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NASA公布类地行星群发现完整版 – 译学馆
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NASA公布类地行星群发现完整版

NASA’s Spitzer Reveals Largest Batch of Earth-Size, Habitable-Zone Planets Around a Single Star

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大家下午好 我是通信办公室的费利西亚 周
GOOD AFTERNOON. I’M FELICIA CHOU FROM THE OFFICE OF COMMUNICATIONS
我们正在美国国家航空航天局总部直播 给大家带来关于太阳系外星系的
AND WE ARE LIVE HERE AT NASA HEADQUARTERS. WE HAVE EXCITING NEWS ON WORLDS OUTSIDE OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM TODAY.
激动人心的消息 首先我们会简单介绍一下今天出席的小组的成员
FIRST WE’LL HAVE BRIEF PRESENTATIONS FROM ALL OF OUR PANELISTS
然后解答来自广播 电话连线以及社交媒体的问题
AND THEN ANSWER QUESTIONS FROM THOSE IN THE STUDIO, ON THE PHONE
请使用标签#ask NASA
AND SOCIAL MEDIA. TO ASK A QUESTION VIA SOCIAL MEDIA, PLEASE
通过社交媒体向美国国家航空航天局提问
USE THE HASHTAG ASK NASA. TODAY’S PARTICIPANTS ARE THOMAS ZURBUCHEN.
今天出席的有美国国家航空航天局华盛顿总部科学项目理事会副行政官托马斯泽布臣
ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATOR OF THE SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTATE AT NASA HEADQUARTERS IN WASHINGTON.
比利时列日大学天文学家迈克尔 吉伦
MICHAEL GILLON, ASTRONOMER AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LIEGH IN BELGIUM.
加州帕萨迪纳市加利福尼亚理工学院美国宇航局科学中心负责人肖恩 凯里
SEAN CAREY, MANAGER OF NASA’S SCIENCE CENTER AT CALTECH IPAC IN PASADENA, CALIFORNIA.
剑桥马萨诸塞科学院行星科学及物理学教授萨拉 西格尔
SARA SEAGAR, PROFESSOR OF PLANETARY SCIENCE AND PHYSICS AT MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF
巴尔的摩空间科学院天文学家尼克尔 里维斯
TECHNOLOGY IN CAMBRIDGE. AND, NICKOLE LEWIS, ASTRONOMER AT THE SPACE
托马斯能不能先告诉我们
SCIENCE INSTITUTE IN BALTIMORE. AND WITH THAT, THOMAS, CAN YOU START US OFF
今天带来了什么大消息呢?大家好 非常感谢费利西亚
WITH WHAT THE BIG NEWS OF THE DAY IS? >> HEY, THANKS SO MUCH, FELICIA.
我担任这一副行政官将近五个月
LOOK, I’VE BEEN ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATOR FOR CLOSE TO FIVE MONTHS AND I AM IN AWE TODAY
我对我们正在研究的科学事业之广博和深奥充满着敬畏
ABOUT THE DEPTH AND BREADTH OF THE SCIENCE THAT WE DO HERE.
我们每天都在改变人们的生活 我们扩展已知太空
WE ARE CHANGING PEOPLE’S LIVES EVERY DAY AND WE ENLARGEN THE SPACE WE KNOW.
我们竭尽自己的想象 我们每天都有新的灵感
WE STRETCH OUR IMAGINATION. WE INSPIRE EVERY DAY.
今天要说的事情正与这相关 今天我无比激动地宣布
AND TODAY’S STORY IS JUST THAT. I AM EXCITED TO ANNOUNCE TODAY THAT DR.MICHAEL
迈克尔吉伦博士和他的团队通过我们的斯皮策太空望远镜
GILLON AND HIS TEAM HAVE USED OUR SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE TO DETERMINE THAT THERE ARE
确定有七颗类地行星围绕着附近的特拉比斯特1号恒星运转
ACTUALLY SEVEN EARTH‑SIZE PLANETS ORBITING THE NEARBY TRAPPIST‑1 STAR ABOUT 40 LIGHT
距离我们大约40光年 另外正如你在这幅图里所看见的
YEARS AWAY. WHAT’S MORE AS YOU CAN SEE IN THIS ILLUSTRATION
其中三颗用绿色标记 它们处于宜居范围内
IS THAT THREE OF THESE PLANETS MARKED IN GREEN ARE IN THE HABITABLE ZONE WHERE LIQUID WATER
地表可能有液态水 事实上只要有适宜大气环境 这些行星上都可能有水
CAN POOL ON THE SURFACE. IN FACT WITH THE RIGHT ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS
这是我们第一次在一个恒星周围发现如此多的类地行星
THERE COULD BE WATER ON ANY OF THESE PLANETS. SO FOR THE FIRST TIME, WE FOUND AS MANY TERRESTRIAL
也是第一次可以去测量这些行星之间的距离
PLANETS AROUND A SINGLE STAR AND THAT’S THE FIRST TIME WE HAVE BEEN ABLE TO MEASURE.
除此之外 还可以测量这些宜居带内的类地行星的质量和半径
IN ADDITION TO THAT, BOTH THE MASSES AND THE RADII OF THESE HABITABLE EARTH‑SIZE PLANETS.
这些行星在所有已知的行星中是条件最好的 为了跟进和观测这些行星
THESE PLANETS ARE AMONG THE BEST, OF ALL THE PLANETS WE KNOW, TO FOLLOW UP.
我们采取了一些行动 例如去年发射了詹姆斯·韦博太空望远镜
TO SEE FOR EXAMPLE WITH THE JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE THAT LAUNCHED LAST YEAR THE ATMOSPHERES
同时也用来寻找生物信号 如果有的话
AND ALSO TO LOOK FOR BIOSIGNATURES IF THERE ARE ANY.
这一发现告诉我们 找到第二个地球不再是假设的事情
THE DISCOVERY GIVES US A HINT THAT FINDING A SECOND EARTH IS NOT JUST A MATTER OF “IF,”
而是时间的问题 事实上科学家们相信
BUT “WHEN.” SCIENTISTS BELIEVE ACTUALLY THAT AROUND EVERY
每个恒星周围都可能有一个行星或是三个 五个 七个
STAR THERE COULD BE ONE PLANET, TAKE THREE, TAKE FIVE, TAKE SEVEN.
你可以想象在外面有多少可能成为一个宜居的生态系统的行星
YOU CAN JUST IMAGINE HOW MANY WORLDS ARE OUT THERE THAT HAVE A SHOT AT BECOMING A HABITABLE
这些地方我们都可以去探索 在这件事中我们真正获得的是
ECO SYSTEM THAT WE COULD EXPLORE. AND, WHAT WE REALLY HAVE IN THIS STORY IS
一个长久困惑哲学家的问题的重要答案
A MAJOR STEP FORWARD TOWARD ANSWERING ONE OF THESE VERY QUESTIONS THAT ARE AT THE HEART OF SO MANY OF OUR PHILOSOPHERS
也是我们在独处时会扪心自问的
OF WHAT WE ARE THINKING ABOUT WHEN WE ARE BY OUR SELF
这个问题实际上就是——我们是宇宙间唯一的吗?
AND THAT BASICALLY IS ‑‑ ARE WE ALONE OUT THERE?
在这一点上我们有进步 事实上对于回答这个问题
WE ARE MAKING A STEP FORWARD WITH THIS. A LEAP FORWARD, IN FACT, TOWARD ANSWERING
这是一个跨越式的进步 现在我为你们知道这个进步感到由衷的开心
THAT QUESTION. AND I AM REALLY EXCITED FOR YOU TO HEAR ABOUT IT NOW
谢谢你 托马斯
>> THANKS, THOMAS.
那么迈克尔关于这次发现你又有什么可以告诉我们的呢?
SO, MICHAEL, CAN YOU TELL US MORE ABOUT THE FINDING?
当然 正如托马斯提到的 我们过去使用斯皮策太空望远镜
>> SURE. AS THOMAS MENTIONED, WE USED A SPITZER SPACE
和一个地面望远镜发现了围绕着同一个恒星的类地行星
TELESCOPE WITH A GROUND BASED TELESCOPE TO DISCOVER AROUND THE SAME SUN, NOT ONE, NOT
不是一个两个而是七个 这是第一次如此多的类地行星
TWO BUT SEVEN EARTH SIZE PLANETS. THIS IS THE FIRST TIME THAT SO MANY EARTH
在同一恒星周围被发现 其中三个在宜居带内
SIZE PLANETS ARE FOUND AROUND THE SAME STAR. SO THREE OF THEM IN THE HABITABLE ZONE.
这个恒星就是所谓的超冷矮星 是目前存在的最小的一种恒星
THE STAR ITSELF IS THE LEAST MASSIVE KIND OF STAR.
同时这些恒星都比太阳小很多温度也低很多
AND THESE STARS ARE MUCH SMALLER, MUCH COOLER THAN OUR SUN .
在整个银河系中它们都仍是十分常见的 比类太阳恒星要常见得多
AND STILL THEY ARE VERY FREQUENT IN THE SCALE OF OUR GALAXY AND MORE FREQUENT IN OUR LOTS OF STARS.
如果你看这个图例 你会发现 它们就像一个篮球和一个高尔夫球的对比
AND IF YOU LOOK AT THIS ILLUSTRATION, YOU SEE THE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE BASKETBALL AND
那么在我们的例子中篮球好比太阳
AND THE GOLF BALL. WELL, IN OUR CASE, THE BASKETBALL WOULD BE
高尔夫球好比特拉比斯特一号恒星
THE SUN. AND THE GOLF BALL, IT WOULD BE TRAPPIST‑1.
所以特拉比斯特一号比我们的太阳更冷更小
SO, TRAPPIST‑1 IS MUCH COOLER AND SMALLER THAN OUR SUN.
因此这些宜居带内的行星都非常靠近它 只有非常小的轨道区域
SO THE PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONE ARE VERY CLOSE TO IT WITH VERY SHORT ORBITAL AREA.
同时在这张图里 你可以看见我们在特拉比斯特一号恒星周围发现的行星
AND IN THIS GRAPHIC, WHAT YOU CAN SEE ARE THE PLANETS WHICH WE HAVE FOUND AROUND TRAPPIST‑1.
