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雾月政变:拿破仑发动的不流血政变

Napoleon's Bloodless Coup | History

1799年
In 1799,
拿破仑通过策划一场政变中的政变夺取法国政权
Napoleon Bonaparte seized power in France by plotting a coup within another coup.
政变过程中没有人流一滴血
And he did it all withoutshedding a drop of blood.
政变前的一年
One year before the coup,
法国跟英国 俄国
France was at war with Great Britain
澳大利亚 奥斯曼帝国 德国和
and Russia, Austria,the Ottoman Empire, and
意大利各州打仗
some German and Italian states.
但是拿破仑的注意力集中在英国
But Napoleon wasfocused on Great Britain
他想切断英国在
and wanted to cut off the country’s roots
印度获益颇丰的贸易据点
to its profitable trading outposts in India.
尽管他大部分的军队已经在
Even though much of his fleetwas captured or destroyed
尼罗河的战役中被英国俘虏或摧毁
by the British at the Battle of the Nile,
拿破仑仍然成功占领控制了埃及
Napoleon still managed to capture and hold Egypt
切断了英国贸易路线甚至以奥斯曼帝国
to cut off British traderoutes and even attack targets
为目标深入攻击
deeper into the Ottoman Empire.
但在国内 法国人的日子并不好过
But back home, the Frenchweren’t faring as well,
1799年上半年起 他们在与欧洲敌人
suffering a series of defeatsagainst their European enemies
的战斗中遭受了一系列的失败
across the first half of 1799.
法国人民受够了督政府
The French people became fedup with their current system
也就是十年前法国大革命
of government known as the Directory,
开始后第四个执政党的
the fourth different system of government
执政方针——秋千政策
since the beginning ofthe French Revolution 10 years earlier.
督政府有两个立法机构
The Directory system includedtwo legislative bodies,
一个是五百人院
a council of 500,
被选举出的人在这制定法律
a chamber of elected men that proposed laws,
还有一个是元老院 选出250个
and the Council of Ancients,250 elected men over 40
超过40岁的人 在这通过法律
years old that approved laws.
这两个机构也要一起选出领导者
The two bodies also work together to choose the directors themselves,
五个拥有相同权利 负责强制执行法律的督政官
five executives of equal power responsible for enforcing laws.
但是1799年 督政府让法国卷入战争
But by 1799, the Directoryhad brought France into war
面临经济危机
and near economic ruin.
人们迫切地希望国家的军队
The people largely lookedto the country’s military
来领导国家
for leadership.
拿破仑的机会来了
This is where Napoleonsaw his chance.
当英国的船只从法国港口临时撤退
When British ships temporarilyretreated from France’s ports,
拿破仑便离开埃及 回法国封神 同时
Napoleon left Egypt andreturned home a hero. Meanwhile,
另一个著名的法国人
anotherprominent Frenchman
也在密谋从日渐衰退的督政府手中夺权
had been plotting to seize powerfrom the weakened Directory.
艾曼纽尔·约瑟夫·西哀士 他的宗教头衔更为出名
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes, betterknown by his religious title,
西哀士教父 1799年5月他被选为负责人
the Abb Sieyes, was elected as a director in May of 1799.
他长期以来一直是最有影响力的政治人物之一
He had long been one of the mostinfluential political figures
因为他的作品一定程度上鼓舞了法国大革命
for his writings that partlyinspired the French Revolution.
但是西哀士厌恶督政府 他发现他们
But Sieyes hated the Directory,finding the executive
无法有效地进行统治
too weak to effectively govern.
所以拿破仑一回到巴黎
So soon after Napoleon’sreturn to Paris,
他们两人就秘密会晤了
the two men met in secret.
他们决定发起政变
They agreed to a coup that
同时拿破仑会率领军队
would allow Sieyes to place himself
协助建立以西哀士
