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拿破仑战争:1805年奥斯特里茨战役 – 译学馆
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拿破仑战争:1805年奥斯特里茨战役

Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Austerlitz 1805 DOCUMENTARY

第三次反法同盟战役
The War of the Third Coalition started
在英国中将纳尔逊
at sea as the British Admiral Nelson
与他的法国对手维尔纳夫争夺
and his French counterpart Villeneuve wrestled for control
大西洋而引发的特拉法加海战中拉开序幕
of the Atlantic and fought the Battle of Trafalgar.
然而对于拿破仑来说陆战更为关键
However the land war was more crucial for Napoleon
而最终决定拿破仑战争命运的则是
and the fate of the war was decided during the Battle of the three Emperors
发生于雪村奥斯特里茨的三皇之战
on the snow perched fields of Austerlitz.
法国于1800年在马伦哥和霍恩林登取得胜利
French victories at Marengo and Hohenlinden
迫使奥地利单独媾和退出反法同盟
in 1800 forced Austria to sue for a separate peace.
吕内维尔合约承认荷兰
The Treaty of Lunéville acknowledged the new French satellites
瑞士和意大利为新法国的附庸国
in the Netherlands, Switzerland and Italy
以及法国对意大利托斯卡纳区和莱茵河左岸领土的占领
alongside holdings in Tuscany and the left bank of the river Rhine.
此时沙皇保罗一世与拿破仑更为亲近
Meanwhile Russian Tsar Paul I. was getting closer to Napoleon
甚至考虑在印度发起战役对抗英国
and even considered a campaign against Britain in India.
1801年保罗被一伙由英国政府
In 1801 Paul was assassinated by a group
提供资金的阴谋者们暗杀
of conspirators funded by the British government.
虽然新沙皇亚历山大一世对英国更显仁慈
The new Tsar Alexander I. was more lenient towards Britain
但他并没有重新加入英法的争斗
but he didn’t re-enter the conflict
1802年法国和英国于亚眠
and in 1802 France and Britain signed a treaty
签订协议结束了第二次反法同盟战争
in Amiens that ended the war of the Second Coalition.
尽管有了协议两国之间仍然有许多理由可以开战
Despite that the two countries still had ample
并且也在一年后重新开战起来
reasons to fight and a year later Britain declared war again.
第三次反法同盟大战的第一阶段
The initial phase of the conflict that would be known
斗争发生在海上
as the War of the Third Coalition took place at sea.
拿破仑需要得到海上霸权
Napoleon needed to gain naval dominance
以此来运送他的20万大军到不列颠群岛
to transport 200,000 troops to the British Isles
所以英国需要摆平法国舰队
so the British tried to get rid of the French fleet and
及其新的联盟—西班牙军
that of the new French allies, the Spanish.
其他欧洲诸国本无意加入英法斗争
Other European powers were not eager to join
但发生了两件事改变了这一局面
the conflict but two events changed that.
1804年3月 代表法国
In March of 1804 one of the representatives
前波旁皇朝一员的昂吉安公爵
of the toppled French dynasty of Bourbon, Duke d’Enghien
在中立区巴登被拿破仑的龙骑兵所捕
was seized by the dragoons of Napoleon in the neutral Baden
随后以叛国罪被处死
and then executed for treason.
这则消息震惊了欧洲皇家法庭
The news shocked the royal courts of Europe.
同年拿破仑加冕为法国国王
In the same year Napoleon was coronated as the Emperor of the French
于1805年又加冕自己为意大利国王
and in 1805 as the king of Italy which meant that
这意味着拿破仑认为他能与奥地利和俄国国王平起平坐
he considered himself an equal of the Austrian and Russian Emperors.
这些行为迫使瑞典 那不勒斯王国
All this forced Sweden, Naples,
奥地利和俄国联合英国加入反法战争
Austria and Russia to ally with Britain and enter the war.
反法同盟的士兵数量压倒性地几乎是拿破仑军的两倍
The Allies outnumbered Napoleon almost two to one.