其中三个在宜居带内 这个区域也被称为黄金区域
THREE IN THE HABITABLE ZONE. THEY ARE ALSO CALLED THE GOLDILOCKS ZONE WHERE
在那里有液态水的存在 大多数可能存在于表面
LIQUID WATER COULD EXIST. MOST LIKELY TO EXIST ON THE SURFACE.
这三颗宜居带内的类地行星为我们在太阳系外寻找生命提供了巨大可能性
THREE OF THESE EARTH SIZE PLANETS AND WITH A HABITABLE ZONE IS VERY PROMISING IN THE
能告诉我们一些有关这些遥远行星的事吗?
SEARCH FOR LIFE BEYOND OUR SOLAR SYSTEM. >> WHAT CAN YOU TELL US ABOUT THESE DISTANT
通过斯皮策望远镜 我们已经非常精确地测量了它们的大小
PLANETS? >> WELL, WE MEASURE VERY, VERY PRECISELY THE
这要感谢斯皮策二号望远镜对其中6个行星质量的初步测量
SIZES. THANKS TO SPITZER‑2, A PRELIMINARY MEASUREMENT
在所有测量中 我们对其中一个我们的测量足够精确到可以很有信心的预测
OF THE MASSES FOR SIX OF THEM. AND FOR ONE OF THEM, OUR MEASUREMENT IS PRECISE
上面有丰富的水资源构成 这非常令人兴奋 因为这是宜居带内行星可以居住的条件之一
ENOUGH TO STRONGLY SUGGEST WATER‑RICH COMPOSITION BECAUSE THIS IS ONE OF THE HABITS IN THE ‑‑ ONE
如此近距离的绕着恒星公转 导致这些行星极有可能是潮汐锁定的
OF THE PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONE. AND THESE ARE PROBABLY ‑‑ THEY ALWAYS
也就是说他们有一面永远对着恒星 就像月亮对地球一样
FACE THE STAR WITH THE SAME SIDE. LIKE THE MOON TO THE EARTH.
因此如果你观察这段动画
AND SO, IF YOU LOOK AT WITH ANIMATION, YOU CAN SEE A VIEW OF A PLANET WITH A PERMANENT
你可以看到一边是极昼一边是极夜的潮汐锁定的行星特拉比斯特行星就是这样
NIGHT SIDE. IT COULD BE JUST LIKE THIS.
现在这个系统让人感到激动的地方是这些行星彼此都很接近
NOW WHAT IS ALSO EXCITING ABOUT THE SYSTEM IS THAT THE PLANETS ARE SO CLOSE IT EACH OTHER.
如果你在其中一个行星的表面上 你将会欣赏到其他行星上的美景
IF YOU WERE ON THE SURFACE OF ONE EVER THESE PLANETS, YOU WOULD HAVE A WONDERFUL VIEW ON
你看他们不会像是我们看金星或者火星一样只是一个明亮的点
THE OTHER PLANET. YOU WOULDN’T SEE THEM LIKE WE SEE VENUS OR
而是就像你在下一个图例里能看到的一样
MARS LIKE DOTS OF LIGHT. BUT AS YOU CAN SEE IN THE NEXT ILLUSTRATION,
你会发现看它们真的就像我们看月亮一样你能看见巨大的星球 看清它的结构
YOU WOULD SEE THEM REALLY AS WE SEE THE MOON. YOU WOULD SEE WALLS WHICH ARE VERY BIG.
这些行星看起来会像月亮一样大
YOU COULD SEE THE STRUCTURES. THEY WOULD BE AS LARGE AS THE MOON AND EVEN
其中一些甚至比月亮更大 在这个行星上这将会是十分奇妙的景色
LARGER FOR SOME OF THEM. IT WOULD BE A WONDERFUL VIEW ON THIS PLANET.
谢谢你迈克尔 那么肖恩你能告诉我们更多有关于这次发现的内容或想法吗?
>> THANKS, MICHAEL. SO, SEAN, CAN YOU GIVE US AN IDEA OR MORE
或者告诉我们为什么斯皮策望远镜在这个过程中扮演着十分重要的角色?
CONTEXT OF THE DISCOVERY AND WHY SPITZER PLAYED SUCH A VITAL ROLE?
当然费利西亚在我看来 我首先想说
>> ABSOLUTELY, FELICIA. I WOULD FIRST LIKE IT SAY THAT IN MY OPINION,
这是我们用斯皮策望远镜观测的近14年来已有发现中最令人激动的
THIS IS THE MOST EXCITING DISCOVERY WE HAVE HAD YET WITH SPITZER IN ITS ALMOST 14 YEARS
正如你在图里看到的
OF OPERATION. AS YOU CAN SEE IN THE GRAPHIC, THE INITIAL
最初是2016年在智利发现的特拉比斯特一号
DISCOVERY OF THE RAPIS‑1 WAS IN CHILE IN 2016.
紧接着我们开始用地面望远镜和斯皮策望远镜进行了连续超过20天的观测
IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING THAT WE STARTED USING GROUND‑BASED TELESCOPES AND MORE THAN 20
我们确定其中两个在最初的发现中被发现
CONTINUOUS DAYS WITH SPITZER. WE CONFIRMED TWO OF THE PLANETS THAT WERE
还有其余的五个 总共七个行星在这个系统中
FOUND IN THE INITIAL DISCOVERY AND FIVE MORE PLANETS FOR A TOTAL OF SEVEN PLANETS IN THE
这相当的令人激动 现在特拉比斯特一号是一颗超冷矮恒星
SYSTEM, WHICH IS PRETTY EXCITING. NOW, TRAPPIST‑1 IS AN ULTRA COOL DWARF.
它在红外线中比在可见光强上千倍
IT’S MUCH BRIGHTER IN THE INFRARED THAN IN THE VISIBLE.
所以在这个系统接下来的观测中使用斯皮策红外望远镜很理想
SO IT MAKES IT IDEAL TO USE SPITZER, WHICH IS INFRARED, TO DO THE FOLLOW‑UP IN THIS
正如你在动图中看到的斯皮策望远镜在2003年发射
SYSTEM. AS YOU CAN SEE IN THE ANIMATION, SPITZER WAS
所以从来没有被打算用去研究太阳系外行星
LAUNCHED IN 2003 AND NEVER INTENDED TO STUDY EXO PLANET.
因此我们需要对它做一些机械改造 而且它离地球超过一个天文单位
WE HAD TO DO SOME ENGINEERING, MORE THAN AN ASTRONOMICAL WAY FROM THE EARTH.
这样不需要飞入太空我们也可以在地面上做调整
SO YOU CAN’T FLY OUT, BUT WE DID ENGINEERING ON THE GROUND TO COME UP TO ALLOW SPITZER
让它去测量恒星的亮度 这个亮度比我们预想的它能达到的亮度亮1000倍
TO MEASURE STAR BRIGHTNESSES 1,000 TIMES MORE THAN WE IMAGINED IT WOULD BE ABLE TO DO.
在接下来的图例中我们会展现 斯皮策望远镜采取了和开普勒望远镜
WHAT WE WILL SHOW IN THE NEXT ANIMATION IS HOW WHEN SPITZER SEES THE PLANETS VERY SIMILAR
非常相似的方法观测行星 我们不给单个行星拍照
TO THE WAY THE KEPLER TELESCOPE DOES, THE PLANETS PASS IN FRONT OF THE STAR.
而是在行星通过恒星前时 我们观测由于行星阻挡
WE SEE THE AMOUNT OF LIGHT THAT THE STAR IS DIMMED BY WHEN THAT PLANET IS BLOCKING IT.
而是恒星变暗的程度 在这个动画里你们看到的曲线凹陷
SO, THE DIPS YOU SEE IN THIS ANIMATION ARE THE PLANETS GOING IN FRONT OF THE STAR, BLOCKING
是由行星经过恒星前 阻挡了一些光所产生的凹陷的大小说明了行星的大小
A LITTLE BIT OF THE LIGHT. THE SIZE OF THE DIP TELLS YOU THE SIZE OF
所以我们直接通过测量截断处得出行星的大小
THE PLANET. SO WE CAN GET THE SIZE OF THE PLANET DIRECTLY
现在当你看到不同的行星沿着轨道运行时
FROM MEASURING THE DIP. NOW, WHEN YOU SEE THE DIFFERENT PLANETS THEY
每次他们经过你都可以通过测量经过的间隔
KEEP ORBITING AROUND AND AROUND AND EVERY TIME THEY TRANSIT YOU CAN MEASURE THE SPACING
得出他们的运行的周期
BETWEEN THE TRANSITS AND TELLS YOU THE PERIOD OF THE ORBIT.
一年也就是行星转一圈的时间有多长
HOW LONG THAT YEAR IS. AND ONE SWOOP FOR THAT PLANET.
当我们知道公转一周需要多长时间 我们也就知道了它和恒星的距离
WHEN WE KNOW HOW LONG IT TAKES IT TO GO AROUND THE STAR, WE ALSO KNOW DISTANCE FROM THE STAR,
也告诉了我们它是否在宜居带内
TELLING US WHETHER OR NOT IT’S IN THE HABITABLE ZONE.
现在特拉比斯特一号系统和它的行星处于一种很有趣的结构中
NOW THE TRAPPIST‑1 SYSTEM AND THE PLANETS ARE IN AN INTERESTING CONFIGURATION.
这些行星很接近 他们的轨道使之间的引力作用很强
PLANETS ARE CLOSE TOGETHER AND THEIR ORBITS ARE SPACED SUCH THAT GRAVITATIONALLY INTERACT
他们在绕恒星公转的同时相互拉扯
WITH EACH OTHER. THAT CHANGES THE TIMING OF THE TRANSITS A
而这些行星相互拉扯导致他们的凌星时刻也会产生稍许改变
LITTLE BIT AS THE PLANETS ARE TUGGING EACH OTHER SO THEY DON’T HAPPEN AS REGULARLY AS
有了拉扯 轨道周期不再是固定不变的因此测量凌星时刻的变化
YOU WOULD EXPECT WITHOUT THE TUG. WITH THAT, MEASURING THOSE DIFFERENCES, WHAT
我们就可以做到测量行星的质量
WE ARE ABLE TO DO IS MEASURE THE MASSES OF THE PLANETS.
