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拿破仑战争#1:1800年马伦哥会战

Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Marengo 1800 DOCUMENTARY

我一生打过60场战役
I have fought sixty battles,
深谙其道
and I have learned nothing which I did not know at the beginning.
看凯撒大帝 他对待每一场战役都像最后一场
Look at Caesar. He fought the first like the last.
纵观人类历史进程
Violent changes in the course
从来都是乱世出英雄
of human history always bring the most talented military leaders to the forefront
1789年法国大革命也无出其右
and the French Revolution of 1789 was no different.
拿破仑·波拿巴从中脱颖而出 大放异彩
Among the generals who stepped up was Napoleon Bonaparte
他卓越的才能统领欧洲接下来200年的全面冲突
and his genius dominated two decades of all-out conflict in Europe.
这就是我们第一个视频 拿破仑的战争
This is our first video on the Napoleonic Wars,
我们从马伦戈战役讲起
and we are going to start with the Battle of Marengo.
1789年法国大革命是颠覆性的事件
The French Revolution of 1789 was a paradigm-shifting
从此 欧洲皇室岌岌可危
event that put all the monarchies of Europe at risk.
当法国国王路易十六和女王玛丽·安托瓦内特
As French King Louis XVI and Queen Marie
在大革命中沦为阶下囚时
Antoinette became the prisoners of the revolutionaries,
欧洲其他王室就更如坐针毡
monarchs around Europe got even more worried.
玛丽女王的兄弟
The brother of the queen,
奥地利大公和神圣罗马帝国君主利奥波特二世
Archduke of Austria and Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II
联合普鲁士国王 弗雷德里克威廉二世
and the king of Prussia Frederick William II,
宣称 如果路易斯国王和玛丽女王遭遇任何不测 将对法国发动战争
threatened France with war if anything happened to Louis and Mary Antoinette.
新成立的法国政府不以为意
The new French government did not take it
于1792年像奥地利宣战
well and declared war on Austria in 1792.
普鲁士人宣布对法宣战 不久之后两国联军入侵法国
The Prussians declared war in response and soon after the Allies invaded France.
虽然大革命消耗了军队实力
Despite the fact that the revolution had weakened their army,
法国人民还是在瓦尔米成功抵御外敌
the French managed to stop the invaders
甚至在德国和意大利战场收回部分失地
near Valmy and even took some lands in Germany and Italy.
次年 法国国王和女王被处死
The French king and queen were executed the very next year
之后西班牙 那不勒斯 尼德兰(今荷兰) 不列颠和葡萄牙
and Spain, Naples, the Netherlands, Britain and Portugal
加上之前的奥地利和普鲁士 组成被后人称之为
joined Austria and Prussia to form what would later be known
“第一联盟”的大军
as the First Coalition.
战争初期的1793和1794年
Still in 1793 and 1794 France,
已建立共和制的法国
which was a republic now,
全线作战中多次大获全胜
was able to win multiple battles on all fronts
甚至控制了如今是比利时的地盘
and even take control of modern-day Belgium.
在1795年 法国军队入侵低地国家
In 1795, the French invaded the Low Countries,
建立巴达维亚傀儡共和国 并与普鲁士签订和平条约
established the puppet Batavian Republic and agreed a separate peace with Prussia.
第一联盟试图通过扶植巴黎的异党
The Coalition attempted to overthrow the Republic
来推翻新生共和国
by supporting dissent in Paris,
但是拿破仑领导的军团
but the military garrison led
成功阻止了这次暴动
by young Napoleon Bonaparte stopped the insurgency
并协助组建了一个新政府 即督政府
and helped install a new government, the Directory.
法国由此进入全面进攻
France was now on the offensive.
他们入侵德国 占领意大利
They invaded Germany and Italy and
虽然在德国战场失利
although the German campaign ended in defeat,
但是 在意大利 新成立的波拿巴政权
in Italy the newly promoted Bonaparte won
大败奥地利军和撒丁军
against Austrian and Sardinian armies
并强迫撒丁人签署条约 控制了意大利北
forcing the latter to sign a treaty and taking control of northern Italy.
