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追逐太阳

NASA ScienceCasts: Follow the Sun

[音乐]
[ MUSIC ]
追逐太阳-Science@NASA制作
Follow the Sun – presented by Science@NASA
太阳鼓舞我们 温暖着我们 为我们提供粮食
The Sun. It inspires songs, warms us, and grows our food.
陆地生物和海洋生物 日常天气
Life on land and in the oceans, the daily weather,
以及长期的气候模式都产生于
and long-term climate patterns happen primarily because of
来自于太阳的能量
energy we receive from our closest star.
即使太阳能量微小的变化也会影响
Even tiny variations in that energy can affect the workings
地球大气层的运转
of our planet’s atmosphere.
NASA利用工具去“追踪太阳”
NASA uses instruments to “ follow the Sun,
监测我们接收了多少太阳能
” and monitor the amount of solar energy coming to us.
利用最新的工具 全光谱太阳辐射传感器(TSIS_1)
The latest instrument to do so, the Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS–1),
使这些测量值空前的准确
makes those measurements with unprecedented accuracy.
TSIS在国际空间站的位置上获取信息
TSIS gathers information from its perch aboard the International Space Station (ISS).
在轨道运行实验室提供的平台上飞行
Flying on the platform that the orbiting laboratory provides
使TSIS能够继续保持NASA40年来
has allowed TSIS to continue NASA’s 40-year record
对太阳辐射能的跟踪记录
of tracking the Sun’s radiant energy,
这是从太空收集的最长、最重要的气候数据记录之一
one of the longest and most important climate data records gathered from space.
在过去的几十年
Over the past several decades,
地球上的冰川面积在减少海岸线在上升
Earth’s ice mass has diminished, sea levels have risen,
旱季 雨季和植物的生长季都在变化
drought and precipitation patterns have changed, and growing seasons have shifted.
为了理解这些变化的原因——
To understand the causes – including
包括人类造成的影响
human influences – of these changes,
并且为了改进用来模仿地球气候的模型
and to refine the models used to simulate Earth’s climate,
研究者们必须知道地球接收的太阳能总量
researchers must know the amount of incoming solar energy.
科学家Peter Pilewskie(TSIS任务的领导者)解释说
Peter Pilewskie, TSIS lead mission scientist explains,
“当太阳辐射与地球辐射
“ When there’s a balance between incoming energy
达到一种平衡时
from the Sun and the infrared radiation Earth emits,
气候将会保持稳定
climate remains steady.
不平衡则意味着能量要么被储存起来
An imbalance means energy is either being stored in the system,
导致气温上升 要么就丢失 导致气温下降”
causing temperature increases, or lost, causing temperature decreases.”
太阳发出的能量组成了平衡方程式的一半
Energy from the Sun makes up half of the balance equation.
即使测量记录表明
Even though the measurement record shows
太阳能量的对外输出
that the Sun’s solar energy output
并没有对近期气候变化产生重大影响
has not had a major influence in recent climate change,
我们仍需要连续不断监控太阳能输出
that output needs to be monitored continuously.
“这可以说是我们了解大气最需要知道的重要变量”
“ It is arguably the most important variable we need to know to understand climate,
Pilewskie说到
” says Pilewskie.
“在太阳能量输入未知的情况下尝试去了解气候
“Trying to understand climate without measuring the Sun’s input
就像在不了解你收入的情况下去尝试平衡你的收支”
is like trying to balance your checkbook without knowing your income.”
气候监测时间跨度很长
“ Climate is measured over long time spans –
几十年 几百年甚至更长
decades to centuries and longer,
不像天气在短时间跨度内变化
unlike weather that changes over small time scales.
为了保持长时间的测量
To be able to connect measurements over long time periods,
持续性以及精确性是关键
continuity and accuracy are key. ”
TSIS有两个传感器
TSIS has two sensors.
总辐照度监测器 正如它名称所表明的那样
The Total Irradiance Monitor, as its name suggests,
测量太阳辐射能的总额
measures all of the radiant energy from the Sun,
光谱辐照度监测器
and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor
测量能量在紫外线 红外线和可见光的分布
measures how that energy is distributed over ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelengths.
后者帮助科学家们了解太阳能在大气里是如何被储存的
The latter helps scientists understand where in the atmosphere solar energy is being absorbed.
例如 TSIS关于太阳紫外辐射的光谱辐照度测量
For example, TSIS spectral irradiance measurements of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation
对了解臭氧层来说至关重要
are critical to understanding the ozone layer.
平流层里的臭氧层吸收紫外线
Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs ultraviolet light.
这使平流层温度升高 也强制改变了大气风流
This heats the stratosphere and drives changes in atmospheric wind flow
这会传导至下一层大气以致影响气候
that can propagate down to the lower atmosphere and impact climate.
Pilewskie说“如此多的因素影响地球的气候
“So many factors influence Earth’s climate,” says Pilewskie.
我们需要继续学习它们之间怎样相互影响”
“We need to continue learning how they all interact.
TSIS正在帮助我们描绘太阳行为的特性
TSIS is helping us characterize the Sun’s behavior
以及地球大气层对此的反应
and how Earth’s atmosphere responds to the Sun.”
获取更多国际空间站的科学研究 请点击www.nasa.gov/iss-science
For more science from the International Space Station, go to www.nasa.gov/iss-science
想要继续追踪距离我们最近的恒星 请访问science.nasa.gov.
To continue following our closest star – visit science.nasa.gov.

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视频概述

视频主要介绍了太阳与地球之间的影响关系。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-9LHRRVPRvk

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