现在我们知道了行星的质量和大小
SO NOW WE HAVE THE MASS OF THE PLANET, THE SIZE OF THE PLANET, SO WE CAN MAKE AN ESTIMATE
我们可以估计这个行星的密度
OF WHAT THE DENSITY OF THE PLANET IS. THAT GIVES US UNDERSTANDING ABOUT WHAT THE
这能让我们了解这个行星的构成 因此我们可以得出这个行星的组成成分
COMPOSITION OF THE PLANET IS. FROM THAT, WE CAN TELL WHERE THE PLANETS ARE,
-无论是岩质行星 气态行星 甚至是海洋行星-谢谢你肖恩
WHETHER THEY ARE ROCKY, GASEOUS OR EVEN WATERY. >> THANKS, SEAN.
尼克龙你能告诉我们关于对这些行星大气的研究吗?
SO, NICKOLE, WHAT CAN YOU TELL US ABOUT STUDYING THE ATMOSPHERES OF THESE PLANETS?
当然 大气很好的告诉了我们这些行星演变的形式和物理过程
>> YEAH, SO ATMOSPHERES TELL US A GREAT DEAL ABOUT THE FORMATION EVOLUTION OF PLANETS AND
这些发生在星球的表面和空气中
THE PHYSICAL PROCESSES THAT ARE OCCURRING ON THE PLANET’S SURFACE AND THE AIR.
尤其是那些可能使这个行星宜居的或是有群体生命的
ESPECIALLY THOSE THAT MIGHT MAKE THE PLANET HABITABLE OR INDICATIVE OF HOSTING LIFE.
我们现在可以用地面望远镜通过大气中的传输光谱去研究这些行星的大气
WE CAN USE SPACE‑BASED TELESCOPES TODAY TO STUDY THE ATMOSPHERES OF THE PLANETS USING
它就像大气的指纹 例如水 甲烷 臭氧和氧气
TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY WHICH COMPARES THE FINGERPRINTS IN THE AIR SUCH AS WATER OR METHANE,
我们现在使用哈勃太空望远镜
OZONE OR OXYGEN. WE ARE CURRENTLY USING THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE
去研究特拉比斯特一号系统中的行星来确定是否大气中有氢和氦元素
TO STUDY THE PLANETS IN THE TRAPPIST‑1 SYSTEM TO DETERMINE IF THEY HAVE HYDROGEN HELIUM
如果没有 就更能说明
ATMOSPHERES. IF THEY DON’T, IT GIVES US ANOTHER PUSH FORWARD
这些行星是岩质的 以及表面可能存在水
FOR THE POTENTIAL TO SUPPORT WATER ON THE SURFACES.
就在去年 哈勃确实探测了这个系统里面的大多数行星
JUST LAST YEAR, HUBBLE ACTUALLY PROBED THE INNER MOST PLANETS OF THE SYSTEM, TRAPPIST
特拉比斯特B和C 发现他们不具有氢和氦元素使这些行星离宜居又近了一步
B. AND C. AND FOUND THEY DIDN’T HAVE‑‑ HYDROGEN HELIUM.
关于宜居带内三个行星我们知道什么呢?
>> WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE THREE WORLDS IN THE HABITABLE ZONE?
我们用Eyes on exoplant软件 让我对特拉比斯特1号系统中的宜居带做个简短的介绍
>> SURE IF WE ZOOM OUT AWAY FROM THE HOST STAR, YOU WILL SEE ALL SEVEN PLANETS.
如果我们远离寄主星系统缩小 你可以看到全部七颗行星宜居范围用蓝色显示 宜居带最内部的行星1号
THE HABITABLE ZONE INDICATED IN THE BLUE REGION. THE INNER MOST PLANET IN THE HABITABLE ZONE
在这个图里面 你能看到艺术家对于特拉比斯特一号的演绎
IS TRAPPIST‑1E. IN THIS ILLUSTRATION, YOU WILL SEE AN ARTIST’S
这颗行星有很多有趣的方面
RENDITION OF IT. IT IT’S AN INTERESTING PLANET FOR A NUMBER
你可以看到它的大小和地球很像
OF REASONS. IT’S VERY CLOSE IN SIZE TO EARTH AS YOU CAN
它接收到的光照
SEE HERE. IT ALSO RECEIVED ABOUT THE SAME AMOUNT OF
和地球在太阳系中接收到的一样多
LIGHT AS EARTH DOES. IN OUR OWN SOLAR SYSTEM.
这意味着在特拉比斯特-1E上
THIS MEANS THAT IN TRAPPIST‑1E, YOU COULD HAVE TEMPERATURES THAT ARE VERY, VERY SIMILAR
你将感受到的温度和我们在地球上感受到的温度十分相近
TO THE ONES WE HAVE HERE ON EARTH. THE NEXT PLANET OUT IS TRAPPIST‑1F.
另一个行星是特拉比斯特-1F这是一个很可能水资源丰富的世界
NOW THIS IS A POTENTIALLY WATER‑RICH WORLD THAT IS, AGAIN, ABOUT THE SAME SIZE AS EARTH.
又一次大约和地球一样大小 这有一个比较 特拉比斯特1F运行一周大约九天
HERE’S A COMPARISON. NOW, TRAPPIST‑1F HAS ABOUT A NINE‑DAY
在这段时间内它大约接收到的光照
ORBIT. AND DURING THAT TIME, IT RECEIVES ABOUT THE
和火星在太阳系中接收到的一样多
SAME AMOUNT OF SUNLIGHT AS MARS DOES IN OUR OWN SOLAR SYSTEM.
最后一个宜居带内的行星是特拉比斯特1号中的G
AND THE FINAL PLANET IN THE HABITABLE ZONE OF THE TRAPPIST‑1 SYSTEM IS TRAPPIST‑1G.
它是这个系统中最大的行星
IT’S THE LARGEST PLANET IN THE TRAPPIST‑1 SYSTEM.
就像你看见的这个对照 它比地球的半径大大约13%
IT’S ABOUT 13% LARGER RADIUS THAN THAT OF EARTH AS YOU CAN SEE IN THIS COMPARISON HERE.
它接收到的来自恒星的光照大约在火星
AND IT RECEIVES ABOUT THE SAME AMOUNT OF STAR LIGHT AS SOMEWHERE IN BETWEEN MARS AND THE
和爱斯普雷星环在太阳系中接收的光照的中间
ASPREY BELT IN OUR OWN SOLAR SYSTEM. >> SO WHILE WE DON’T HAVE THE TECHNOLOGY YET
虽然我们还没有真正到这些行星去的技术 如果去那需要多长时间呢?
TO REALLY TRAVEL TO ANY OF THESE PLANETS, HOW LONG WOULD IT TAKE TO TRAVEL HERE?
幸好我们可以问问Eye on Exoplanet软件
>> WELL, THANKFULLY WE CAN ASK IZON EXOPLANET. IF WE WERE ABLE TO TRAVEL AT LIGHT SPEED WE
如果我们能以光速航行在39年里肯定可以达到
OF COURSE COULD ARRIVE IN 39 YEARS. WITH SOMETHING MORE LIKE A JET PLANE WOULD
而搭载更像喷气飞机一样交通工具则会花费更久 坐火车则要44百万年
TAKE FAR LONGER. SOMETHING IN THE LINE OF 44 MILLION YEARS.
哇哦 那么 非常感谢尼克龙
>> WOW. WELL THEN, THANK YOU SO MUCH, NICKOLE.
现在萨拉为什么这些发现令科学界如此激动呢?
NOW SARA, WHY ARE THESE DISCOVERIES SO EXCITING FOR THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY?
因为有了这些发现 可以这样说
>> WELL WITH THIS DISCOVERY, WE HAVE MADE A GIANT ACCELERATED LEAP FORWARD IN THE SEARCH
我们对宜居世界和其他星球上的生命的研究有了巨大的跨越式的进步
FOR HABITABLE WORLDS AND LIFE ON OTHER WORLDS, POTENTIALLY SPEAKING.
因为不是发现了一个而是几个行星 我们有空间去尝试
BECAUSE WITH NOT JUST ONE PLANET BUT SEVERAL, WE HAVE ROOM THAT IF WE DIDN’T HAVE THE HABITABLE
如果我们在宜居区内干的不好或者不确定我们在寻找什么
ZONE QUITE RIGHT OR WEREN’T SURE QUITE WHAT WE ARE LOOKING FOR, WE HAVE MANY CHANCES OVER.
我们可以有很多选择 你可以简单的想成在这个行星系统中总有一颗行星是合适的
YOU COULD THINK LOCALLY, LIKE IN THIS PLANETARY SYSTEM, GOLDILOCKS HAS MANY SISTERS.
关于这些行星我们了解的不多
WE DON’T KNOW MUCH ABOUT THE PLANETS. WE KNOW THE MASSES, SIZES, HOW MUCH RADIATION
我们只知道质量 大小 光照和运行轨道
IS WILL FALLING ON THEM AND THE ORBITS. SO FOR NOW WE JUST SPECULATE.
所以现在我们仅仅只能推测特拉比斯特一号系统符合我们的想像
FOR THAT, THE TRAPPIST‑1 SYSTEM HAS CAPTURED OUR IMAGINATION.
我们有一个新的海报 大家可以从美国宇航员官网上下载
WE HAVE A NEW POSTER THAT’S CAPTURED SCIENTIFICALLY ACCURATELY HOW ON ONE OF THE PLANETS YOU COULD
你看到天空中的其他行星是怎样的
SEE ALL OF THE OTHER PLANETS IN THE SKY. NOW, HISTORICALLY AN EXOPLANET IN THE BRIEF
在过去20年的简短历史里就只有一个外星球 当这有一个时就会再有更多的
HISTORY OF THE LAST 20 YEARS, WHEN THERE’S ONE, THERE’S MORE.
这就是为什么我今天如此兴奋在这里和你们一起分享它
AND SO THAT’S WHY I AM SO EXCITED TO BE HERE TODAY TO SHARE IT WITH YOU.
因为 有了这令人激动的系统
BECAUSE, WITH THIS AMAZING SYSTEM, WE KNOW THAT THERE MUST BE MANY MORE POTENTIALLY LIFE
我们知道一定还有更多潜在的宜居世界等着我们去发现 谢谢
WORLDS OUT THERE WAITING TO BE FOUND. >> THANKS.