他们计划先派遣9万俄军
They planned to move 90,000 Russian troops to
到达普鲁士边界 强迫普鲁士加入同盟
the Prussian border to force it to join the alliance
同时调遣库图佐夫麾下5万俄国精兵部队
while a 50,000 strong Russian army under Kutuzov had to move
到神圣罗马帝国
into the Holy Roman Empire
支援帮助12万奥地利大军
and help the 120,000 Austrian troops.
4万俄国和瑞典的士兵则登陆德意志北部
40,000 Russians and Swedes were to land in northern Germany
威慑荷比卢国家以及法国北部地区
to threaten the Low Countries and northern France.
10万奥地利军则进入意大利驱逐境内法军
100,000 Austrians were to enter Italy to push the French out
同时英国和俄国还承诺会在南意大利帮助那不勒斯王国的军队
while Britain and Russia promised to help the armies of Naples in southern Italy.
此时这个法国国王清楚的意识到
It was clear for the French Emperor
他必须打出一场决定性的战役
that he needed to make a decisive strike
打败其中一支军队
against one of these forces and take it
迫使其退出这次战争才有机会在此战中赢得胜利
out of the game to have any chance of winning the war.
反法同盟期望拿破仑会像
The Allies expected him to move to Italy
前两次战役一样行军意大利
as he did in the first two wars.
拿破仑调派了布伦附近30万的兵力
He had around 300,000 men near Boulogne
派遣了7万由马塞纳带领的士兵到意大利
and sent 70,000 commanded by Massena to Italy
防守法国的南部边界
to defend the southern borders of France.
让3万兵力离开布伦 而剩下军队的
30,000 were left in Boulogne while the rest of the army,
其中的18万兵力启程前往莱茵河
some 180,000 started moving toward to the Rhine
并于9月25号抵达目的地
and reached it by the 25th
并在莱茵河获得来自巴伐利亚和符腾堡的1万支援兵
of September where they were reinforced by 10,000 troops from Bavaria and Württemberg.
在此期间奥地利上将马克和他的7万士兵
Meanwhile Austrian general Mack and his 70,000 men
被下令在莱茵河河畔防守通往维也纳的道路
were ordered to defend the road to the capital Vienna
并等待库图佐夫军的到来
along the river Inn and wait for Kutuzov.
但是这个奥地利指挥官决定将他的基地
But the Austrian commander decided to move his
迁至乌尔姆以保护黑森林
base to Ulm to defend the mountainous Black Forest region.
当下他与库图佐夫相距700公里
Now he was 700 kilometers away from Kutuzov.
一些历史学家主张此次情况
Some historians claim that there was
是奥地利与俄国之间信息传递错误造成的
miscommunication between the Austrians and Russians
当时奥地利使用的是格里高利历
as the former used the Gregorian calendar
而俄国则是使用较为过时的儒略历
and the latter the older Julian which meant
这代表着两个日历间有12天的偏差
that there was a 12 day discrepancy.
这个偏差解释了为什么两军在到达目的地时存在时间差
This prevented could solve from reaching the area in time.
拿破仑知道此时可以轻易击溃马克
Napoleon knew that Mack could be easily dislodged
但就算击溃马克 马克也可以向东行军
but then he would either move to the east to unite
与库图佐夫联合或是往南进军意大利
with Kutuzov or to the south to enter Italy.
法军在26日选择越过莱茵河而不是直接击溃马克
Instead the French troops crossed the Rhine on the 26th.
法军的两队兵团都在接近黑森林
Two corps were moving close to the Black Forest
意图迷惑马克让其以为法军将会从正面袭击
to delude Mack into thinking that he would be attacked from the front
而此时还有一支军队正在从北面迫近奥军
while only one Corps was threatening the Austrians from the north.
法军的动作极快
French troops were moving extremely fast
10月6日
and by the 6th of October
马克往东的物资运输线被切断
Mack was cut off from his supply lines to the east.
