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NASA双胞胎研究:太空旅行会改变基因

NASA’s 4-Year Twin Experiment Takes Us Closer To Mars Than Ever Before

这是在2015年返回地球的宇航员斯科特·凯利
This is astronaut Scott Kelly back in 2015.
他在国际空间站中绕地飞行了340天
For 340 days, he circled Earthinside the International Space Station,
这是美国人在太空中的最长单次停留时间
the longest any Americans ever spent in space at once.
同时 和他拥有同样面孔 身体 和DNA的
Meanwhile, someone with thesame face, body, and DNA
同卵双胞胎兄弟 马克·凯利待在地球
was back on Earth: hisidentical twin, Mark Kelly.
斯科特和马克是NASA迄今仅有的一对双胞胎宇航员
Scott and Mark are the onlytwin NASA astronauts in history.
和之前NASA所进行的研究不同
Separated by 250 miles of space and sky,
这对双胞胎被相距250英里的太空和天空隔开
the twins participated in a groundbreaking study
参与了一项开创性的研究
unlike anything NASA had ever tried before.
该任务为探索太空对人体的长期影响
The mission: discover long-term effectsof space on the human body.
而斯科特·凯利前往太空四年后的现在
And now, four years after Scott Kelly launched into space,
我们得到的所有结果都表明 是的
we have the full results, which confirm that, yes,
载人前往火星的任务是可行的
a crewed mission to Mars is possible.
我觉得这项研究很可靠 也证明了
To me this is very reassuring and really suggests that
你知道的 就是 长期的太空旅行是可行的
you know, kind of longer-term travel is a possibility.
NASA正尝试在本世纪30年代将人类送去火星
NASA is trying to put humans on Mars in the 2030s
但是即使现如今的火箭技术已经允许
but even if it had the rocket technology to visit today,
仍然存在一个主要的条件限制
there’s still one major obstacle standing in the way:
即我们的身体
our bodies.
因为火星旅行将会是
Because traveling to Mars will be
最久的一次载人航天任务
the longest crewed space mission in history,
将持续一年以上
lasting for over a year.
虽然NASA已经进行过类似“深海”的
And while NASA has tested in-depth
探究独处将如何影响我们思想的测试
how the isolation will affect our minds with missions like HI-SEAS,
但对于太空旅行对我们身体的影响
it has little information about what space travel
却还知之甚少
will do to our bodies.
这促成了NASA对这对双胞胎的研究
That’s where NASA’s twin study comes in.
航天员斯科特·凯利将会做出
Astronaut Scott Kelly will try something
美国人所没做过的尝试
no American has ever done before.
这个春天 他将在太空中待一年
This spring, he will leave for a mission
来进行这个任务
and spend a year in space.
在那一年中
Over the course of that year,
斯科特收集了自己的所有数据
Scott gathered all kinds of data about himself.
包括抽血 收集尿液并进行认知测试
He drew blood, collected urine and took cognitive tests.
而他在地球上的孪生兄弟
And back on Earth, his twin brother,
作为对照 也做了同样的事
the perfect human control,did the exact same thing.
而后在2016年 斯科特返回了地球
Then in 2016, Scott returned home to Earth
科学家又对他进行了六到九个月的研究
where scientists studied himfor another six to nine months.
如今 离斯科特进入太空已经四年了
And now, finally, four years after Scott’s launch,
研究人员公布了完整的结果
researchers have published the full results,
以下是他们的发现
and here’s what they found.
首先 斯科特的染色体中有辐射损伤的痕迹
For one, there were signs of radiation damagein Scott’s chromosomes.
染色体是细胞中含有DNA的结构
Those are the structures in our cells that contain DNA.
我们已知辐射会引起或诱发
We know that radiation causes or will induce
染色体的畸变或重排
these chromosome aberrations or rearrangement of the chromosomes.
所以从本质上看 它会破坏DNA
So essentially it breaks the DNA.
而执行更长的任务 比如去火星
And on a longer mission, say to Mars,
会形成更多的DNA断裂
more of those DNA breaks could build up.
这会导致基因组的不稳定性
And that can contribute to genomic instability,
这会导致诸如癌症之类的疾病
which could lead to diseases like cancer.
太空环境同样也会激活
The year in space also activated
斯科特体内遗传密码中数千个基因
thousands of genes in Scott’s genetic code,
而在地球上只有极端环境才会引发类似情况
something similar to what can only happen in extreme environments on Earth.
那是因为许多基因
That’s because many of these genes
和我们的免疫系统有关
are linked to our immune system.
当我们面对恶劣环境时
When we get into stressful situations
或者当我们受伤 生病
or we have an injury or we get sick,
免疫反应就会开始起作用
you know, the immune response kicks in.
而它所要做的就是