所以天文学家可以做什么去更多的学习这个系统和其他类似的?
SO, WHAT ARE ASTRONOMERS DOING TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THE SYSTEM AND OTHERS LIKE IT?
首先迈克尔和他的团队已经开始发射更多的望远镜
>> WELL FIRST OF ALL, MICHAEL AND HIS TEAM HAVE STARTED TO PUT UP MORE TELESCOPES.
他们称之为西库拉斯他们将从地面操控望远镜去寻找1000个最近的矮恒星
THEY CALL IT SECULAS. THEY WILL USE FROM THE GROUND USE TELESCOPES
事实上我应该继续说特拉比斯特系统
TO SEARCH 1,000 OF THE NEAREST DWARF STARS. I SHOULD BACK UP A SECOND ABOUT THIS TRAPPIST
因为我忘记了说天文学家对此如此激动的原因之一是
SYSTEM BECAUSE I FORGOT TO MENTION THAT ONE OF THE REASONS ASTRONOMERS ARE SO EXCITED
它是一个真正的实验室 用来研究暗红色恒星周围的行星
ABOUT IT IS IT’S A VERITABLE LABORATORY FOR STUDIES PLANETS ORBITING VERY DIM RED STARS
这和我们的太阳系非常的不同
THAT ARE SO INCREDIBLY DIFFERENT FROM OUR SUN.
天文学家不断地反复研究这个令人激动的世界
ASTRONOMERS CONSTANTLY GO BACK AND FORTH ABOUT ALL THE EXCITEMENT ABOUT THESE WORLDS, BECAUSE
因为他们非常方便去研究 其他人则有些害怕和担忧
THEY ARE VERY EASY TO STUDY. OTHER PEOPLE HAVE FEARS AND CONCERNS.
因此我们实际上测试了许多人对这些星球的理论猜想
AND SO WE ACTUALLY GET TO TEST MANY PEOPLE’S THEORIES ABOUT THESE WORLDS.
例如被潮汐锁定 来自主恒星的辐射之类的
RADIATION FROM THE HOST STAR AND THINGS LIKE THAT.
因此我希望利用speculoos项目在更多超冷矮恒星附近继续发现更多行星系统
SO, HOPEFULLY, WE ARE COUNTING ON SPECULUS TO FIND MORE SYSTEMS AND PLANETS AROUND THESE
这些是我们可以研究的常见天体
ULTRA COOL DWARFS, THESE VERY COME UPON STARS THAT WE CAN STUDY.
所以speculoos项目中的望远镜 在天文学界当有人有了像这样的发现
SO IN ADDITION TO SPECULUS, IN ASTRONOMY WHEN SOMEONE MAKES A DISCOVERY LIKE THIS, WE PUT
我们几乎发射了所有可以跟踪的望远镜去跟踪
ALMOST ANY TELESCOPE THAT CAN FOLLOW UP TO FOLLOW UP.
这样来说 尼克龙提到了哈勃望远镜
SO IN THAT WAY, WE HAVE, WE HEARD ABOUT HUBBLE ALREADY FROM NICKOLE, BUT THE HUBBLE, KEPLER
但是哈勃 开普勒K2 斯皮策望远镜和其他的望远镜正在探索这个系统的未来
K2, SPITZER AND OTHERS ARE EXPLORING THE SYSTEM FURTHER.
最让这个小组兴奋的是尽管这个要在以后才可能实现
WHAT THE TEAM IS MOST EXCITED ABOUT, ALTHOUGH THIS IS STILL IN THE FUTURE, IS THE JAMES
就是詹姆斯韦伯望远镜将在2018年发射
WEBB TELESCOPE WHICH WILL LAUNCH IN 2018. WITH THIS TELESCOPE AND THE REASON THESE PLANETS
有了这个望远镜又因为这些行星很显眼 他们都可以被这个望远镜看到
ARE SO SIGNIFICANT, THEY ARE ACCESSIBLE WITH THIS TELESCOPE.
有了詹姆斯韦伯望远镜 我们将研究大气和尝试评定温室效应气体含量
WITH THE JAMES WEBB WE WILL STUDY THE ATMOSPHERES AND TRY TO ASSESS THE GREENHOUSE GAS CONTENT
这将帮助我们知道这些行星的表面温度
WHICH WILL HELP US UNDERSTAND THE SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF THE PLANETS.
和他们是否真的是提供液态水和我们已知生物的合适温度
ARE THEY THE RIGHT TEMPERATURE TO SUPPORT LIQUID WATER AND LIFE AS WE KNOW IT.
我们甚至会用詹姆斯韦伯望远镜去寻找一些不属于大气的气体
WE WILL EVEN USE THE JAMES WEBB TO SEARCH FOR GASES THAT DON’T BELONG THAT MIGHT BE
他们可能由生物产生 例如氧气 臭氧 甲烷和其他一些气体
PRODUCED BY LIFE SUCH AS OXYGEN OZONE METHANE AND A WHOLE HOST OF OTHER GASS.
谢谢你萨拉 在我们进入问答环节之前托马斯
>> THANKS, SARA. SO, BEFORE WE GO INTO Q. AND A., THOMAS, DO
你有什么总结性的想法分享给我们吗?你知道 对我而言
YOU HAVE ANY CLOSING THOUGHTS FOR US? >> YOU KNOW, FOR ME, THE RESEARCH AND EXOPLANET
这个发现和系外行星真的都在它们的黄金期
IS REALLY IN ITS GOLD RUSH PHASE. IT STARTED SOMETHING LIKE 20 YEARS AGO AND
这个项目大概从20年前开始 我情不自禁地注意到文件上的最后一条
I JUST COULDN’T HELP BUT NOTICE THAT THE LAST CLAUSE ON THE PAPER WAS THE SAME AS WERE THERE
和第一次在1995年发表的一样 从那时起我们已经发现了数千个行星
ON THE FIRST AND ANNOUNCED IN 1995. SINCE THEN WE HAVE FOUND THOUSANDS OF THOSE
我最后一次看的时候大约稍小于5000个 数千个行星在不宜居带范围内
A LITTLE BIT UNDER 5,000 THE LAST TIME I CHECKED. THOUSANDS OF THEM ARE IN THE HABITABLE ZONE.
没有一个直到现在我们发现的这些 是在宜居带范围内而且是唯一可扩展的
NONE UNTIL NOW HAVE HAD THAT MANY PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONE AND IT’S ONLY EXPANDING.
天文学在不断以高速发展 不仅是因为现在有望远镜在那
THIS IS GOING FORWARD AT A RAPID PACE NOT JUST BECAUSE OF THE TELESCOPES THAT ARE THERE
而是因为将要发射的望远镜 你们谈到了詹姆斯韦伯望远镜
NOW, BUT THE TELESCOPES WE ARE LAUNCHING SOON AND YOU TALKED ABOUT THE JAMES WEBB TELESCOPE,
还有马上升空的凌星系统外行星巡天望远镜大视场红外寻天望远镜正在计划中
BUT ALSO TASKS THAT WILL BE THERE AND BEING PLANNED RIGHT NOW, AGAIN, REALLY OPENING OUR
都真的扩宽了我们对宇宙的视野和观念
LENS. OPENING OUR VIEWPOINTS ON TO TO THE UNIVERSE
尤其是在许多系外行星的例子中
AND ESPECIALLY IN MANY CASES THESE EXO PLANETS. I DO BELIEVE THAT MANY OF THE BEST TELESCOPES
我确信更多先进的望远镜会给我们带来大量信息
THAT WILL GIVE US THE MOST INFORMATION ARE YET TO BE INVENTED.
还有许多我们不知道的事情
THERE’S MANY THINGS WE DON’T KNOW. MANY QUESTIONS WE HAVE THAT COME UP WHEN WE
当我们看见这些观测结果时 我们又会提出大量问题我们看着这些动画演示
SEE THESE OBSERVATIONS. WE LOOK AT ALL THESE ANIMATIONS.
自然世界远比我们在这里画的更漂亮更令人激动
VERY LIKELY NATURE IS WAY MORE BEAUTIFUL, WAY MORE AMAZING, THAN WHAT WE HAVE ANIMATED
事情总是这样的
HERE. IT’S ALWAYS THAT WAY.
因此对我们来说问题是 我们如何真的打开我们的视野看到这些事?
AND SO, FOR US, THE QUESTION IS ‑‑ HOW DO WE ACTUALLY OPEN UP OUR LENS AND SEE THESE
我们如何得到如此多的数据
THINGS? HOW DO WE GET SO MUCH DATA FROM THAT THAT
以回答萨拉提出的大量问题
THE KIND OF QUESTIONS THAT ARE ASKED ARE ABLE TO BE ANSWERED?
对我来说 这一切都开始于那个恒星
AND FOR ME, AT THE END, IT’S ALL ABOUT THAT START THAT I HAVE SO OFTEN ‑‑ THAT THOUGHT
当我晚上躺在床上时我经常想到它 想象着其他的世界会是什么样的
WHEN I GO TO BED AT NIGHT AND REALLY IMAGINE HOW THESE OTHER WORLDS REALLY LOOK LIKE.
事实上这些系外的世界就像地球一样 和地球有一些共性
THE FACT THAT THERE ARE WORLDS OUT THERE JUST LIKE THE EARTH THAT HAVE SOME COMMONALITIES
所以你可以去想象这些世界
WITH THE EARTH AND YOU COULD IMAGINE THESE WORLDS.
它只是 它只在现在发生 这些关于我们是否是唯一的问题
IT’S JUST ‑‑ ONLY HAPPENING RIGHT NOW. THESE QUESTIONS ABOUT ARE WE ALONE?
他们会在这十年或下个十年之内被回答
THEY ARE BEING ANSWERED AS WE SPEAK IN THIS DECADE AND NEXT DECADE.
我对此真的很激动 谢谢你 托马斯
I’M REALLY EXCITED ABOUT THIS. >> THANKS, THOMAS.
接下来 我们进入问答环节 我们有一堆来自社交平台的问题
WITH THAT, LET’S TRANSITION TO Q. AND A. WE HAVE A TON OF QUESTIONS ON SOCIAL MEDIA
所以我们将会从这些开始
SO WE WILL GO THERE FIRST. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO ASK A QUESTION USING
如果你也想提问 请使用#askNASA的标签通过社交媒体提问
SOCIAL MEDIA PLEASE USE THE HASHTAG ASK NASA. >> ALL RIGHT.
