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拿破仑战争:1805年特拉法加海战 – 译学馆
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拿破仑战争:1805年特拉法加海战

Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Trafalgar 1805 DOCUMENTARY

拿破仑·波拿巴的威名震慑整个欧洲十余年
Napoleon Bonaparte kept the whole of Europe in fear for more than a decade.
尽管拿破仑战争主要是土地冲突
And although the Napoleonic Wars were predominantly a land conflict,
但是他的许多政策和军事决定都
many of his political and military decisions were informed
受到了当时支配大海的英国舰队
by the dominance of the British fleet at sea
以及在战争中提前上演的海战的影响
and the naval actions that were fought earlier in the war.
在诸多战役中最大的海战则是
Among them was the last great sea battle fought under sail,
特拉法加海战
the Battle of Trafalgar.
法国于1800年在马伦哥和霍恩林登取得胜利
French victories at Marengo and Hohenlinden
迫使奥地利与法国单独媾和
in 1800 forced Austria to sue for a separate peace,
徒留下第二次反法同盟的领导国英国
leaving the United Kingdom as the leading member of the Second Coalition.
拿破仑军队占领着土地
Napoleon’s forces dominated on land,
所以英国
so the only way
可以继续战争的唯一办法就是引发海战
for the United Kingdom to continue the war was via naval actions.
英国海军封锁了法国进口国外商品的海上渠道
The British Navy was blockading France from receiving foreign goods
但这举动反而迫使普鲁士 俄国
and in turn forced Prussia, Russia,
丹麦和瑞典联合对抗英国以此来捍卫贸易路线
Denmark and Sweden to ally against Britain to defend the trading routes.
当俄罗斯海军还处于冬港无法出军时
While the Russian Navy was in its winter harbors,
英军于1801年袭击了哥本哈根并强迫丹麦退出联盟
the British attacked Copenhagen in 1801 and forced Denmark to leave the alliance.
沙皇保罗一世死后一个月
When the Russian Tsar Paul I died a month later,
他的继承人亚历山大一世对于
his heir Alexander I was more lenient
英国显得更加友好 随后反英联盟解散
towards the United Kingdom and the anti-British union ceased to exist.
法国自身的统治也存在不少问题
France had its share of problems.
其中一个殖民地海地在1791年发生暴乱
One of its colonies Haiti had revolted in 1791.
1801年年末 拿破仑为了恢复法国在海地的统治
Napoleon decided to send an expeditionary
以及其在当地高利润的产糖业
force to restore French rule over the island
决定派遣远征军远征海地
and its lucrative sugar industry in late 1801.
英国舰队横跨大西洋追捕远征军
The British fleet chased the expedition across the Atlantic Ocean.
海地小岛已经被封锁 而法国也无法收到供给和支援
The island was blockaded and the French received no supplies or reinforcements.
显然已经没有其他办法可以再给英国最后一击
It was clear that neither side could strike the final blow
随后两国于1802年3月在亚眠签订了和平协议
and a peace treaty was signed in March of 1802 at Amiens.
英国承诺归还
The British promised to return the
法国殖民地并撤军马耳他和埃及
French colonies and leave Malta and Egypt
但拿破仑必须解除对那不勒斯王国和教皇国的控制
while Napoleon had to rescind control of Naples and the Papal States.
一直动乱的欧洲 十年内第一次获得了平和
For the first time in a decade, Europe was at peace.
拿破仑派遣了新一轮远征军收服海地但却铩羽而归
Napoleon sent a new expedition to Haiti but it failed.
长期统治殖民地显然并不容易
Holding onto the colonies proved to
于是在1803年四月
be extremely difficult so in April of 1803,
路易斯安那州的大部分领土被卖与美国
the vast territory of Louisiana was sold to the United States.
海地远征军和拿破仑
The Haitian expedition and the fact
宣称要控制瑞士的事实
that Napoleon was asserting control over Switzerland
让英国很是烦忧
was worrisome for the United Kingdom.
另一方面
On the other hand,
由于法国要求英军撤军马耳他和埃及的要求被无视
the French demands for Britain to leave Malta and Egypt were left unheeded.
拿破仑开始在布伦组建了一支新军
Napoleon started preparing a new force
准备侵袭不列颠群岛
at Boulogne to invade the British Isles,
但是在1803年五月
but it was the United Kingdom who declared the war
反而是英国先发起了战争
that would be later known as the War of the Third Coalition
也就是后来的第三次反法战争
in May of 1803.
