporting all kinds of insect life,
这是一个完全没人管理的 完全野生的地方
and this is a completely unmanaged space, a completely wild space.
这自然原始之地就在我们眼皮底下
This is a kind of wild nature right under our nose,
而我们从没注意过
that we don’t even notice.
这里有个有趣的悖论
And there’s an interesting little paradox, too.
这里的自然
So this nature,
这种野生 无人注意的地方
this kind of wild, untended part
在我们的城市 城市周边 郊区和农业区
of our urban, peri-urban, suburban agricultural existence
所有这些被雷达覆盖的地方
that flies under the radar,
可以说这个地方比国家公园更原野
it’s arguably more wild than a national park,
因为21世纪的国家公园
because national parks are very carefully managed
被十分小心地管理着
in the 21st century.
火山口湖坐落于俄勒冈州南部 是离我最近的国家公园
Crater Lake in southern Oregon, which is my closest national park,
这是一个非常美的地方 不过似乎要成为过去了
is a beautiful example of a landscape that seems to be coming out of the past.
但现在这里被十分小心地经营着
But they’re managing it carefully.
现在一个很严重的问题就是白皮松即将灭绝
One of the issues they have now is white bark pine die-off.
白皮松是一种非常美
White bark pine is a beautiful, charismatic —
且富有魅力的巨型植物群
I’ll say it’s a charismatic megaflora
它们生长在高海拔地区
that grows up at high altitude —
但它现在也遇到了所有这些疾病问题
and it’s got all these problems right now with disease.
包括白皮松色锈病
There’s a blister rust that was introduced,
还有树皮甲虫
bark beetle.
所以 为了解决这个 公园维护人员已在公园内种植
So to deal with this, the park service has been planting
抗病菌的白皮松树苗
rust-resistant white bark pine seedlings in the park,
甚至在一些当作荒地管理的区域也种上了
even in areas that they are otherwise managing as wilderness.
并且在一些关键地区喷洒抗虫药
And they’re also putting out beetle repellent in key areas
我上次徒步走过时看到了
as I saw last time I went hiking there.
这类事情比你想象的要普遍得很多
And this kind of thing is really much more common than you would think.
国家公园管理得很严格
National parks are heavily managed.
野生动植物保持着特定的数量和结构
The wildlife is kept to a certain population size and structure.
火灾被扑灭
Fires are suppressed.
火灾又发生
Fires are started.
非本土物种被移走
Non-native species are removed.
本土物种又被重新引入
Native species are reintroduced.
实际上 我看了看
And in fact, I took a look,
班夫国家公园做了刚刚我列举的所有事
and Banff National Park is doing all of the things I just listed:
灭火 出现火灾
suppressing fire, having fire,
给狼带无线电项圈 引入北美野牛
radio-collaring wolves, reintroducing bison.
他们下了很大的功夫让这个公园看似无人来过
It takes a lot of work to make these places look untouched.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
(掌声)
(Applause)
更为嘲讽的是 我们最爱的这些地方
And in a further irony, these places that we love the most
有时候还是很严苛的爱着
are the places that we love a little too hard, sometimes.
很多人很喜欢去那里
A lot of us like to go there,
因为我们在管理 使其稳定
and because we’re managing them to be stable
去应对地球的变化
in the face of a changing planet,
然而它们还是变得越来越脆弱
they often are becoming more fragile over time.
这意味着 当你想带着孩子去度假时
Which means that they’re the absolute worst places
它们完全成为了最不想去的地方
to take your children on vacation,
因为 在那里 你无事可做
because you can’t do anything there.
不能爬树
You can’t climb the trees.
不能钓鱼
You can’t fish the fish.
你不可能在茫茫荒野里搭营生火
You can’t make a campfire out in the middle of nowhere.
甚至不能带走松果
You can’t take home the pinecones.
从一个孩子的视角来看
There are so many rules and restrictions
这有太多的规矩和束缚
that from a child’s point of view,
这里是有史以来最差劲儿的自然
this is, like, the worst nature ever.
因为孩子们不想只是
Because children don’t want to hike
在美景中步行五个钟头
through a beautiful landscape for five hours
然后再去看优美的景色
and then look at a beautiful view.
或许我们大人愿意
That’s maybe what we want to do as adults,
但是孩子 他们只想蹲在某个地方
but what kids want to do is hunker down in one spot
摆摆这个 拿拿那个
and just tinker with it, just work with it,
只是捡些东西 搭个小房子 盖个城堡 以及其它类似的事
just pick it up, build a house, build a fort, do something like that.
另外 这种伊甸园般的地方
Additionally, these sort of Edenic places
通常离人类居所比较遥远
are often distant from where people live.
到达那里的代价很大 更难以游历
And they’re expensive to get to. They’re hard to visit.
所以这意味着它们只适合精英阶层
So this means that they’re only available to the elites,
这才是真正的问题
and that’s a real problem.
大自然保护协会对年轻人做了一个调查
The Nature Conservancy did a survey of young people,
他们问 “你户外活动的频率?”