奥地利人也被迫求和 并向法国割让
Austria had to sue for peace and ceded Belgium,
比利时 莱茵兰 意大利北
the Rhineland and Northern Italy to France.
第一联盟战争告一段落
That was the end
拿破仑也成为法国英雄 载誉归来
of the War of the First Coalition and Napoleon returns to Paris as a hero.
只有不列颠仍在抵抗 因此拿破仑于1798年
Only Britain stayed at war and Napoleon started a new campaign
率军在希腊与英交战
against them in Egypt in 1798.
他攻下了马耳他和希腊
He managed to take control of Malta and Egypt itself,
却被土耳其和英国联军阻隔
but was stopped by the united Ottoman and British forces.
当海军在阿布基尔附近失利时 拿破仑失了先机
When his navy was defeated near Aboukir, Napoleon lost the initiative.
铩羽而归 之后英国出面
Back in Europe, Britain convinced Austria,
说服奥地利 俄国和那不勒斯 组成第二联盟
Russia and Naples to form the Second Coalition.
在1799年 当俄国将军苏沃罗夫挺军意大利时 英国趁机入侵尼德兰
In 1799, Britain invaded the Netherlands while Russian general Suvorov moved into Italy.
英国军队战败
The British were defeated,
但是 奥地利-俄国联军成功迫使法国
but the Austro-Russian army managed to drive the French
撤出意大利 回撤瑞士
out of Italy only to be stopped in Switzerland.
苏沃罗夫被遣出意大利
Suvorov was pushed out of Italy.
对法国而言 形势左支右绌
The overall situation for France left much to be desired
军队溃不成军
as the army was in bad shape
督政府软弱无力
and the Directory lacked will and authority. Napoleon,
拿破仑审时度势
when informed of the situation,
放弃了在希腊的军队 于十月返回法兰西
abandoned his army in Egypt and returned to France in October.
很快他组建了一个军团 成功推翻督政府
Soon he led a successful military coup that overthrew the Directory,
代之以领事馆
replacing it with a Consulate.
波拿巴被任命为第一执政
Bonaparte was appointed as the First Consul.
短期内 他迅速组织了20万大军
In a short time, he was able to raise an army of 200,000.
于1800年 他派一支前往比利时
In 1800, a small portion of this force was deployed
消灭了可能的侵犯
in Belgium to defend against a possible incursion,
并派莫罗前往德国 马赛纳前往北意大利
while Moreau was sent to Germany and Masséna to Northern Italy.
此时 奥地利面临两股敌对势力
The Austrians had two armies in the theater.
一边是12万大军陈兵德国边境
120,000 soldiers were under Kray in Germany
一边 梅拉斯率领的10万精兵在意大利虎视眈眈
and a 100,000-strong force was commanded by Melas in Italy.
马赛纳和他的4万大军则封锁法国南部边界
Masséna and his 40,000 were ordered to defend the southern borders
防止梅拉斯入侵
of France against Melas.
拿破仑让军队在第戎集结 来迷惑间谍
Napoleon tried to fool enemy spies by conducting an assembly in Dijon.
他故意在此训练年老和年幼的雇佣军
He deliberately started training the oldest and youngest recruits there.
间谍果然让他们的政府如是报告
Enemy agents informed their governments
这就使拿破仑利用其他城市的小支军队
and that gave Napoleon an opportunity to surprise the Austrians
进军日内瓦 打了奥地利个措手不及
by moving to Geneva with smaller units organized in other French cities. Still,
第二联盟军确信拿破仑会用他的
Coalition leaders were sure that he would attack
6万军队和他们在德国交战
in Germany with his 60,000 men.
其实拿破仑已趁机命令莫罗穿过莱茵河 进军边疆
Instead Napoleon ordered Moreau to cross the Rhine and engage Kray.
他兵行险招 同时
He was planning something unexpected. Meanwhile,
马赛纳方面于四月被奥地利军队进攻
Masséna was attacked by the Austrians
必须缓慢向海岸线撤退
in April and had to retreat slowly towards the coast.