好 好极了 涌进来了许多问题
WONDERFUL. WE HAVE LOTS OF QUESTIONS COMING IN.
第一个问题来自推特用户詹姆斯他问
THIS FIRST ONE COMES FROM TWITTER USER JJAMS WHO ASKS ‑‑ WHAT IS THE TOTAL AMOUNT OF
我们已经发现的可能的宜居行星包括这次特拉比斯特的发现总共有多少个?
POSSIBLY HABITABLE PLANETS WE HAVE FOUND INCLUDING THESE TRAPPIST DISCOVERIES?
不管你信不信 总数是不确定的 这取决于你问谁
>> THE TOTAL NUMBER BELIEVE IT OR NOT IS UNKNOWN. IT DEPENDS ON WHO YOU ASK AND HOW YOU COUNT
和你如何统计它们 我们会说
THEM. WE WOULD SAY THAT THERE ARE, LET’S SAY, A
大概有几十颗太阳系外行星可能会被认为是宜居的
FEW DOZEN EXO PLANETS THAT YOU MIGHT CONSIDER HABITABLE, BUT THE BOTTOM LINE IS THAT MANI’
但是基本来说 它们大都只会有过热或者过大
OF THEM MAY BE A BIT TOO HOT OR A BIT TOO BIG.
因此我们真的需要等到我们可以观测到大气时
WE REALLY HAVE TO WAIT UNTIL WE CAN SEE THE AT MISFATHERS TO KNOW HOW ‑‑ ATMOSPHERES
才知道它们到底有多冷多热 这就是为什么这个行星有着重大的意义
TO KNOW HOW HOT THEY ARE. THAT’S WHY THE PLANETS ARE SO RELEVANT BECAUSE
因为不像许多其他的一样 在不久的将来我们可以确切地测量他们
UNLIKE A LOT OF OTHERS, WE CAN ACTUALLY ASSESS THEM IN THE NEAR FUTURE.
好极了
>> WONDERFUL. ALL RIGHT.
下一个问题来自斯考特 他问有任何确切证据证明这个行星上有水吗?
NEXT QUESTION HERE COMES FROM SCOTT WHO ASKS ‑‑ ANY CONFIRMATION OF WATER ON THE PLANETARY
我可以回答这个问题
BODIES? >> I CAN HANDLE THAT ONE.
这儿还没有任何证据证明这个行星上有水
THERE HAVE NOT BEEN ANY CONFIRMATION OF WATER ON THESE PLANETARY BODIES.
我们是否可以在这些行星上探测到水的存在
AND IT WILL TAKE A LOT OF, A LOT OF OBSERVATIONS WITH HUBBLE OR IN THE FUTURE WITH WEBB TO
这将需要很多哈勃的观测结果或者在未来用韦伯探测大气去确定
PROBE THE ATMOSPHERE TO SEE IF WE CAN DETECT WATER ON THE PLANETS.
但是我认为 补充说人们都期待着有水是很合理的
>> BUT I THINK IT’S FAIR TO ADD THAT PEOPLE ARE LOOKING.
是的 我们绝对是很期待
>> YES. THEY ARE CERTAINLY LOOKING.
好了 下一个问题来自推特用户马太
>> GREAT. THIS QUESTION COMES FROM TWITTER USER MATTHEW
他问 这会是韦伯望远镜的第一个发现吗?
WHO ASKS ‑‑ WILL THIS BE ONE OF THE FIRST OBSERVATIONS FOR JWST AND HOW MUCH CAN WE
还有直到这次发射任务之前关于特拉比斯特E F G我们知道多少?
LEARN ABOUT TRAPPIST E, F AND G UNTIL THAT MISSION LAUNCHES?
我也可以回答这个问题 很多人对这个系统有所了解
>> I CAN TAKE THAT ONE, TOO. YOU KNOW, A LOT OF FOLKS, UM, LEARNING ABOUT
都想过用韦伯空间望远镜来观测它 而且我十分肯定第一阶段
THE SYSTEM HAVE THOUGHT ABOUT OBSERVING IT WITH JWST AND I AM FAIRLY CERTAIN THAT CYCLE
会对这个系统中的大多数行星进行观测
ONE WILL SEE SOME OBSERVATIONS ON ALMOST ALL OF THE PLANETS IN THE SYSTEM.
补充一下 在未来甚至现在我们都会用斯皮策和地基望远镜
>> AND TO ADD FURTHER EVEN NOW WE ARE TAKING OBSERVATIONS FROM THE GROUND AND SPITZER TO
进行观测来分析凌星计时变化
LOOK AT THE TIMING. WE WILL GET BETTER MEASUREMENTS AND NEXT YEAR
随着时间的推移 我们会得到行星质量更好的结果比现在更精确
WILL HAVE MUCH BETTER MEASUREMENTS THAN WE HAVE CURRENTLY.
我们将接通一个电话热线的问题来自《大众机械》的杰本尼特
>> WE WILL TAKE ONE QUESTION ON THE PHONE LINE FROM J. BENNETT FROM POPULAR MECHANICS
然后我们将回到社交媒体提问 你好 杰?
AND THEN WE WILL GO BACK TO SOCIAL MEDIA. SO, JAY?
大家好 我很好奇如果特拉比斯特一号
>> HELLO, EVERYONE. I WAS WONDERING IF THE FACT THAT TRAPPIST‑1
一个特别冷的红矮恒星 这意味着它更可能有在宜居带内的行星
IS A PARTICULARLY COOL RED DWARF MEANS THAT IT’S MORE LIKELY TO SUPPORT PLANETS THAT ARE
是因为它没有很频繁的恒星活动 比如耀斑爆发等
POTENTIALLY HABITABLE BECAUSE IT DOESN’T HAVE MUCH IN THE WAY OF SOLAR FLARES, ERUPTIONS,
我可以回答这个问题
THESE KINDS OF THINGS? >> I CAN TAKE THIS ONE.
超冷矮恒星在它们年轻时十分活跃
SO ULTRA COOL DWARF ARE KNOWN TO BE VERY ACTIVE WHEN THEY ARE YOUNG.
这是潜在的宜居行星最主要关心的问题
THIS IS THE MAIN CONCERN ABOUT THE POTENTIALLY HABITABLE PLANETS.
它们已有的大气层可能在恒星年轻时就已经被强烈地侵蚀了
THEY COULD HAVE BEEN THE ATMOSPHERE BEEN ERODED STRONGLY BY THE STAR WHEN IT WAS YOUNG.
现在它很安静 相当安静不怎么活跃
NOW IT’S QUIET. IT’S QUIET, NOT VERY ACTIVE.
但是可能在它年轻的时候 环境条件是相当的不同的
BUT, MAYBE WHEN IT WAS YOUNG, THE CONDITIONS WERE QUITE DIFFERENT.
所以通过观察结果我们将会弄清楚这些行星的演化过程
SO IT WILL BE BY OBSERVATION THAT WE WILL FIGURE OUT THE PATH OF THESE PLANETS AND WHAT
和它们是否在很活跃和年轻的阶段 我只是插嘴再说一下
‑‑ DURING VERY ACTIVE AND YOUNG PHASE. >> I’LL JUST ADD TO THAT AND REPHRASE WHAT
刚才迈克尔说的 好消息就是我们可以在不久的将来观察它们
MICHAEL SAID TO JUST SAY THE GREAT NEWS IS WE CAN OBSERVE IN THE NEAR FUTURE.
不必再依赖凭空的想象和推测
WE KNOW LONGER HAVE TO RELY ON WHAT WE THINK AND SPECULATION BECAUSE NATURE USUALLY SMARTER
因为自然总是比我们聪明 如果这有任何方法让一种生物存在
THAT BE WE ARE AND IF THERE’S ANY WAY FOR A LIFE TO GET A FOOTHOLD, WE LIKE TO BELIEVE
我们愿意相信是真的 谢谢你
IT WILL. >> THANK YOU.
我们将回到社交媒体提问 杰森?
WE WILL GO BACK TO SOCIAL MEDIA. SO, JASON?
好的 这个问题来自推特用户阿玛拉
>> ALL RIGHT. THIS QUESTION COMES FROM TWITTER USER AMARA
他问 你们已经为这些行星取了名字吗?
WHO ASKS ‑‑ HAVE YOU DECIDED ON ANY NAMES FOR THESE PLANETS YET?
名字? 就像一个通用名
>> A NAME? >> LIKE A POPULAR NAME?
哇 我们已经有许多可能的名字都关于比利时的啤酒
>> WELL, WE HAVE PLENTY OF POSSIBILITIES WHICH ARE ALL RELATED TO BELGIUM BEERS.
但是我们不认为他们会被官方认可 因此(笑声)
BUT WE DON’T THINK THEY WILL BECOME OFFICIAL. SO ‑‑ [LAUGHTER] ‑‑ FOR NOW LET’S
现在就让我就称他们为ABCD之类的
CALL THEM A, B, C, D AND SO ON. >> ADMITTEDLY WE HAVE NO WAY TO EASILY GIVE
无可否认我们无法轻易给系外行星取一个名字就像小行星一样
OFFICIAL NAMES TO EXO PLANETS IN THE SAME WAY AS ASTEROIDS BUT PERHAPS IT’S SOMETHING
但是可能这是我们需要尝试去改变的一些事
WE SHOULD TRITO CHANGE. >> GREAT.
下一个用户来自推特用户杰夫他问类地行星是否有任何卫星围绕着他们
IN NEXT QUESTION COMES FROM TWITTER USER WHO ASKS DOES THE EARTH SIZE PLANET HAVE ANY MOONS
如果没有 他们怎么可能会有潮汐?
REVOLVING AROUND THEM AND IF NO, HOW CAN THERE BE POSSIBLE WAVES ON WATER?
在我们的数据中 没有卫星的迹象
>> WELL, IN OUR DATA WE HAVE NO INDICATION OF THE MOON.
如果我们看到 有一个月亮离恒星如此近的是很不可能的
AND, IF WE LOOK AT ‑‑ IT WOULD BE QUITE UNLIKELY TO HAVE A MOON SO CLOSE TO THE STAR.