and they asked them, how often do you spend time outdoors?
只有五分之二的人会每周
And only two out of five spent time outdoors
花时间去户外
at least once a week.
其他五分之三只是待在屋里
The other three out of five were just staying inside.
然后问他们为什么不去外面 有什么障碍时
And when they asked them why, what are the barriers to going outside,
61%的回答是
the response of 61 percent was,
我家附近没有自然干净的地方
“There are no natural areas near my home.”
这太疯狂了 很明显是错误的
And this is crazy. This is just patently false.
我是说 71%的美国人
I mean, 71 percent of people in the US
住在10分钟内就可以到达的城市公园附近
live within a 10-minute walk of a city park.
我确信这个数字在其他国家也类似
And I’m sure the figures are similar in other countries.
这个数字甚至不包含家里的后花园
And that doesn’t even count your back garden,
城市中的小溪和空地
the urban creek, the empty lot.
每个人离大自然都很近
Everybody lives near nature.
每个孩子都住在大自然附近
Every kid lives near nature.
我们只是忘记要怎么去看了
We’ve just somehow forgotten how to see it.
我们花太多时间去看大卫·爱登堡的纪录片了
We’ve spent too much time watching David Attenborough documentaries
那里的自然更加性感
where the nature is really sexy —
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我们忘了要怎样看那触手可得的自然
and we’ve forgotten how to see the nature that is literally right outside our door,
那就在门外的 就在街边树上的
the nature of the street tree.
这里有个实例:费城
So here’s an example: Philadelphia.
那里有条非常酷的高架铁路
There’s this cool elevated railway
你可以从地面看 都已经荒废了
that you can see from the ground, that’s been abandoned.
现在 这听起来有点像发生在曼哈顿的“高压线”故事的开端
Now, this may sound like the beginning of the High Line story in Manhattan,
除了它还没被开发成公园外 其余都非常相似
and it’s very similar, except they haven’t developed this into a park yet,
不过那里正在修建公园
although they’re working on it.
时至今日 这还是一个小小的隐蔽的荒郊
So for now, it’s still this little sort of secret wilderness
它就在费城的中心
in the heart of Philadelphia,
如果你知道铁丝网栅栏的漏洞在哪儿
and if you know where the hole is in the chain-link fence,
你就能爬上顶端
you can scramble up to the top
然后就能发现一个完全原生的草原
and you can find this completely wild meadow
浮动在费城之上
just floating above the city of Philadelphia.
每棵植物都由一个种子生长而成
Every single one of these plants grew from a seed
这些种子自己长在那里
that planted itself there.
这是一个完全自治的 生命力顽强的地方
This is completely autonomous, self-willed nature.
而且就在城市的中心
And it’s right in the middle of the city.
很多人被派去做各种生物调查
And they’ve sent people up there to do sort of biosurveys,
有超过50种植物生长在此
and there are over 50 plant species up there.
这里不只有植物
And it’s not just plants.
这是一个生态系统 一个功能完整的生态系统
This is an ecosystem, a functioning ecosystem.
它在制造土壤 它在封存碳
It’s creating soil. It’s sequestering carbon.
昆虫在这里授粉
There’s pollination going on.
这是一个真正的生态系统
I mean, this is really an ecosystem.
科学家管这叫“新生态系统”
So scientists have started calling ecosystems like these “novel ecosystems,”
因为这些地方经常被非本土的物种所统治
because they’re often dominated by non-native species,
而且因为这里确实非常离奇
and because they’re just super weird.
它跟我们以前见过的任何地方都不同
They’re just unlike anything we’ve ever seen before.
长久以来 我们将所有这些新的生态系统视为垃圾
For so long, we dismissed all these novel ecosystems as trash.
取而代之的是再生农业
We’re talking about regrown agricultural fields,
或者不用日日照看的人工林
timber plantations that are not being managed on a day-to-day basis,
二次种植森林布满了东海滩
second-growth forests generally, the entire East Coast,
因为农业向西发展后 森林出现了
where after agriculture moved west, the forest sprung up.
当然夏威夷的大多数地方
And of course, pretty much all of Hawaii,
普遍都是新生态系统
where novel ecosystems are the norm,
外来物种已完全统治这里
where exotic species totally dominate.
森林中有昆士兰州枫树
This forest here has Queensland maple,
还有来自南亚的剑厥
it has sword ferns from Southeast Asia.
当然 你可以建造一个你自己的新生态系统
You can make your own novel ecosystem, too.
这非常简单
It’s really simple.
你只需停止修剪草坪
You just stop mowing your lawn.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
Ilkka Hanski是一位芬兰生态学家 他自己做了这个实验
Ilkka Hanski was an ecologist in Finland, and he did this experiment himself.
他就只是停止修剪草坪
He just stopped mowing his lawn,
几年之后 他的研究生来看
and after a few years, he had some grad students come,
他们对他的后园的生物进行了突击检查
and they did sort of a bio-blitz of his backyard,