他在热内亚被梅拉斯和英国舰队围攻
He was besieged in Genoa by Melas and the British fleet
但是他坚固的防卫
but his stalwart defense
给了拿破仑向意大利突进的时间
of the city allowed Napoleon to move his forces to Italy.
拿破仑使用汉尼拔对抗罗马军队的战略
Napoleon repeated the maneuver of Hannibal against the Romans
取道圣贝纳迪诺穿过阿尔卑斯山
crossing the Alps via the San Bernardino pass.
奥地利大为意外 仓促防卫
This surprised the Austrians and made them scramble to defend themselves.
梅拉斯确信拿破仑会为了帮瓦塞纳解围
Melas was sure that Napoleon would move towards Genoa
会向日内瓦进军
in order to raise the siege,
所以他排了一支分遣队在易守难攻的都灵阻截拿破仑
so he sent a contingent to stop them at well-fortified Turin. However,
然而拿破仑再次出其不意
the French leader outplayed his opponent
于6月2号攻下米兰
once again and took Milan on the 2nd of June.
奥地利供给链被切断
Austrian supply lines were effectively cut and their
都城维也纳也自身难保
capital Vienna itself was now in imminent danger.
梅拉斯别无选择 只得背离拿破伦
Melas had no other choice but to move against Napoleon,
被迫允许马赛纳的军队离开日内瓦
and he was forced to allow Masséna’s troops to leave Genoa.
梅拉斯要想回复他的沟通线
Melas needed to break through the French forces
必须攻破法国防线
in order to restore his lines of communication.
他派兵北上
He sent some of his troops to the
封锁坡河
north to close off the Po River,
但法国军队同期而至
but French troops managed to cross it all the same.
但其实 当拿破仑为了封锁多条河流
Melas still had a chance to win the campaign
而不得不分流兵力时
as Napoleon was dividing his forces into smaller groups
梅拉斯仍然有胜算
to blockade as many roads as possible.
他只需快速夺取一场决定性胜利即可
Melas needed to win a decisive battle quickly.
有消息称 数月前当拿破仑计划这场战役时
Sources claim that while planning this campaign a few months ago,
他指着地图上的马伦戈 预测
Napoleon pointed to Marengo on the map and predicted
这里将爆发一场大战 确实
that the fight would take place there. Indeed,
两只军队于6月14日在此处交戈
the two armies met at Marengo on the 14th of June.
梅拉斯步兵2万3千 骑兵8千另有100门大炮
Melas had more than 23,000 infantrymen, 8,000 cavalry and 100 cannons
而拿破仑只有2万3步兵 20门大炮
while Napoleon commanded only 23,000 infantrymen and 20 cannons
而且超过一半的军队还在别处封堵要道
as more than half of his army was blocking passages elsewhere.
奥地利军队于早八点开始渡博密达河 显然
The Austrian army started crossing the Bormida River at 8 o’clock. Seemingly,
拿破仑并没有想到梅拉斯会全军到此
Napoleon did not expect Melas to be here with his full force.
最初 奥地利军队集中火力
The initial Austrian attack was concentrated
攻打法国佩兰率领的师
against the division of French general Perrin
但是 虽然人数的压倒性优势
but despite outnumbering the enemy,
但是由于梯田和敌军的抵抗
the Austrians had a hard time breaking
奥地利损失惨重才攻破敌军
through due to the terrain and enemy resistance.
梅拉斯将更多军团掉到滩头堡
Melas was able to move more troops to the beachhead
从正面和侧翼三路攻击佩兰将军
and now attacked Perrin both head-on and from the flanks.
十点
By 10 o’clock,
法国军队被敌军从右翼攻破
the French division was outflanked from the right side
但很快 法国莱内将军手下的
but soon, a second French division
第二个师团赶到并迫使敌军回撤 然而
under general Lannes was nearby and was able to push the enemy back. However,
梅拉斯有更多军队过河
Melas now had more troops
因为试着围攻莱内
across the river and so tried to encircle Lannes.
拿破仑意识到自己在对抗奥地利主力军
Napoleon realized that he was fighting the main Austrian force
故给将军德赛克斯和博德传讯
and sent messengers to generals Desaix and Boudet
他们统领着唯一可用的军队
who commanded the only units in reinforcement range.
