未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

拿破仑战争:1806耶拿会战

Napoleonic Wars: Battles of Jena - Auerstedt 1806 DOCUMENTARY

法国皇帝拿破仑在第三次反法同盟中
The French emperor napoleon Bonaparte
赢得了许多决定性战役
managed to win a number of decisive battles
并完美展示了其在军事策略上
and showed complete tactical and strategic dominance over his opponents
凌驾于对手之上的事实
during the War of the Third Coalition,
但终究树大招风
but brilliance often begets new challenges,
越来越多的国家为了抗击法国
more enemies would join the alliance against the French
而纷纷加入第四次反法同盟大战
in the war of the Fourth Coalition.
在一系列战争之中最为主要的是
Among the central actions of this conflict were
发生于1806年的双子战耶拿-奥尔施塔特战役
the twin battles of a Jena and Auerstedt fought in 1806.
拿破仑在1805年12月初的
Napoleon utterly defeated the Allied Austro-Russian army
奥斯特里茨战役中彻底击败了奥俄联军
at the battle of Austerlitz in early December of 1805.
因奥军已经没有余力可以继续交战
A separate peace at Pressburg was signed by the end of the month,
奥地利于当月末在普雷斯堡与法国签订单独休战协议
as Austria had no capacity to continuefighting.
奥地利必须承认巴伐利亚和符腾堡为独立王国
Austria had to recognize Bavaria and Württemberg as kingdoms,
并割让德意志境内的众多省给予这两个王国
ceding a number of provinces to them in Germany,
同时拿破仑作为意大利皇帝
while Napoleon received the provinces
接收威尼西亚和达尔马提亚
of Venetia and Dalmatia as the king of Italy.
法国也承诺了40万法郎的战争赔款
France was also promised 40 million francs in war indemnities.
趁着法军因为太过疲惫无法继续追击
The Russians were given a free pass to retreat through Austrian territory,
俄军顺利从奥地利领地撤退
as the French troops were too tired to chase them anyway.
普鲁士在1805年计划加入反法同盟
Prussia was planning to join the coalition in 1805,
但却迟迟没有向法国宣战
but was delaying declaring war on France.
反法同盟在奥斯特里茨的败仗
The Allied defeat at Austerlitz was alarming
对普鲁士国王腓特烈•威廉三世来说是个警钟
for the Prussian King Frederick William III,
随后就在1806年初 威廉三世与拿破仑签订协议
and in early 1806 he signed a treaty with Napoleon.
普鲁士必须割让几个省份给法国的德意志同盟
The Prussians had to cede a few provinces to the German allies of France,
而普鲁士将获得原属于英国
while they would receive in return French occupied Hanover,
后被法国所占领的汉诺威作为回报
which belonged to Britain.
普鲁士也正式加入法国同盟对抗英国
Prussia also formally entered the alliance with France against Britain.
与此同时 将法国指挥官马塞纳
Meanwhile the Austrian forces,
困于意大利的奥军已经回到奥地利
which were keeping French commander in Italy Massena occupied returned home,
奥军的离开让法军能集中兵力抗击那不勒斯王国
and that allowed the French to concentrate their forces against the kingdom of Naples.
1806年2月 马塞纳侵入那不勒斯
In February 1806 Massena invaded Naples.
尽管斯图尔特的英国远征军前来支援那不勒斯军
Although the British expedition of Stewart supported the Neapolitans,
但他们还是输掉了在坎波泰内塞的决战
they lost the decisive battle at Campo Tenese
而后在7月末
and by the end of July,
国王斐迪南四世和斯图尔特将军不得不撤到西西里岛
king Ferdinand IV and General Stewart had to retreat to Sicily.
意大利大陆的全部领土现在都处在法军掌控下
All of mainland Italy was now under French control
而这一处境直到拿破仑战争结束后才会被打破
and this situation would remain unchanged until the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
由于英国和俄国都不曾与法国接壤
Since Britain and Russia did not share borders with France
也无意发起一次登陆
and were not eager to start an amphibious invasion
所以第三次反法同盟实际上已经瓦解了
The War of the Third Coalition was effectively over
于是拿破仑决定在德意志建立一个新秩序
and Napoleon started forming a new order in Germany.
1806年7月 拿破仑建立了莱茵联邦
In July 1806 he established the Confederation of the Rhine,