拿破仑没想到敌国战意复苏地如此之快
Napoleon was not expecting the renewal of hostilities
而此时他的舰队还分散在不同的港口
and his fleet was scattered across various harbors
21艘主力战舰分散在布雷斯特
with 21 ships of the line in Brest,
12艘散布于土伦 9艘以上散落在大西洋
12 in Toulon and 9 more in the Atlantic.
英国高级海军将两个港口都封锁了起来
The superior British Navy blockaded both ports.
拿破仑计划在1804年夏天
Napoleon developed a plan in the summer of 1804.
其中一支舰队需要在那时突破封锁
One of his fleets needed to break the blockade,
驶向大海
move into the open sea then
接着袭击英国海军所在地
attack the part of the English Navy
封锁其他港口 然后联合部分法国舰队驻在当地
blockading another harbor and unite with the portion of the French fleet stationed there.
这个行动可以让法国
That would have allowed the French to get the army
在布伦获得军队然后跨越英吉利海峡
at Boulogne across the English Channel.
法国的处境在10月变得更加明朗
The situation changed for the better for the French in October,
当时英国人击沉了几艘西班牙船舶
when the British sank some Spanish vessels.
这个举动激怒了西班牙
This provoked Spain to declare war
西班牙向英国宣战 并于12月与法国结盟
on the United Kingdom and ally itself to France in December.
拿破仑现在拥有充足的兵力可以实施他的计划
Napoleon now had the numbers to implement his plan.
1805年3月末 驻土伦法国指挥官
In late March of 1805, the French commander at Toulon
海军中将皮埃尔·维尔纳夫命令他的舰队出航
Vice Admiral Pierre Villeneuve ordered his fleet to sail out.
他成功躲避英军指挥官海军中将
He managed to evade the loose blockade set by British commander,
霍雷肖·纳尔逊的松懈封锁
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson.
看起来这位英国指挥官已经料到
It seems that the British commander was sure
拿破仑将会尝试在意大利登陆一批军队
that Napoleon would try to land a force in Italy
于是纳尔逊的大部分船舰都驶到了撒丁岛
so the majority of Nelson’s vessels were around Sardinia. However,
然而维尔纳夫却成功实施了拿破仑的计划
Villeneuve was implementing Napoleon’s plan.
他在四月初通过直布罗陀海峡
He passed the Straits of Gibraltar in early April,
混进到一些西班牙船舶中 并继续向加勒比海前进
was joined by some Spanish ships and continued towards the Caribbean.
纳尔逊直到四月末
Nelson got this intelligence only
才得知这一情报 然后开始横跨大西洋追捕
in late April and started his pursuit across the Atlantic.
法军在五月抵达加勒比海海盆
The French arrived at the Caribbean Sea basin
并抓捕了几个英国前哨部队
in May and captured a few British outposts.
纳尔逊虽于6月抵达当地但还是慢了维尔纳夫一步
Nelson reached the area in June but was still one step behind Villeneuve.
尽管如此 法军还是无法
Despite that, the French weren’t able
给当地英国的殖民地造成太多损失
to inflict much damage to the local British
随后也动身返航
colonies and started moving back to Europe,
并在7月下半抵达欧洲
arriving in the second half of July.
海军中将考尔德的一支小型英国舰队被命令拦截维尔纳夫
A smaller British fleet under Vice Admiral Calder was ordered to stop Villeneuve
但随后在菲尼斯特雷海角附近引发的战役其实无足轻重
but the subsequent battle near Cape Finisterre was indecisive.
尽管如此 这次冲突还是阻碍了法国
Still this encounter prevented the French
抵达布雷斯特消灭封锁线的计划 并且被迫返回到加的斯
from reaching Brest to lift the blockade and they returned to Cadiz.
与此同时
At the same time,
奥地利和俄罗斯加入第三次反法同盟
Austria and Russia joined the Third Coalition
而此时拿破仑必须将他驻军在
and Napoleon had to march his army
布伦的军队向东行军
stationed in Boulogne to the east,
这表示着入侵大不列颠群岛的计划就此搁浅
which meant that the invasion of the British Isles was postponed.
纳尔逊被任命皇家海军的最高指挥官
Nelson was appointed the overall commander of the Royal Navy
当法西联军的无敌舰队集中在加的斯时
and as the allied French-Spanish Armada concentrated in Cadiz,
他派遣了他的大部分舰队
he sent the majority of his fleet off the coast
离开法国海岸围捕维尔纳夫
of France to block Villeneuve.
到了九月末 他亲自加入了舰队指挥
By the end of September, he joined the fleet personally.
维尔纳夫无视了拿破仑让其前往意大利的命令
Villeneuve received an order from Napoleon to move towards Italy but ignored it.
10月18日