有奥特将军从右翼梅拉斯正面
Melas was joined by general Ott who was now threatening the French right flank.
在新抵达的凯勒曼 尚波军的支持下
Lannes and Perrin started a slow retreat supported
莱内军和佩兰军开始缓慢回撤
by the newly arrived cavalry of Kellerman and Champeaux.
如果拿破仑只带着领事警卫队来的话 法国防线危在旦夕
French lines were on the brink when Napoleon arrived with his Consular Guard.
这只警卫队兵力有限
This guard had a limited number of troops,
但是拿破仑还是用他们填补缺口
but Napoleon used them to fill the gaps.
即使如此 法国军队仍然
Despite that, the French army was still
遭受着猛烈的军事攻击 在撤回时也是如此
under devastating artillery fire and was constantly harassed as it withdrew.
时至今日 历史学家仍然诧异
To this day, historians are in awe
拿破仑和他的将领们
of the fact that Napoleon and his officers
能够有序撤离
were able to retreat in good order.
只有奥地利军队还在战场上厮杀
The Austrian army was the only one left standing in the field.
梅拉斯将军给扎克将军传达命令
General Melas transferred command to general Zach and
自己则回到军营 给维也纳传讯
returned to his camp to send the news to Vienna.
不幸的是 他们的巡逻队辜负了他们
Unfortunately for the Austrians, their reconnaissance failed them.
扎克下令让军队休息 打算之后再追击拿破仑
Zach allowed his troops some respite, planning to pursue Napoleon later.
但在这个空档 德赛克斯和博德率6000军队赶到
But during the wait, Desaix and Boudet arrived with 6,000 soldiers.
法国重新调整防线
The French reformed their lines and
当扎克终于整装待发时
when Zach finally resumed the pursuit,
迎接他的已经是大炮和霰弹
he was met by cannon and canister shots.
德赛克斯率军前进 在偷袭中丧生
Desaix led his division forward and died during the assault
但军队仍然继续前行
but his troops still continued on.
并与博德将军军队一起
Along with the division of Boudet,
突破奥地利军队第一个防线
they broke through the first line of the Austrian army.
他们现在面对的是扎克的生力军
They were now facing fresh troops
二者势均力敌 然而此时
of Zach and the battle hung in the balance. However,
拿破仑再次展现了非凡的军事才能
at this point Napoleon proved his genius yet again
派凯勒曼将军率领的剩余骑兵进攻奥地利左翼
and sent his remaining cavalry under Kellerman to attack the Austrian left.
当扎克被捕 奥地利军
This attack proved decisive
群龙无首 无心恋战 证明了这一决策的高明
as Zach was captured and the leaderless Austrian army had no more will to resist.
他们又回到了清晨的状况
They returned to the positions held in the morning.
这就是马伦戈战役的结果
That was the end of the Battle of Marengo.
法国夺回意大利
The French took Italy back and
且当莫罗在霍恩林登大败奥地利时
as Moreau defeated the Austrians at Hohenlinden,
维也纳唇亡齿寒 奥地利必须求和
Vienna was under threat and the Austrians had to sue for peace.
英国仍在坚持作战
Britain continued fighting,
到1802年 终于签署利于法国的和平协约
but in 1802 finally signed a peace treaty favourable for the French.
拿破仑所向披靡 最终称帝
Nothing was stopping Napoleon from becoming Emperor.
非常感谢观看拿破仑战争第一集
Thanks for watching our first video on the Napoleonic Wars.
如果大家感兴趣 我们会继续做下去
This series will hopefully continue if we see enough interest.
诚挚的感谢赞助商和支持者
We would like to express our gratitude to
是你们让系列视频的发布成为可能
our Patreon supporters who make the creation of these videos possible.
视频官方旁白 我代温
This video was narrated by me Officially Devin.
也可以我的频道里看我讲述的Let’s Plays
Don’t forget to stop by my channel for some narrative Let’s Plays.
下一期 我们会讲 这就是国王和将军
This is the Kings and Generals channel we will catch you
下期见
on the next one.

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拿破仑战争系列1

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e6GHyf1R5BM

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