可能如果这里还有其他行星待发现 我们会在未来看到的
MAYBE IF THERE ARE OTHER PLANETS STILL TO TO BE FOUND, WE WILL SEE IN THE FUTURE.
仍有许多有关消息传来 我补充一下 行星之间的潮汐是不可忽略的
STILL MANY NEWS TO COME. >> I’LL ADD FURTHER THE TIDAL SURGES ARE NOT
如果行星上有水的话 那就一定也会有潮汐因为不同行星之间会有潮汐力量的作用
NEGLIGIBLE. THERE WOULD BE TIDES AS WELL.
接下来我们将接通电话热线 来自NASA宇航局的基斯
>> NEXT WE WILL GO TO THE PHONE LINES. WE HAVE KEITH FROM NASA WATCH.
我有一个问题 可能需要萨拉西格尔解答
KEITH? >> I HAVE A QUESTION, PROBABLY BEST FOR SARA
我正在看这些行星
SEAGAR. I AM LOOKING AT THESE PLANETS.
我觉得他们真的彼此很接近 让我想起了木星和土星系统
I ASSUME THEY ARE REALLY CLOSE TOGETHER. REMINDS ME OF THE JOVIAN SATURNIAN SYSTEMS
在那里东西可以从一个行星扔到另一个 这就产生了一个疑问 你们会把这些理解为一个生物系统吗
WHERE STUFF IS THROWN FROM ONE TO ANOTHER. AND SHOULD YOU CONSIDER THESE AS AN ECO SYSTEM.
我是一个生物学家 看着这三个潜在的宜居星球彼此间这么近
I AM A BIOLOGIST LOOKING AT THREE POTENTIALLY HABITABLE WORLDS REAL CLOSE TO EACH OTHER.
我们是否应该可以考虑到也许这个生物圈超出了一个行星
SHOULD WE BE THINKING THAT CONCEIVABLY THE BIOSPHERE MIGHT EXTEND BEYOND ONE PLANET IF
如果他们是这么的接近? 这是一个很好的问题
THEY ARE THIS CLOSE TO EACH OTHER? >> THAT’S A WONDERFUL QUESTION.
我们还没有考虑到这么远 但是我很确定这儿有一个正在听的研究者
AND WE HAVEN’T THOUGHT THAT FAR YET. BUT I’M SURE THERE’S A STUDENT LISTENING OUT
会着手这个问题 让我们退一步回答一个不同的问题
THERE WHO SHOULD TAKE THIS PROBLEM ON. WILL BACK UP ONE STEP AND ANSWER A DIFFERENT
如果我们考虑智慧文明如何看待我们
QUESTION. IF WE WANT TO THINK ABOUT INTELLIGENT CIVILIZATION
他们可能会说嘿 这儿有3个行星金星 地球和火星不管我们怎么描述 他们都出现在宜居带上
ROOK ANWAR AL‑AWLAKIING AT US, THEY MIGHT SAY HEY THERE’S THREE PLANETS THERE, VENUS,
让我们拭目以待到底有什么吧
EARTH AND MARS. LET’S WAIT AND SEE WHAT’S OUT THERE.
好问题 希望有人将会研究它
GREAT QUESTION AND HOPEFULLY SOMEBODY WILL WORK ON THIS.
下一个电话热线 来自联合出版社的玛莎邓恩
>> NEXT ON PHONE LINES WE HAVE MARSHA DUNN FROM ASSOCIATED PRESS.
我想知道你们认为
>> YES. I WAS WONDERING HOW MANY YEARS DO YOU THINK
可能需要多少年去真正地掌握这些系外行星的大气信息
IT MIGHT TAKE TO HAVE A REAL GOOD HANDLE ON THE ATMOSPHERES OF THESE EXO PLANETS?
我还有个后续问题
AND, I HAVE A FOLLOW‑UP QUESTION. >> YEAH.
我们明年真的可能有实质性的进展 在发射韦伯之后
UM, SO WE CAN ACTUALLY MAKE A SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNT OF PROGRESS IN THE NEXT, AFTER THE
所以接下来的五年 从哈勃到韦伯
LAUNCH OF JWSC, THE NEXT FIVE YEARS’ RANGE. SO STARTING WITH HUBBLE AND MOVING TO JWSC
继续系外探测这些大气 你知道我们可以知道结果最快在21世纪20年代
TO CONTINUE THE EXPLORATION OF THESE ATMOSPHERES WE COULD SEE RESULTS, YOU KNOW, IN THE EARLY
谢谢你
2020s. >> AND THANK YOU.
我知道这是第一次像这样一颗恒星周围的7颗类地行星公开发表
AND I KNOW THIS IS THE FIRST TIME SEVEN EARTH‑SIZED PLANETS HAVE APPEARED AROUND A STAR LIKE THIS.
最接近它的第二名是什么?
WHAT IS THE ‑‑ WHAT IS THE CLOSEST RUNNER‑UP TO THAT?
在此之前你已经看见过多少个一个恒星周围的类地行星群?
HOW MANY EARTH‑SIZE PLANETS AROUND A STAR THAT YOU HAVE SEEN PRIOR?
我想大概是两到三个 的确
>> I THINK IT’S TWO OR THREE. >> YEAH.
开普勒没有发现更多的了
>> NO MORE. FOUND BY KEPLER.
那个恒星叫什么? 噢 我不记得了
>> AND WHICH STAR IS THAT? >> OH, I DON’T REMEMBER.
这儿有那么多开普勒发现的行星
THERE ARE SO MANY KEPLER PLANETS. >> OK.
好吧 谢谢你 接下来 让我们回到社交媒体
THANK YOU. >> SO, LET’S GO BACK TO SOCIAL MEDIA.
杰森? 好的
JASON? >> ALL RIGHT.
这个问题来自推特的米勒斯奥布莱恩他问什么种类的工具
THIS QUESTION COMES FROM MILES O’BRIEN HERE ON TWITTER WHO ASKS ‑‑ WHAT SORT OF INSTRUMENT
可以被用来回答这些行星是否有生物存在的问题?
COULD BE USED TO ANSWER THE QUESTION WHETHER THESE PLANETS HARBOR LIFE?
韦伯可以吗? 韦伯望远镜的仪器
COULD WEBB DO IT? >> SO, WEBB HAS INSTRUMENTS THAT COVER WAVELENGTHS
覆盖了从近红外到远红外的波段
FROM SORT OF THE INFRARED ALL THE WAY THROUGH FARTHER INTO THE INFRARED SPECTRUM.
尤其是它有许多强力的射谱仪在上面
IN PARTICULAR, IT HAS A LOT OF VERY POWERFUL SPECTROGRAPHS ABOARD ALLOWING US TO DO THIS
我们可以使用透射光谱技术 它覆盖的波段让我们可以检测分子
TRANSMISSION S PERKS ECTRTOMY WHERE WE CAN DETECT MOLECULES LIKE WATER, METHANE, OZONE
例如水 甲烷 臭氧和氧气 这样我们就可以开始去做许多萨拉建议的
AND OXYGEN SO WE CAN START TO DO A LOT OF WHAT SARA SUGGESTED IN TRYING TO DETERMINE
尝试去确定宜居性和有宜居生物的可能
HABITABILITY AND ALSO THE POTENTIAL OF IT HARBORING LIFE.
我只想补充一件事告诉米勒斯和在坐的每个人
>> I JUST WANT TO ADD ONE THING TO MILES AND EVERYONE OUT THERE IS WE REALLY TRY TO EMPHASIZE
我们真的尽力强调我们有能力在别处找到生物的迹象
WE HAVE THE CAPABILITY TO FIND SIGNS IS OF LIFE ELSEWHERE.
但是自然需要去顺应 因为对我们来说它总是新的
BUT NATURE HAS TO DELIVER. AND, BECAUSE IT’S ALL SO NEW TO US THESE RED
这个红矮星我们不是很清楚那里有什么
DWARF STARS WE DON’T NOTELY KNOW WHAT’S OUT THERE.
因此如果自然让生物无所不在 那里有许多大气没有气流
SO IF NATURE HAS MADE LIFE UBIQUITOUS AND THERE ARE LOTS OF ATMOSPHERES WITHOUT STARS,
只有气体的堆积 我们找到它一点问题都没有
ACCUMULATION OF GASES WE’LL HAVE NO TROUBLE FINDING IT AT ALL.
但是如果它正相反 这就需要一段时间 我想再补充一点
BUT IF IT’S THE OPPOSITE IT MAY BE A WHILE. I WANTED TO ADD ONE MORE POINT.
我们将马上要发射凌星系外行星巡天望远镜 我们还在进行其他的基地探测
WE HAVE TEST MISSION UPCOMING, OTHER GROUND‑BASED SEARCHES.
虽然特拉比斯特一号是目前最令人激动的发现
TRAPPIST‑1 IS THE MOST EXCITING ONE SO FAR BUT WE HOPE TO HAVE MANY MORE OF THESE AND
但是我们希望在未来有更多这样的系统和有更多发现生物迹象的机会
LOTS OF CHANCES TO FIND SIGNS OF LIFE IN THE FUTURE.
好极了 下一个问题来自推特用户
>> WONDERFUL. NEXT QUESTION HERE COMES FROM TWITTER USER
克瑞斯西姆斯他问能否使用地外文明探索计划来监听这个行星系统
CHRIS SIMMS WHO ASKS ‑‑ IS IT POSSIBLE TO LISTEN TO THIS PLANET SYSTEM USING OUR STEADY
我们如何能尽可能地知道的更多?
STYLE TELESCOPES? HOW DO WE LEARN AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE?
就我所知 地外文明探索计划已经在监听了
>> TO MY KNOWLEDGE, IT WAS ALREADY ‑‑ BY CITY AND THEY NO SIGNAL, NO ARTIFICIAL SIGNAL
所以这是可以做到的 但是这里并没有人工信号被检测到
DETECTED. SO IT’S DOABLE, BUT THERE’S NO SIGNAL DETECTED.
下一个问题来自推特用户索耶他问
>> NEXT QUESTION COMES FROM TWITTER USER SAWYER WHO ASKS ‑‑ HOW FAR INTO THE FORESEEABLE
离我们有能力可以去特拉比斯特一号旅行的可预测的未来有多远?