联邦由16个德意志邦国组成 并由拿破仑摄政
consisting of 16 German states with himself as the protector.
这使拿破仑在法国与德国 奥地利与普鲁士之间
This gave Napoleon a buffer between France
有了一个缓冲地带
and the most influential German states, Austria and Prussia.
8月6日
On the 6th of August
拿破仑宣布从公元800年就开始存在的
he declared the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire,
神圣罗马帝国正式解散
which had existed since 800.
这行为对普鲁士来说形同侮辱
All this was insulting for Prussia.
并且在拿破仑提议归还汉诺威给英国以求和平时
And as Napoleon offered to return Hannover to Britain to procure peace,
战争变得一触即发
war became inevitable.
普鲁士皇室分成两派
The Prussian court was divided
由国王领导的主和派
with the king leading the peace party
和由王后路易斯推动的主战派
while his spouse Queen Louise was nudging the country into conflict.
最终主战派占上风
Finally the war party won,
于是在8月10日普鲁士开始调动军队
and on the 10th of August Prussia started mobilizing its army.
接下来两个月 普鲁士得以加入英俄的反法同盟
in the next two months Prussia was able to enter the alliance with Britain and Russia.
拿破仑在九月初收到普鲁士调动军队的消息
Napoleon learned about the Prussianmobilization in early September
于是下令5万人应征兵加入军队
and ordered 50,000 conscripts to join the army.
法国的军队分散驻扎在整个德意志
The French troops were stationed all over Germany,
而此时拿破仑还没有做好应战的准备
and Napoleon was not ready to go on an offensive just yet.
普鲁士于是趁此机会进入萨克森并征召了2万当地人参军
Prussia used that to enter Saxony and conscript 20,000 locals into its army.
拿破仑要求普鲁士军撤离萨克森
Napoleon demanded that the Prussian army leave Saxony,
但在10月1日
but on the first of October,
他反而收到让他离开驻地 撤到莱茵河东岸的最后通牒
received an ultimatum to leave the lands to the east of the Rhine.
10月6日 第四次反法同盟战争开始
On the 6th of October the War of the Fourth Coalition began.
法国和普鲁士都拥有大约20万大军
Both France and Prussia had about 200,000 troops
然而普鲁士的军队太过分散
however, there was no unity in the Prussian army
并同时有三个领导指挥
and it had three formal leaders.
许多将军建议实施防御式阵型
A number of generals advised the defensive approach
以缓慢的战术性撤退 希望可以拖延到
with a slow strategic retreat in the hopes that Bennigsen would soon join them
指挥着10多万俄军的贝希格森加入他们
with more than 100,000 Russians under his command.
然而这个计划被无视 最后采用的是由王子
However this plan was ignored and a more ambitious plan created
布伦瑞克·查尔斯·威廉·斐迪南提出的更加宏大的计划
by the Prince of Brunswick Charles William Ferdinand was adopted.
普鲁士决定进攻
The Prussians were going to go on the offensive,
拿下位于符腾堡的斯图加特
take Stuttgart in Württemberg and cut
并切断拿破仑与其部分军队和法国间的联系
Napoleon from a portion of his forcesand France.
此时这个法国皇帝早已决定好如何行动
Meanwhile the French Emperor had already decided on his moves.
拿破仑准备从西南方向进军
He was going to move towards the Prussian capital of Berlin
直指普鲁士的首都柏林
from the southwest,
这样他的军队可以在行军中避开大多数的河流
which meant that his troops would be able to avoid the majority of the rivers.
宣战后没几日
Just a few days after the declaration of war
拿破仑就已动身向柏林进发
Napoleon was already on the move.
看起来双方都不确定对方军队所处的位置
It seems that neither army was sure about the location of the enemy,
但拿破仑的计划更胜一筹
but Napoleon’s plan was better
其计划是 切断普军与俄军和柏林之间的联系
as it was cutting the Prussians from the Russians and Berlin,
这就迫使他们参战
and therefore forcing them to fight.
根据斥候侦查报告 拿破仑现在很确定
Due to scouting reports Napoleon was now sure
普鲁士军会在耶拿附近集结
that the Prussians were concentrating near Jenna,
然而 后者才发现
however, the latter finally understood that
法军已经不在符腾堡了
the French army was no longer in Württemberg
并且法军正在快速行军以阻截去往柏林的路