马克意图在8日突破重围
Mack attempted to break the encirclement on the 8th
但他的将军迷失在韦尔廷根
but his general lost at Wertingen and the French used
法军趁势从后方侵入奥军
that time to move behind the Austrians.
军队多次试图突破包围
Two more attempts were made to break out
但是法军胜利的大局已定
but the French won the resulting battles and
到了14日 奥军被围困在乌尔姆
by the 14th the Austrian army was blockaded at Ulm.
一支骑兵团虽然成功打破法国封锁
A group of cavalry managed to break
但随后也被法军抓获
through the French line but was then caught.
马克收到库图佐夫军还有一个星期才能到达支援的
Mack surrendered on the 20th upon receiving irrefutable proof
确凿消息后 在20日他发出投降
that Kutuzov was still weeks away.
6万多名奥地利士兵成为阶下囚
More than 60,000 Austrians became prisoners of war
而法军只损失了2千兵
while the French had lost around 2,000 troops.
乌尔姆战役的胜利被认为是
The Ulm campaign is considered to be one
对拿破仑来说最重要的战役之一
of the most significant victories for Napoleon.
“如果我无法在15天内到达伦敦 我就会在11月中旬到达维也纳”
“If I can’t be in London in 15 days, I will be in Vienna by the middle of November.”
在26日 法军集合并向东前进
On the 26th French troops were grouped and started moving east.
库图佐夫收到马克的失利的消息
Kutuzov learned about Mack’s defeat
于是决定带着他的6万兵撤退到
and decided to retreat with his 60,000
由布克斯赫夫登带领的俄国第二军
towards the secondary Russian army under Buxhoevden.
同盟军因进行了一系列的保卫战
The Allied army moved slowly
而行动缓慢
fighting a number of rear guard battles
但最终还是无法保卫奥地利首都
and wasn’t able to defend the Austrian capital.
11月12日 维也纳被法军占领
On the 12th of November Vienna was occupied by the French
而拿破仑也和他在战前所预言的那样
and Napoleon entered the city on the 15th
于15日进入维也纳城
as he predicted at the beginning of the campaign.
尽管拿破仑一直在追捕库图佐夫
Although Napoleon continued chasing Kutuzov,
库图佐夫最后还是在20日与布克斯赫夫登成功会合
the latter finally united with Buxhoevden on the 20th
现在有9万兵力和318门大炮可供库图佐夫指挥
and now had 90,000 soldiers and 318 guns under his command.
而此时拿破仑的军队分布于
By that point Napoleon’s forces were scattered
多瑙河河畔将奥军控制于意大利
along the Danube river to contain the Austrians in Italy
并且只有5万3千兵力及157门大炮可供他调度
and he had only 53,000 troops and 157 guns with him.
拿破仑军此时由于频繁的行军和应战而疲惫不堪
His troops were tired due to the constant marching and fighting
到了23日 他下令在布鲁恩镇休息
and on the 23rd he ordered a halt at Brunn
也就是现在的捷克共和国境内小镇
in the modern day Czech Republic.
拿破仑需要赢得一场决定性的战役
Napoleon needed to win a decisive battle and he ordered
他下令在附近的军队集合2万士兵加入他的军队
the nearby corps amounting to 20,000 men to join him.
同时故意暴露自己军队的弱点
At the same time he was projecting weakness
诱使敌军过来攻打
to force the enemy to attack him.
法军抛弃了奥斯特里茨村和普拉钦高地
His troops abandoned the town of Austerlitz and the Pratzen Heights.
拿破仑还努力地向奥地利国王弗朗西斯
Napoleon also tried to initiate negotiations
和俄国沙皇亚历山大提出协商
with the Austrian Emperor Francis and Russian Tsar Alexander.
沙皇推定法国大势已去
The latter concluded that the French were in bad shape.
指挥全体联盟军的库图佐夫建议还是要谨慎法国
Kutuzov, who was the overall commander of the Allied army,
但却因此而被罢免 急进派获得指挥权
advised caution but he was deposed and hotheads gained the upper hand.
奥斯特里茨战役在1805年12月2日爆发
The battle of Austerlitz took place on the 2nd of December 1805.
