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NASA解释黑洞究竟是什么

NASA ScienceCasts: Shedding Light on Black Holes

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Shedding Light on Black Holes
阐明黑洞
presented by Science@NASA
由美国国家航空航天局科学部呈现
“Black holes” is one of the most highly searched terms about our universe.
“黑洞”是最经常被搜索的关于宇宙的词语之一
There’s a fascination with the idea
黑洞概念的引人之处在于
of a region of space having a gravitational pull so strong,
一个空间区域的引力如此强烈
nothing can escape its deadly grasp, not even a sliver of light.
使得任何东西 哪怕是一束光 都逃不出它致命的掌控
well, not quite.
其实也不尽然
In fact, much of what we think we know
事实上我们以为我们知道的许多
about black holes turn out to be myths.
关于黑洞的事都被证明是谬误
Myth 1 – All black holes are black.
谬误一:所有的黑洞都是黑色的
As this photograph from the Event Horizon telescope demonstrated,
正如这张来自视界望远镜的照片所展示的
light can be detected near a black hole’s event horizon.
光是可以在黑洞视界附近被探测到的
This is the boundary between normal space and
黑洞视界是介于普通空间和
the space affected by the black hole’s gravity,
黑洞引力影响下空间的边界
from which no escape is possible.
而在黑洞这边逃脱是不可能的
Part of this light comes from the black hole’s accretion disk,
被探测到的光线有部分来自黑洞的吸积盘
a flat, pancake like structure composed of dust, gas and other debris.
即由灰尘 气体和其他碎片组成的扁平饼状结构
Friction constantly moves the disk’s material inward toward the event horizon.
摩擦使圆盘内的物质持续向视界移动
Light also comes from jet streams which propel matter outward
也有一部分光来自于推进物质向外
along the disk’s north and south poles.
并沿着圆盘的南北极运动的喷射流
Myth 2: All black holes are about the same size.
谬误二:所有黑洞的大小都差不多
Black holes actually come in several different sizes which are defined by their mass.
根据质量的不同 黑洞实际上有几种不同的大小
Small black holes are usually the result
小黑洞通常来自于
of a relatively short and violent collapse of a star.
一颗恒星快速且剧烈的塌缩
Recent work suggests that Intermediate black holes are found
最近的研究表明中等大小的黑洞在
in the nuclei of some active galaxies.
一些活跃星系的核心被发现
Super massive black holes on the other hand,
另一方面 超大质量黑洞则
are found at the center of nearly every galaxy.
几乎在每个星系的中心都存在
Dr. Dan Evans, an Astrophysicist at NASA Headquarters says,
美国宇航局总部的天体物理学家丹·埃文斯博士说
“ There’s a direct relationship
“超大质量黑洞的诞生
between the beginning of super massive black holes
与其所在星系的诞生
and the beginning of their corresponding galaxy.
是有直接关联的
This strongly suggests the two were born about the same time
也就是说这二者几乎是同时诞生的
and slowly grew in size together over billions of years. ”
并在数十亿年的时间里缓慢地同步扩张“
Myth 3: If you get within a few thousand miles of a black hole,
谬误三:如果来到离黑洞几千英里之内的位置
its super gravity will pull you into its center.
它的超强引力会把你拉到它的中心
It turns out you can get surprisingly close to a black hole.
事实上 你可以来到距离黑洞非常近的位置
If you approached a black hole with mass equal to our Sun’s for example,
假如你接近一个质量等于太阳的黑洞
you could get as close as tens of miles.
那么就可以到距其几十英里的位置
So imagine if we replaced our sun with a black hole of the same mass.
想象一下我们用相等质量的黑洞代替太阳
All of the planets would continue to revolve around it,
所有的行星都会继续围绕它旋转
at exactly the same speed and distance as they do now.
并且速度和距离都会和现在一样
Myth 4: Once inside a black hole, nothing ever comes out.
谬误四:一旦进入黑洞 任何东西都不会再出来
Nope.
答案是否定的
It turns out that radiation can escape from a black hole.
事实上辐射能从黑洞中逃逸出来
One of Stephen Hawking’s contributions was a theory
斯蒂芬·霍金的贡献之一
that a black hole is not so dense in a quantum mechanical sense.
就是黑洞在量子力学意义上不是那么致密的理论
The slow leak of what’s now known as Hawking radiation
现在已知 霍金辐射那样的缓慢泄露
would, over time, cause the black hole to simply evaporate.
随着时间的推移 将会导致黑洞蒸发
The image from the Event Horizon telescope confirmed
来自视界望远镜的图像证实了
what Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity predicted over 100 years ago,
爱因斯坦一百多年前的广义相对论的预言
that a black hole’s form is that of a perfect circle.
即黑洞的形状是一个完美的圆
And as scientists learn even more about the properties
随着科学家们进一步了解这些
of this gigantic cosmic mystery we call a black hole,
被称之为黑洞的宇宙之谜的特性
they’ll be able to puncture even more myths.
他们将能戳穿更多的谬误
To hear more true tales about black holes and other mysteries of the cosmos,
想要听更多关于黑洞和宇宙其他秘密的真相
visit science.nasa.gov
请访问science.nasa.gov

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视频概述

本视频讨论了关于神秘黑洞的几个谬误,并揭开了其背后的真相

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收集自网络

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小猪猪

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审核员Y

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lNIZ_xGt6o4

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