然后他们发现了375种植物物种
and they found 375 plant species,
包括两种濒危灭绝的物种
including two endangered species.
所以当你来到费城高架桥上时
So when you’re up there on that future High Line of Philadelphia,
看看这周围的原野
surrounded by this wildness,
看看这里的多样性 丰富 活力
surrounded by this diversity, this abundance, this vibrance,
再看看外面
you can look over the side
你可以看到一个当地学校的操场
and you can see a local playground for a local school,
这就是它的样子
and that’s what it looks like.
这些孩子(就在这样的环境里活动)
These children have, that —
要知道 在我的定义之下
You know, under my definition,
地球有很多被算作自然的地方
there’s a lot of the planet that counts as nature,
但这里是那一小部分不能算作自然的地方之一
but this would be one of the few places that wouldn’t count as nature.
这除了人什么也没有 没有其它植物 没有其它动物
There’s nothing there except humans, no other plants, no other animals.
而我最想做的是
And what I really wanted to do
只是 在这中间放个梯子
was just, like, throw a ladder over the side
让所有这些孩子 和我一起 去那个超棒的草地
and get all these kids to come up with me into this cool meadow.
某种程度上 我觉得这就是我们所面对的选择
In a way, I feel like this is the choice that faces us.
如果仅仅是因为我们不接受 觉得脏乱 不够好 而遗弃这些新的自然
If we dismiss these new natures as not acceptable or trashy or no good,
我们或许就只是把它铺平成路了
we might as well just pave them over.
在这个日新月异的世界
And in a world where everything is changing,
我们要小心谨慎地定义自然
we need to be very careful about how we define nature.
为了不从后代手中夺取自然
In order not to steal it from our children,
我们不得不做两件事
we have to do two things.
其一 我们不能定义自然为未被触碰之物
First, we cannot define nature as that which is untouched.
这在各个方面都无法说通
This never made any sense anyway.
人类与自然互相影响已经有几千年
Nature has not been untouched for thousands of years.
它排除了人类可以闲玩的
And it excludes most of the nature that most people can visit
有着密切的联系的大多数地方
and have a relationship with,
只包含着那些孩子们不可以玩耍的自然
including only nature that children cannot touch.
让我想起了我们还有第二件必须做的事
Which brings me to the second thing that we have to do,
那就是我们一定要让孩子接触自然
which is that we have to let children touch nature,
因为没有过触碰 就不会去爱戴
because that which is untouched is unloved.
(掌声)
(Applause)
现在 我们的地球面对诸多严峻的环境挑战
We face some pretty grim environmental challenges on this planet.
气候变化也在其中
Climate change is among them.
当然还有其它 生物栖息地锐减是我最感兴趣的事
There’s others too: habitat loss is my favorite thing
为了研究它我甚至在午夜亢奋难眠
to freak out about in the middle of the night.
但为了解决它
But in order to solve them,
我们需要聪明的人 愿意奉献的人
we need people — smart, dedicated people —
真正关心自然的人
who care about nature.
唯一的办法就是我们要培养一代人
And the only way we’re going to raise up a generation of people
通过让他们去接触自然
who care about nature
使他们变成真正关心自然的人
is by letting them touch nature.
我有一个生态堡垒论
I have a Fort Theory of Ecology,
环保堡垒论
Fort Theory of Conservation.
每个我认识的生态学家 每个我认识的生物保护学者
Every ecologist I know, every conservation biologist I know,
每个我认识的保护专家
every conservation professional I know,
都在儿时建立起了自己的堡垒
built forts when they were kids.
如果一代人不知道如何建立堡垒
If we have a generation that doesn’t know how to build a fort,
那他们就不会知道如何保护自然
we’ll have a generation that doesn’t know how to care about nature.
我不想告诉这个孩子
And I don’t want to be the one to tell this kid,
他在参加一个特殊的项目:
who is on a special program
将费城贫困地区的孩子
that takes Philadelphia kids from poor neighborhoods
带到城市公园
and takes them to city parks,
我不想告诉他 现在他攥着的花
I don’t want to be the one to tell him that the flower he’s holding
只是一根外侵的杂草 他应该把它当垃圾扔掉
is a non-native invasive weed that he should throw away as trash.
我认为我们应该从他身上学习
I think I would much rather learn from this boy
不管这株植物从何而来
that no matter where this plant comes from,
因为它很漂亮 所以它值得被人触摸 被人视若珍宝
it is beautiful, and it deserves to be touched and appreciated.
谢谢!
Thank you.
[掌声]
(Applause)

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视频概述

你如何定义“自然”?如果我们定义它为--人类未及之处,那么我们的自然将不复存在,正如环境作者艾玛·玛丽斯所说。她呼吁我们要对自然有一个新的定义--一个不仅包括原始荒野也包含城市中那尚未修补的工厂,并鼓励我们带着孩子触碰、修补它,这样,终于一日可以保护和爱戴它。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

成长吹来的-风

审核员

祐子祐

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hiIcwt88o94

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