and was moving fast to cut the roads to Berlin.
一些普军开始动身向北方行进
And some of the Prussian forces started moving to the north.
实际上 战役打响后仅三天
Indeed just three days after the war began
拿破仑的军队就已经在普军的东面和南面完成了集结
Napoleon’s troops ended up to the south and east of the Prussian army
并且由于法军的行动迅速
and due to their faster movement
他们很快就在施尔茨和萨尔费尔德集结
concentrated and defeated the Prussians
并在战役里的第一次战斗中击败普军
in the first battles of the campaign at Schleiz and Saalfeld.
法军再一次抢得先机
Once again the French were too quick for their opponents
两个军团在骑兵的掩护下
and two corps alongside the cavalry reserve
最终到达普军东北部的阵地
ended up to the northeast of the Prussian positions.
普军并没有被包围
The Prussians were not encircled,
但是通往柏林的道路已经门户大开
but as the road to Berlin was open to attack,
普军必须浴血奋战
they had to stand and fight.
10月14日 双子战 耶拿-奥尔施塔特战役爆发了
The twin battles of Jenna and Auersted took place on the 14th of October.
某种程度上 这其实是两个相距30公里
In a way it was two distinct battles as
发生在不同地点的战役
the two locations were more than 30 kilometers from each other
并且这两场战役从来没有混为一谈
and the two battles never combined into one.
法军在耶拿的战役由拿破仑指挥
The French had about 40,000 infantry,
拿破仑可以指挥的兵力有 大约4万的步兵
8,000cavalry and 110 guns at Jenna
8000骑兵以及110门大炮
under the overall command of Napoleon,
要对抗的则是有34,000名步兵 12,000名骑兵
against 34,000 infantry, 12,000 cavalry and 15 artillery batteries
和15个炮兵连 由普鲁士王子霍恩洛厄指挥的普军
of the Prussian Prince Hohenlohe.
法军的中路由拉内指挥
the French Center was commanded by Lannes,
左路指挥为奥什罗 右路则由苏尔特指挥
the left flank by Augereau and the right by Soult.
拿破仑下令他的军队拿下
Napoleon ordered his troops to take Land graefenberg,
整个战场里的制高点:格莱芬堡
the plateau that prevailed over the battlefield.
一夜之间 法军就占领了高原的一部分
Part of the plateau was taken by the French during the night,
但是他们需要更多的空间
but they needed more space.
于是在早上6点 攻击开始了
So at 6 a.m.an attack commenced.
法军中路攻占了克洛斯威思 而左翼则攻占了科斯佩达
The French Center took Closwith while the left captured Cospeda.
普鲁士丢掉了山头
The Prussians lost the hill.
霍恩洛赫现在才明白 他在与法军主力作战
Hohenlohe now understood that he was fighting the main French army
于是向魏玛的预备队求援
and asked for help from the reserves at Weimar.
普军努力在维也纳和伊思达塔特之间
The Prussians managed to set the second line of defense
设置了第二道防线
between the villages of Vierzehnheiligen and Isserstadt.
法军的进攻被挡住了
French advance was halted.
然而 到上午11点
However, by 11:00 a.m.
内伊的第六军团到达前线
Ney’s 6th Corps was on the scene
拿破仑再一次发起进攻
and Napoleon launched another attack.
奥杰罗占领了伊思达塔特
Augereau captured Isserstadt,
内伊占领了维也纳 苏尔特转向了普军左翼
Ney occupied Vierzehnheiligen and Soult turned the Prussian left.
下午一点
By 1 p.m.
霍恩洛赫为了保持阵线完整 已经尽了全力
Hohenlohe had committed all his reserves in order to keep his line intact.
急需魏玛预备队的帮助
Reserved from Weimar were desperately needed.
拿破仑命令全军前进
Napoleon ordered his whole line to advance
普军最终崩溃了
and the Prussians finally collapsed.
到下午3点 普军已经完全撤退
By 3:00 p.m.the Prussians were in full retreat
法军骑兵在持续追击
with the French cavalry chasing them.
魏玛预备队最终到达了
The reserves from Weimar finally arrived
法军在Kapellendorf Rüchel被挡住了
and stopped the French at Kapellendorf Rüchel.
默克尔带领着15,000人的预备队
Merkel who was leading the newly arrived 15,000 Prussians
在没有制定计划的情况下就准备展开反击
didn’t set a proper line and decided to counter-attack.
尽管法军被暂时阻止了
Although the French forces wereinitially halted,
但他们的骑兵很快包抄并击溃了敌人