On the 18th of October,
他收到新命令 要求他们停留在加的斯等待后援
the French commander received a new order to stay in Cadiz and wait for his replacement.
再一次的 这项命令被无视了
Once again, the order was neglected and
并且联合舰队还在20号出航大海
the Allied fleet went to sea on the 20th.
在21号
On the 21st,
维尔纳夫的海军逐渐接近直布罗陀海峡
Villeneuve’s navy was getting close to the Straits of Gibraltar.
纳尔逊让法军尽可能的驶离加的斯
Nelson allowed the French to move as far away
以防法军有机会撤退
from Cadiz as possible to prevent them from retreating. However,
然而在黄昏时分法军探测到了英国船舶
by dawn the British vessels were detected.
维尔纳夫没有想到纳尔逊的海军如此强大
Villeneuve didn’t expect Nelson’s navy to be so strong,
于是他命令他的船舰返回海港
so he ordered his ships back to the harbor.
这次战略失败源于缺少训练
This maneuver failed due to lack of training
最后联合舰队以杂乱无章的战线收场
and the Allied fleet ended up with an incoherent line.
当时普遍的策略是
The usual tactic of the age was to
接近敌人然后展开火并
approach a foe and enter a shooting match,
所以当时战役的决胜点取决于船舰的质量
so the fate of the battle was decided by the quality of the ships,
海员素质以及运气了
crew training and sheer luck. Instead,
纳尔逊将舰队平分两队去攻击联盟战舰的船舷
Nelson divided his fleet into two halves to attack the Allies broadside.
他亲自指挥13艘
He was personally leading the northern
驶向北方的船舰
group that had 13 ships of the line
并在船前部升起他的胜利号旗帜
with his flagship HMS Victory in front.
与此同时由海军中将科灵伍德分遣的
While Vice Admiral Collingwood’s squadron of 14 ships
14艘船舰驶向南方
of the line was to the south
并升着君权号旗帜
led by the flagship HMS Royal Sovereign.
到了正午 两军海军的距离只有五千米
By midday, the distance between the two navies was just five kilometers.
他们离开了特拉法加海角海岸线 随后纳尔逊下达了他最著名的命令
They were off the coast of Cape Trafalgar and Nelson issued his famous order:
“英国冀诸健儿人人各尽其职”
“England expects that every man will do his duty.”
君权号最近重新修缮过 速度比其他船更快
Royal Sovereign was recently repaired and was faster than most ships,
所以当大海上开始起风
so the wind moved it
君权号危险地靠近到了联合舰队的船线
dangerously close to the enemy line,
而此时分舰队与联合舰队的距离却大大落后
while the other ships in the squadron were lagging behind.
12点20分 君权号向圣安娜号和弗高克斯号开始第一次攻击 并将船队击后
At 12:20, Royal Sovereign fired the first volley upon Santa Ana and Fougueux and these vessels shot back.
而科林伍德的旗舰遭受到4艘敌军攻击
Collingwood’s flagship was attacked by four enemy ships.
仅过了15分钟
Only 15 minutes later,
贝丽岛号抵达战场并掩护君权号右方甲板
Belleisle arrived and covered the right board of Royal Sovereign.
更多的英国船舶
More English vessels moved
加入激战并试图截断联合战舰的船线
into the fray and tried to cut the Allied line,
但是科林伍德在与敌舰最初的接触中处于劣势
but Collingwood was outnumbered at the initial point of contact.
而联盟军也不可能让英军第二战列舰有机会进行增援
Still the positioning of the Allied navy didn’t allow its second line ships to assist
14点 联盟军击沉或收服了 第一战列舰的大部分船只
and by 14:00, the majority of the first line vessels were either sunk or surrendered.
转向北面 纳尔逊的分舰队于12点20分接近联盟军舰队
To the north, Nelson’s squadron got close to the enemy line by 12:20
但此时海风逐渐平静下来
but the wind was calming and
这让纳尔逊的行船速度非常缓慢
that made Nelson’s ships a very slow target.
他否决采取传统战线策略的举动
His refusal to fight using traditional line tactics
是此次战役策略中一大败笔
was detrimental at this point of the battle
当他的船队没有一艘可以开火时
as none of his ships were able to shoot
敌军开始了接连的炮火攻击
while the enemy was sending volley after volley.
尽管伤亡惨重 胜利号旗舰队依旧前进
Despite casualties, the flagship Victory was moving forward.
纳尔逊表面上下达一个假指令
Nelson ordered a fake maneuver to make the enemy think
让敌军以为他的船队要形成一线
that his ships would form up in a line
但是其实他又下达了另一指令让船队转向
but instead he then ordered one more turn
胜利号最终处于法国旗舰船布森陶尔号和小一点的可畏号之间