FUTURE UNTIL WE CAN SEE A CRAFT THAT CAN MAKE THE JOURNEY TO TRAPPIST‑1?
这是一个真的很难回答的问题 因为这需要很多的奇迹发生
>> THAT’S A REALLY HARD QUESTION BECAUSE IT REQUIRES SO MANY MIRACLES ON THE WAY.
知道吗 当詹姆斯韦伯被发明时 我认为它需要十个奇迹才能完成
SEE WHEN JAMES WEBB WAS DEVELOPED, THE WAY I THINK ABOUT JAMES WEBB, IT REQUIRED SOMETHING
因为我们在此之前从来没有做过这些
LIKE 10 MIRACLES. KIND OF THINGS WE HAD NEVER DONE.
而且要把这些都在一个望远镜中实现
AND KIND OF PUT IT TOGETHER INTO A TELESCOPE, YOU KNOW, WITH SIX AND A HALF METER KIND OF
同时要兼顾一个6.5米长的可折叠的镜头和一个网球场大小的热力系统
FOLDABLE MIRROR AND THERMAL SYSTEM THAT’S A TENNIS COURT IN SIZE.
你如何做到做些? 答案是你开始自己开辟一条前路
HOW DO YOU DO THAT? THE ANSWER IS, YOU START INVENTING YOUR WAY
既然这个问题被问了
FORWARD. THIS QUESTION THAT’S BEING ASKED, MAYBE 100
也许100个奇迹般的问题和一些有关的核动力推进问题
MIRACLE TYPE OF QUESTION AND SOME PROBABLY RELATE TO NUCLEAR PROPULSION.
和一些防辐射问题 我们正在努力攻克这些问题
SOME RADIATION PROTECTION, RELATING TO THINGS THAT WE ARE STARTING TO PUSH AT.
好消息是有许多需要做的工作已经在前5到10个正在发生的奇迹中完成了
THE GOOD NEWS IS, THERE’S A LOT OF WORK THAT’S BEING DIMENSION ON KIND OF THE FIRST FIVE
不一定是因为我们必须把目光放到
TO 10 MIRACLES THAT ARE BEING LOOKED AT. NOT NECESSARILY BECAUSE WE HAVE OUR EYES SET
去恒星旅行上去 比如说外太阳系
RIGHT NOW ON GOING TO STARS, BUT BECAUSE WE ARE LOOKING FOR EXAMPLE AT THE OUTER SOLAR
我们希望更快地达到那里
SYSTEM. WE WANT TO GET THERE A LOT FASTER.
我们希望到那里时有着更多的有效荷载和能量
WE WANT TO GET THERE WITH MORE PAYLOAD. WE WANT TO GET THERE WERE MORE ENERGY.
这个过程就是这样的 它真的 它在不断向前
AND SO THE WAY THIS GAME WORKS, IT’S REALLY ‑‑ IT’S LEANING FORWARD.
只因为它需要数百个奇迹才不会后退 这就是我所相信的NASA精神
IT’S REALLY JUST BECAUSE IT TAKES 100 MIRACLES NOT BACKING UP, THAT IT’S REALLY WHAT I WOULD
也是这种精神让我们在许多方面有了这种伟大的发现
BELIEVE NASA IS ALL ABOUT. THAT’S ALSO WHAT LED TO THIS KIND OF DISCOVERY
斯皮策自身在检测和系统方面有一堆奇迹
IN MANY WAYS, YOU KNOW. SPITZER ITSELF HAD A WHOLE BUNCH OF MIRACLES
这种创造奇迹的事对其他问题也完全适用
ON DETECTERS AND SYSTEMS. THE SAME IS TRUE FOR THE OTHER QUESTION.
我只想简短地提一下学院里有突破性进展的同事
>> I WOULD LICK TO MENTION OUR COLLEAGUES AT THE BREAKTHROUGH FOUNDATION IN THE PROJECT
这个组织叫做恒星猎手 你可以登录并且看到他们正在计划19个奇迹
CALLED STAR SHOT. YOU CAN LOOK THAT UP AND SEE THAT THEY ARE
找出一个通过最近的恒星发射数千个很小的空间飞行器的方法
PLANNING 19 MIRACLES TO FIGURE OUT A WAY TO SEND VERY TINY AND THOUSANDS OF LITTLE TINY
他们都会是比较近的 不像特拉比斯特那么远
SPACE CRAFTS FLYING BY THE VERY NEAREST STARS. THAT WOULD BE PROXIMAT NOT QUITE LIKE TRAPPIST.
这听起来不怎么令人振奋 可能在我们的一生中我们没有机会
IT MAY SOUND DISCOURAGING THAT PERHAPS IN OUR LIFETIME WE WON’T HAVE A WAY TO SEE HOW
去特拉比斯特一号 但是我们在这因为有这个伟大的理想
TO GET TO TRAPPIST‑1, BUT WE ARE HERE BECAUSE WE HAVE BIG SOPHIST IT I KATEED SPACE TELESCOPES.
寄托在哈勃 空间站和未来上面 即使我们为之奉献终身
HUBBLE, SPACE WEB AND FUTURE. EVEN THOUGH THAT’S WHAT WE HAVE TO LIVE FOR,
我们仍然为可能用我们的望远镜看见那里有什么而感到激动
WE ARE STILL EXCITED ABOUT USING THE POSSIBILITY OF USING OUR TELESCOPES TO SEE WHAT’S THERE.
我们可以把去那的旅行交给下一代去完成
WE WILL IS TO LEAVE THE TRIPS THERE TO FUTURE GENERATIONS.
我们的社交平台上有许多问题 所以继续来提问吧
>> WE HAVE A LOT OF QUESTIONS ON SOCIAL MEDIA SO WE WILL JUST KEEP THEM COMING.
杰森我们又有什么其他的问题?
JASON. WHAT OTHER QUESTIONS ARE WE GETTING?
下一个问题来自推特用户阿库
>> SURE. THIS NEXT QUESTION COMES FROM AKU WHO ASKS
他问 有没有提到这些被发现的行星有多岁呢?
‑‑ ANY ESTIMATION ON HOW OLD THESE DISCOVERED EXO PLANETS ARE?
这个行星和系统的年龄不能直接被统计
>> THE AGE OF THE STAR AND SYSTEM ITSELF IS VERY CON STRAINED.
我们知道它不是很年轻 至少有五亿年了
WE KNOW IT’S NOT VERY YOUNG. IT’S AT LEAST HALF A BILLION YEARS OLD.
但是我们无法更加确定 因为他们在很缓慢的演化
BUT WE CAN’T SAY MORE BECAUSE THESE EVOLVED SUPER SLOWLY.
它的寿命是太阳一类的恒星的1000倍
THE LIFETIME IS 1,000 TIMES LARGER THAN FOR A SUN‑LIKE STAR.
所以我们看不到它的演化过程 也无法知道确定的年龄
SO WE DON’T SEE THEM EVOLVING. SO WE CAN’T CON STRAIN THE AGES.
下一个问题来自脸书的直播
>> THIS NEXT QUESTION COMES FROM FACEBOOK LIVE HERE.
这些行星的最远距离大概是多少?例如五亿米?
WHAT IS THE DISTAN BETWEEN THESE THREE PLANETS? SOMETHING LIKE 500,000 KILOMETERS?
行星E和恒星又有什么区别呢?
AND WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN E. AND THE STAR?
这些行星之间的距离大概是月亮和地球之间的距离的几倍
>> OH, THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE PLANETS ARE A FEW TIMES THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE EARTH
所以我们谈论的距离大概是
AND THE MOON. SO, WE ARE TALKING ABOUT SOMETHING LIKE A
几百万千米和几百千米
THOUSAND ‑‑ WELL, MILLIONS OF KILOMETERS AND HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF KILOMETERS FOR
和在太阳周围和恒星一样 至于行星E和F之间的距离
AROUND THE SUN LIKE STAR. AND FOR THE PLANET F. OR E., THE DISTANCE
大概是地球到太阳距离的5%
IS SOMETHING LIKE 5% BETWEEN THE EARTH AND THE SUN.
所以它和它的恒星非常的接近
SO, IT’S MUCH, MUCH CLOSER TO ITS STAR. >> GREAT.
下一个问题来自推特用户特拉比斯特一号系统是
THIS NEXT QUESTION COMES FROM TWITTER. IS THE TRAPPIST‑1 SYSTEM THE CLOSEST TO
离我们最近的在宜居范围的行星群吗?
US WITH PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONE? >> NO.
离我们最近的是比邻星E 它被用另一种方法探测到
IN FACT THE CLOSEST IS PROXIMA CENTER‑E. IT WAS DETECTED BY ANOTHER MEASURE WHICH DOESN’T
无法告诉我们它的大小和质量 我们不能确定它是否是类地行星
TELL US THE SIZE OR THE MATH. WE DON’T KNOW IF IT’S A ‑‑ BUT IT IT’S
但是它的确在宜居范围内 它就在4光年以外
CLEARLY IN THE HABITABLE ZONE. IT’S ONLY AT FOUR LIGHT YEARS AWAY.
事实上它是最近的恒星
IT IT’S THE CLOSEST STAR, IN FACT. >> WONDERFUL.
下一个问题来自推特用户 独特的老虎他问
THIS NEXT QUESTION COMES FROM TWITTER USER UNCONVENTIONAL TIGER WHO ASKS ‑‑ I WOULD
我想知道3个行星运转周期的范围 里面的多数行星运转周期是1.5天
LIKE TO KNOW THE RANGE OF ORBITAL PLANETS. >> THE RANGE GOES FROM 1.5 DAYS FOR THE INNER
我们不知道其他行星的运转周期
MOST PLANET. WE DON’T KNOW THE PERIOD OF THE OTHER PLANET
但是它一定是20天左右 远比地球的短
BUT IT MUST BE SOMETHING LIKE 23. SUPER SHORT COMPARED TO THE EARTH.
我认为迈克尔知道这些比例
>> I THINK ‑‑ I THINK MICHAEL HAS THE RATIOS.
确实 它们的运转周期与一个常数的比有关
>> OK, SO, IN DEED, ALSO, THE PERIODS THEMSELVES ARE RELATED BY RATIOS OF INTEGER NUMBERS.
我们在太阳系中找到的系统 像木星周围的加利恩卫星
CONFIGURATION WE FIND IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM FOR THE GALION MOON AROUND JUPITER.