their cavalry soon outflanked and routed the enemy.
下午四点 耶拿的战斗结束了
By 4:00 p.m. the Battle of Jena was over.
法军大约损失了6,500人
The French had lost about 6500 men
同时普军大约损失了25,000人
while the Prussian losses have been estimated at 25,000.
拿破仑确信他们已经击败了普军主力
Napoleon was sure that he had defeated the main Prussian army,
他错了
He was wrong.
这时 达沃元帅正在与普鲁士王子布伦瑞克作战
At this point his marshal Davout was fighting the Prussian prince Brunswick.
在前一天 达沃斯接到命令前往南方
On the previous day Davout was ordered to move to the south
拿破仑认为普军主力位于北方
and attack what Napoleon considered to be the main Prussian army from the north.
达沃元帅还被告知要与伯纳多特会合
He also was told to join forces with Bernadotte.
然而 他拒绝了并坚持继续留在多恩堡
However,the latter declined and kept his position at Dornburg,
就像之前接到的命令一样
as he was ordered to before.
一大早 达沃的28,000人就离开了他们的位置
In the early morning, Davout’s 28,000 left their positions
沿着萨尔河 向奥尔斯塔特方向移动
near the river Salle and moved towards Auerstadt.
然而他们被52,000名普军袭击 没有任何得到支援的希望
Yere they were attacked by 52,000 Prussians with no hope of support.
战斗开始时 法军占领了Hassenhausen
Early in the battle the French took the village of Hassenhausen.
法军将领在附近部署了三个师
the French leader deployed his three divisions nearby.
尽管如此 他们依然不断被普军骑兵袭扰
Despite repeated charges by thePrussian cavalry.
早上八点半
By 8:30 a.m.
达沃的步兵设法击溃了敌人的骑兵
Davout’s infantry managed to rout the enemy cavalry.
但普鲁士步兵正赶赴战场
But the Prussian infantry was arriving to the battle.
法军防御住了一些普军的袭击
The French stopped a number of Prussian attacks,
主要是因为普军以小队进攻
mainly because the Prussians attacked in small groups
每个师互相独立前进
with each division advancing in isolation.
因为早些时候普军将领遭受重创
As their leader was mortally wounded early on,
所以他们缺乏协调的指挥
the Prussians lacked any coordinated command.
上午十一点
At 11:00 a.m.
普军已经用尽全力
when the Prussians had exhausted their efforts,
达沃斯命令法军发动攻击 普军崩溃了
Davout ordered a French advance and the Prussians collapsed.
在战役最后
By the end of the battle,
达沃斯歼灭10,000人伤亡 俘虏3,000人
Davout had inflicted 10,000 casualties and taken 3,000 prisoners,
同时他损失了7,000人
while he lost 7,000.
在接下来的几周里 法军不断追击
Over the next few weeks a relentless French
追击给普军造成了更多伤亡
pursuit caused more casualties to the Prussians
并且在27日 柏林陷落
and Berlin was occupied on the 27th.
在战争开始的头一个月内
In less than a month since the start of the campaign,
拿破仑的军队歼灭了20,000普军
Napoleon’s forces killed 20,000 Prussians
并俘获了140,000名俘虏
and took more than 140,000 prisoners.
现在 普鲁士军将领已经朝着俄军方向撤退
Still, the Prussian leadership retreated towards the Russian army,
第四次反法同盟战役才刚刚开始
so the war of the fourth coalition was just starting.
感谢观看这期《双子战耶拿-奥尔施塔特战役》
Thank you for watching our documentary on the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt.
两周后我们会讲述埃劳战役
In two weeks we will be back to cover the Battle of Eylau.
诚挚地感谢我们的赞助者
We would like to express our gratitude to our patreon supporters,
有你们才能有这个系列的视频
who make the creation of these videospossible.
在参与众筹是支持视频的最好方式
Patreon is the best way to suggest a new video,
并且能了解我们的更多消息
learn about our schedule and so much more.
这里是王侯将相频道
This is the Kings and Generals channel
下个视频见
and we will catch you on the next one!

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

视频详细地记述了耶拿会战的始末

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Lilin

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bhtO3Ha0ToQ

相关推荐