and Victory ended up between the French flagship Bucentaure and the smaller Redoutable.
这一处境让纳尔逊船身的两边大炮都能够使用
This allowed Nelson’s ship to use the guns on both sides.
法国船舰需要转向 而胜利号此时
The French ships needed to turn and Victory used
趁机击败布森陶尔号
that to take Bucentaure out of the game. However,
但胜利号也遭受到可畏号的大量破坏
Victory itself was taking massive damage from Redoutable.
法国船还使用了狙击手 13点15分 一名狙击手射伤了纳尔逊
The French ship was also using sharpshooters and at 13:15, one of their shots wounded Nelson.
这一击对于纳尔逊来说显然是致命的
It was clear that this wound was deadly.
可畏号船员意图登陆胜利号
Redoutable’s crew attempted to board Victory,
但是英军成功阻挠了登陆
but the British managed to stop them.
胜利号很快得到无畏号的增援
Victory was soon reinforced by Temeraire,
无畏号穿过可畏号左甲板并开始射击
which moved across Redoutable’s left board and started shooting.
到了14点20分 可畏号被无畏号的船员捕获
By 14:20, Redoutable was captured by the crew of Temeraire.
战场转向北方
To the north,
英国海王星号加入战场与西班牙圣三一号交战
British Neptune entered into a battle with Spanish Santissima Trinidad
并成功将西班牙舰队打败
and managed to take it out of the fight.
14点整 维尔纳夫越来越清楚他即将输了这次战役
By 14:00, it was becoming clear for Villeneuve that he was losing the battle
于是他命令北方部分战线
and he ordered the northern portion
行船至西南方向击溃英国舰队
of his line to move to the southwest and collapse on the British fleet. However,
然而北方战线的船长没有收到该指令
the captains of these ships failed to see the signal
这也成为了联合舰队的致命一击
and this became the final mistake of the Allied fleet.
维尔纳夫的布森陶尔号已经残破不堪无法继续战斗
Villeneuve’s Bucentaure was in no shape to continue fighting
于是他不久就投降了
and soon he surrendered.
此时还剩下10艘船舰
By the time the remaining 10
联合军船舰开始支援
Allied ships started their move to assist
大部分处在中心的船舶不是被击沉就是被捕获
most of the vessels in the center were either sunk or captured.
科林伍德此时指挥所有英国海军
Collingwood took overall command of the British Navy
并命令纳尔逊的分舰队拦截法国的增援
and ordered Nelson’s squadron to intercept the French reinforcements.
剩余的联合军舰船决定撤退
The remaining Allied ships decided to retreat.
英军最后以捕获18艘敌舰取得大捷
It was a complete victory with the British capturing 18 enemy ships.
纳尔逊在听到胜利的喜报后也逝世了
Nelson passed away as soon as he heard the news of the victory.
法国在特拉法加的败役奠定了英国海上霸主的地位
The French defeat at Trafalgar confirmed the naval dominance of the United Kingdom
也意味着拿破仑将再也无法侵袭英国
and meant that Napoleon would not be able to invade Britain.
但是就在海上战役打的如火如荼时
But while the battle was raging at sea,
皇家陆军也在向着德意志前进
the Emperor’s Grand Army was moving into Germany
对抗奥地利和俄罗斯联盟军
against the Allied Austrian and Russian armies.
感谢观看这期特拉法加海战
Thank you for watching our video on the Battle of Trafalgar.
这个系列的第二期讲述
The second video in this series that will cover the Battle
奥斯特里茨战役的视频将会在两周后发布
of Austerlitz will be released in two weeks.
非常感谢我们的赞助者
We would like to express our gratitude to
有你们才有这个视频
our Patreon supporters who make the creation of these videos possible.
在众筹网赞助我们是对新视频最好的支持
Patreon is the best way to suggest a new video,
同时了解更多信息
learn about our schedule and much more.
本视频的旁白由我OD担当
The video was narrated by me Officially Devin.
别忘了也去看看由我主讲的频道Let’s Plays
Don’t forget to stop by my channel for my narrative Let’s Plays.
这里是王侯将相频道
This is the Kings and Generals channel,
下个视频见
and we will catch you on the next one.

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译制信息
视频概述

特拉法加一战英国的胜利,奠定了英国海上霸主的地位。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

楼舜

审核员

审核员 GK

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sRtUrvmok-c

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