at the head of a newgovernment formed with the help
为领导的新政府
of Napoleon and his loyal army.
还有其他的同谋 包括外交事务部长
There were other conspirators,including Minister of Foreign
塔列朗和五百人院的首席
Affairs Talleyrandand Lucien Bonaparte,
也是拿破仑的弟弟 吕西安·波拿巴
President of the Council of 500and Napoleon’s younger brother.
雾月政变那天早晨 也就是11月9日
On the morning of 18Brumarie, or November 9,
计划开始付诸行动
the plan was set into motion.
西哀士和吕西安·波拿巴声称
Sieyes and LucienBonaparte informed
他们各自的立法机构是用于
their respective legislativebodies there was a plot
推翻政府统治的阴谋
to overthrow the government.
但他们撒谎说立法机构
But they lied and said it
是被雅各宾派领导的
was being led by the Jacobins,
就是那个五年前对法国
the party that had carriedout France’s reign of terror
进行恐怖统治的政党
five years earlier.
出于安全考虑 立法者们被
The lawmakers weremoved for their safety
送到了法国郊区圣克劳德的一处宅邸
to a palace in St. Cloud,a suburb of France. Conveniently,
为了方便 拿破仑自己负责
Napoleonhimself was placed
他们的安全 同时
in charge of their protection. Meanwhile,
五分之三的领导者辞职了
three of the five directors had resigned
加入了政变 有西哀士和他的同盟
in coordination with the coup, Sieyes, his ally
罗杰·杜克和保罗·巴拉斯
Roger Ducos, and PaulBarras, a former lover
即拿破仑妻子约瑟芬的前情人
of Napoleon’s wife Josephine.
塔列朗给了两百万法郎贿赂巴拉斯辞职
Talleyrand had been given 2 million francs to bribe Barras to resign,
但是他自己去辞职了
but he resigned on his own.
所以塔列朗就自己把钱收着了
So Talleyrand just pocketedthe money for himself.
一天后 元老院
The next day, theCouncil of Ancients
接受了拿破仑认为政府需要重组的建议
were receptive to Napoleon’s argument that the government needed to be reorganized.
但是五百人院需要更多说服力
But the Council of 500needed more convincing.
所以拿破仑和掷弹兵一起
So Napoleon marched intotheir chamber with grenadiers
走进议院
by his side.
那些立法者们很愤怒 有人用
The legislators eruptedin anger, some charging
短剑刺向拿破仑
at Napoleon with daggers.
在混乱中 吕西安·波拿巴
Amidst the chaos,Lucien Bonaparte
以这次袭击为借口
used the attacks on hisbrother as an excuse
解散了五百人院
to dissolve the Council of 500.
拿破仑的军队驱散了议会剩下的人
Napoleon’s troops dispersedthe rest of the council.
元老院接着废除了宪法
The Council of Ancients thendissolved the Constitution,
代替督政府的是三个执政官 西哀士
replacing the Directorywith three consuls, Sieyes,
罗杰·杜克和拿破仑
Roger Ducos, and Napoleon.
西哀士的政变完成了
Sieyes’ coup was complete.
但是拿破仑不喜欢和别人分享权力
But Napoleon was notinterested in sharing power.
新政府很快起草了共和八年宪法
The new government quicklydrew up the Constitution
同时拿破仑确保了
of the Year VIII,and Napoleon made
他是宪法的主编
sure he was its chief editor.
有了这部新的宪法 拿破仑从
With the new constitution,Napoleon wrested
西哀士手中夺走控制权 凭借极高的人气
control away from Sieyes,using his supreme popularity
将自己命为第一执政 西哀士和杜克
to declare himself first consulwith Sieyes and Ducos secondary
则是第二执政
in power.
拿破仑成功地在一次政变中发起政变
Napoleon had succeeded inhis coup within a coup,
最终让自己成为了独裁者
setting himself up toultimately become dictator,
全过程没有流一滴血
and all without asingle life lost.

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视频概述

这个视频讲述了雾月政变中拿破仑夺取政权的过程,让我们走近了这一风云人物的同时更加深入了解了法国发展的历史。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3cFbxVCMtjQ

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