它至少展示这些行星已经成型了正在退化
IT SHOWS THAT IT INDICATES AT LEAST THAT THESE PLANETS SHOULD HAVE FORMED AND DEGRADED AND
它有一个很特别的结构 在这个例子里 它们非常的富有
IT WAS A VERY PECULIAR FORMATION. IF IT IS THE CASE, THEY ARE SUPER RICH BECAUSE
因为它们必须以很充足的资源构成 这会反应在它们的构成物上
THEY MUST HAVE FORMED IN RICH ‑‑ AND SHOULD BE REFLECTED IN COMPOSITION AND WE WILL KNOW
我们很快会知道要感谢新的斯皮策望远镜的到来
SOON THANKS TO NEW SPITZER OBSERVATIONS THAT ARE COMING.
在我们回答更多来自社交媒体的问题之前 我们想问你们每个人
>> BEFORE WE TAKE MORE QUESTIONS FROM SOCIAL MEDIA, I WOULD LIKE TO ASK EACH OF YOU TO
对你们个人而言为什么这个发现很重要呢
KIND OF GIVE US SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT WHY THIS FIND SOMETHING SO EXCITING FOR YOU PERSONALLY
我们先从尼克龙开始而后到托马斯
AND WE WILL START WITH NICKOLE AND WORK OUR WAY TO THOMAS.
这个发现很让我激动 因为这是一个
>> YEAH, SO, THIS FINDING IS REALLY EXCITING FOR ME BECAUSE THIS IS A GREAT OPPORTUNITY
详细研究类地行星大气的机会
TO STUDY EARTH‑SIZE PLANETS’ ATMOSPHERES IN GREAT DETAIL.
我们知道我们有好的动机 工具和恒星去开始这段旅程
WE KNOW THAT WE HAVE GOOD, WE CAN GET GOOD SIGNALS AND RATIOS AND START TO BEGIN THIS
试图去知道出了太阳系了 这些类地行星的空气是什么样的
JOURNEY IN TRYING TO UNDERSTAND WHAT THE AIR IS LIKE AROUND ROCKY PLANETS OUTSIDE OF OUR
我会给出两个最喜欢的原因
SOLAR SYSTEM. >> WELL I’LL GIVE TWO FAVORITE REASONS.
当20年前我和其他先驱者开始研究系外行星时 我们的同事都做作出了努力
WHEN I AND OTHERS STARTED EXO PLANETS 20 YEARS AGO OUR PEERS ALL DISMISSED THE WORK AS JUST
就像是收集邮票 我们今天在这里
STAMP COLLECTING. THE FACT THAT WE ARE HERE TODAY WITH SEVEN
和7颗行星一起 我们知道在未来我们可以研究他们的大气 这真的是惊人的
PLANETS AND WE KNOW WE CAN STUDY THEIR ATMOSPHERES IN THE FUTURE IS TREMENDOUS.
另一点我想说 我们今天很激动因为我们今天都在这里看到了我们自己
THE OTHER POINT I WANT TO MAKE IS WE ARE EXCITED BECAUSE WE ALL SEE OURSELVES HERE AS JUST,
我们是一个团队 我们指所有的同事和先驱者
WE ARE THE GROUP OF PEOPLE, WE, MEANING US AND ALL OF OUR COLLEAGUES, AS PIONEERS. THIS
这是一个要持续几代的研究 我们现在离发现
IS A SEARCH THAT WILL GO ON FOR MANY GENERATIONS. JUST THE FACT THAT WE ARE THIS CLOSE TO FINDING
很多的宜居星球是如此的近这让我们很激动
SO MANY HABITABLE WORLDS IS REALLY EXCITING. >> YEAH, SO FOR ME IT’S MORE OF A VERY KIND
对于我来说这是一个更私人的经历 因为我从2002开始在斯皮策工作
OF A PERSONAL EXPERIENCE BECAUSE I’VE BEEN WORKING ON SPITZER SINCE 2002.
我做发动机部分的工作 在一开始
WE HAD TO DO A FAIR. A ENGINEERING WORK AND AT THE BEGINNING IT
我们不是很确定可以把精度提高到
WASN’T CLEAR NECESSARILY THAT WE WOULD BE ABLE TO ACHIEVE THE PRECISIONS WE NEED TO
我们在做像这样的技术上所需要的精度 令人满意的是
DO UP SCIENCE LIKE THIS. SO IT’S VERY GRATIFYING THAT ALL OF OUR HARD
我们都工作的很努力 我的同事在斯皮策科学中心 喷气推进实验室和洛克希勒 马瑞汀
WORK, MYSELF, MY COLLEAGUES AT THE SPITZER SCIENCE CENTER, J.P.L. AND LOCKHEED MARTIN,
那些工程师 让这一切实现 我们可以得到很棒的数据给科学家团队
THE ENGINEERS THERE, PULLED IT YOU HAVE A. WE WERE ABLE TO GET GREAT DATA TO SCIENTISTS
然后得出很棒的结果 我对此很开心
AND GET GREAT RESULTS OUT. I’M VERY HAPPY ABOUT THIS.
就我而言 从我是个孩子开始
>> WELL, ON MY SIDE, I HAVE ALWAYS WONDERED ABOUT THE DISTANCE OF LIFE ELSEWHERE SINCE
我就总是好奇其他地方的生物和我们之间的距离所以我大学学了科学
I’M A KID. SO, WHEN I WENT TO COLLEGE TO STUDY SCIENCE,
我先学的生物 生化 因为我想理解生命 但是我转去了天文学
I FIRST STUDIED BIOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, BECAUSE I WANTED TO UNDERSTAND LIFE, BUT I SWITCHED
因为它是外星冒险的开始
TO ASTRONOMY BECAUSE IT WAS THE BINNING OF THE EXO PLANET ADVENTURE.
我们探测太阳系外的星球
WE WERE DETECTING PLANETS OUTSIDE THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND IT WAS CLEAR THAT WE WOULD NOT
但是很明显的我们不会探测那些巨大的行星 因为它们不适宜生物存活
BE DETECTING GIANT PLANETS WHICH WERE UNSUITABLE FOR LIFE, BUT PLANETS THAT PUT LIFE ‑‑ SO,
但是行星诞生了生命 因此我的时间和科学知识都将投入于此目标
I’VE BEEN DEVOTING MY TIME AND SCIENCE TO THIS GOAL.
我们正在一步步地接近答案
AND, THEN WE ARE GETTING NEARLY THERE WITH THIS RESULT.
这真的让我很满足 对我来说
IT’S VERY GOOD SATISFACTION FOR ME. >> TO ME, LOOKING FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF
从美国国家航空航天局科学项目研究的观点来说 这是很让人激动的
NASA SCIENCE PROGRAM, IT’S EXCITING BECAUSE IT’S OF COURSE A LEAP FORWARD.
因为这无疑是一个飞跃 但是我们同时也有其他的飞跃
BUT IT GOES IN PARALLEL TO THE OTHER LEAPS WE ARE TAKING RIGHT NOW.
看看在火星发生的事情 在那里我们找到了复杂的化合物
LOOK AT WHAT’S HAPPENING AT MARS WHERE WE ARE REALLY LOOKING AT THE COMPLEX CHEMISTRY
这是那里正在发生的 看看那个结论
THAT’S HAPPENING THERE. LOOK AT THE RECOGNITION THAT MARS ACTUALLY
事实上火星原本是没有水的 但是现在有了充足的水
IS A PLACE WHERE THERE NOT ONLY USED TO BE WATER BUT THERE’S WATER TODAY.
同时要有这个认知
ABUNDANT WATER. IN PARALLEL TO THAT, YOU KNOW, THE RECOGNITION
我们现在有技术和能力去木卫二星并观察这个系统
THAT WE NOW HAVE THE TECHNOLOGY, ABILITY OF GOING TO EUROPA AND LOOKING AT THAT SYSTEM
这个系统按自己的步调运转 这真是一个让人激动的系统
WHICH IS, IN ITS OWN RIGHT, REALLY AN EXCITING SYSTEM.
因为在一个完全预料之外的地方曾有海洋冲刷岩石的痕迹
BECAUSE, THERE’S AN OCEAN WORLD THERE THAT HITS THE ROCK AT THE BOTTOM IN A REALLY UNEXPECTED
还有其他许多类似的地方
PLACE. THERE’S MANY OTHER PLACES LIKE THAT AND THEN
然后在周边 我们了解到这个地区的生物
ON THE CERES SIDE, WE HAVE AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE BIOLOGY OF LIFE.
这是一个漫长的过程 这些在一起 这些地区真的创造了一个
KIND OF THERE’S A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT OF PROGRESS. SO TOGETHER, THESE AREAS REALLY CREATE A CRESCENDO
不断变强的过程来回答这个长久以来在我们脑海里的问题
TOWARD THAT ANSWERING THAT QUESTION THAT HAS BEEN ON OUR MINDS FOR SO LONG.
这是问这个问题的正确时间 也是有这个发现的正确时间
THIS IS THE RIGHT TIME TO ASK THAT QUESTION. IT IS THE RIGHT TIME TO HAVE THIS DISCOVERY
说完了 谢谢你
RIGHT NOW. >> THANK YOU.
恐怕我们节目的剩余时间不多了
I AM AFRAID THAT’S ALL TIME WE HAVE LEFT. PLEASE KEEP THOSE QUESTIONS COMING BY SENDING
所以请通过附上标签#ask积极向NASA提问 想了解更多资讯
THEM AT THE HASHTAG ASK NASA. AND, FOR MORE INFORMATION, AND TO DOWNLOAD
请到nasa.gov/exoplanets上下载外星系 APP 就是尼克龙刚刚使用的那个
THE EXO PLANETS APP THAT NICKOLE WAS JUST USING EARLIER, PLEASE GO TO NASA.GOV/EXOPLANET
同时不要忘记在各种社交平台上关注我们
AND ALSO DON’T FORGET TO FOLLOW US ON OUR VARIOUS SOCIAL MEDIA.
节目结束
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视频概述

七个类地星球被发现,且有水的存在,若大气环境适宜,它们将成为最适宜移居星球

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

爱睡的熊

审核员

Y

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v5Xr-WkW5JM

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