And the way it does that is
启动它所需的基因
it turns the genes on that it needs.
贝利所在的小组
Bailey was part of a group
也观察了双胞胎细胞中的端粒结构
that also looked at structuresin the twins’ cells called telomeres.
端粒是染色体末端的保护帽
Telomeres are caps at the end of chromosomes
能够帮助保护DNA免受损伤
that help protect our DNA from damage
而随年龄增长或受外力损伤时 端粒会缩短
and as we age or are stressed, they shrink.
这也是为什么贝利认为斯科特的端粒
That’s why Bailey figured that Scott’s telomeres
在太空中的一年里会缩短
would shorten during his year in space.
他不仅年龄增长了 还暴露在
He wasn’t just aging, but he was exposed to
来自宇宙辐射的各种应激源下
all kinds of stressors from cosmic radiation
他还要面对零重力 以及其中的各种情况
to zero gravity, and pretty much everything in between.
但是她想错了
But she was wrong.
从研究人员的报告中得出
From what researchers could tell,
斯科特的端粒在太空中并未变短
Scott’s telomeres weren’t shorter in space.
反而明显变长了
They were significantly longer.
我不知道在太空中发生了什么
I don’t know what’s going on in space.
我们想象的是
We imagine things like
哇 他们拥有美好的时光
“Oh, they’re just having such a grand time.”
他们随处漂浮
You see’em floating around.
他们在那里看起来很开心
They all look real happy while they’re up there.
梦想成真了
A dream come true.
但我不却认为
But it’s just, I just don’t think
这是青春之源
it’s the fountain of youth.
有一个解释是
One explanation is that
斯科特在国际空间站有着健康的作息
Scott had a healthy regimen on the ISS,
充分的运动和富有营养的宇航员食物
replete with exercise and nutritious astronaut food.
但是贝利说变长的端粒更可能
But Bailey says longer telomeres are more likely yet
是外力压迫或损伤的另一种信号
another signal of stress or even injury.
比如 辐射会诱导
Radiation, for example, might have triggered
干细胞的产生
the production of stem cells,
从而更新体内受损结构
which can renew damaged structures in the body
而那些细胞天生就具有较长的端粒
and those cells inherently have longer telomeres.
所以该研究的主要结论之一是
So one major takeaway from the study
太空确实是很有压力的环境
is that space is, well, stressful.
但是所有这些外力对斯科特是短暂的
But all that stress was short-lived for Scott,
在很大程度上 在回到地球之后
and for the most part, his bodyactually returned to normal
他的身体实际上会恢复正常水平
after landing back on Earth.
在48小时内 他的端粒再次变短
Within 48 hours, his telomereswere short once again,
而在六个月后 他90%以上的
and after six months, more than 90%
被激活的基因也恢复正常
of those activated genes turned back off,
九个月后 他染色体中的损伤明显变少
and nine months out, there wasless damage in his chromosomes,
这意味着研究人员观察到的那些变化
which means that of the changes the researchers observed
不会立刻威胁他的生命
was immediately life-threatening.
我认为这意味着人类可以在太空中生存
To me what that means is that people can be in space.
他们能呆上一年 也许更久 谁也不确定
They can be there for a year, maybe longer, we don’t know.
即使我们不在太空中出生
Even though we’re not born in space,
我们的身体能自我适应并能正常运作
our bodies figure it out,and they’re able to function.
总之 这对于NASA以及那些
Taken altogether, that’s great news for NASA
希望把人类送往火星的人而言 都是好消息
or for anyone else hoping to send humans to Mars.
我坚信这会成为可能
I definitely think they’re gonna be possible.
这是查尔斯·斯旺顿博士
That’s Dr. Charles Swanton
英国弗朗西斯·克里克研究所的癌症生物学家
a cancer biologist at the Francis Crick Institute in Britain
他并未参与这个研究
who wasn’t involved in the study.
目前我无法预测的是
What I can’t predict at the moment is
太空对人类健康和生育潜能的影响
the impact on human health and reproductive potential.
他认为一年的火星之旅
He acknowledges that a year-long trip to Mars
并不等同于国际空间站的一年
isn’t the same as a year on the ISS.
比方说 火星会有更多辐射
There’d be more radiation, for example.
但是根据对这对双胞胎的研究
But following the twins study,
他和研究人员比以往更有信心
he and the researchers have far more confidence
相信我们终会实现梦想
than ever before that we’re going to get there.

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视频概述

利用双胞胎研究太空环境会人体的影响

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

玻璃晴朗

审核员

审核员_Y

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZVRft7r8-Ds

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