这位法国国王故意削弱右军引诱敌人攻击
The French Emperor deliberately weakened his right flank to lure the enemy in.
随后又给附近的增援下令包围此处
But then his nearby reinforcements were ordered to move to cover this position.
大部分敌兵因此被包围在中心
The majority of the troops were concentrated in the center
至于左军
and on the left flank.
拿破仑知道他薄弱的右军是个很好的诱饵
Napoleon knew that his right flank would be perfect bait
敌军会竭尽兵力
and that the enemy would stretch its forces
从前方及侧面攻击右军
to attack his right from both the front and sides.
同盟军也的确在早上七点攻击法军右军
Indeed the Allied forces attacked here at 7:00 a.m.
而法军则是缓慢从特尔尼茨村撤出
and French troops slowly retreated from the village of Tellnitz.
第二纵队加入战争
A second column joined the attack
而第三队也在拿破仑抵达索科尔尼采城堡时赶到
and a third arrived as the French reached Sokolnitz Castle.
战争在城堡里一直持续到
The battle continued here
达武元帅带领部分军队抵达战场
until part of the corps of marshal Davout arrived
并帮助法军重新夺回特尔尼茨
and helped the French retake Tellnitz.
此时同盟军的数量仍旧是法军的两倍
Still the Allies outnumbered the French two-to-one
同盟军将法军赶出了村庄
and drove them back out of the village.
达武剩余的兵力加入到索科尔尼采的保卫战中
The remainder of Davout forces joined the defense of Sokolnitz
而这一战对法国计划极其关键
which was crucial to the French plans.
尽管敌人的火力压制愈增 但拿破仑军依然坚守阵地
Despite mounting pressure Napoleon’s troops held their ground.
同盟军右军攻击法军左军
The Allied right flank attacks the French left
希望能够牵制左军从而让他们有机会粉碎法军右军
hoping that pinning it down would allow them to crush the French right.
早上8点 被雾笼罩的普拉钦高地迎来第一缕阳光
By 8 a.m. the sun finally dissipated the fog on the Pratzen Heights
拿破仑看到战场上只剩下库图佐夫和他带领的第四军
and Napoleon saw that only Kutuzov and his 4th column were there.
强大的法国主力军已经从敌人的视野中隐藏起来
The strong French center was hidden from the enemy’s view
于是沙皇亚历山大下令让一个纵队前进
so Tsar Alexander ordered this column forward to
从北面攻击法军右军
attack the French right from the north.
早上9点 拿破仑看到同盟军主力部队逐渐式微
At 9 a.m. Napoleon saw the Allied center
随后派遣法军主力部队趁盛追击
was weak and sent his center ahead.
法国的攻击使同盟军不知所措
The French attack stunned the Allies
紧接着同盟军就失去对普拉钦高地的控制
and they lost control of the Pratzen Heights.
然而同盟军的增援很快赶到
However, reinforcements from the Allied right arrived
并帮助同盟军重新取回高地
and helped retake this position.
但此举削弱了同盟军剩余军队的右军防守
This weakened the remainder of the Allied right wing
而这时拿破仑下令让后备军也加入到攻击队伍中
and this time Napoleon ordered his reserves to join the attack.
普拉钦高地再次被法军夺回
The Pratzen Heights were taken once again
而奥俄联军的右军与主力部队之间的
and a wedge was driven between the center
破裂口则越来越大
and the right of the Austro-Russian army.
大部分军队都处于交战状态
The majority of troops were now in play.
同盟军试图在北面进行反杀
The Allies attempted a counterattack in the north
但却遭到阻截
but it was stopped.
随后同盟军右军被迫撤退
And the right flank of the allied army was forced to retreat.
俄国禁卫军试图将法军驱逐出高地
Russian guards tried to drive the French from the Heights
但法军左军从北面袭击俄军
but the French left attacked them from the north
致使禁卫军也逃离了战场
causing the guards to also leave the battlefield.
军令下达至联盟左军命令他们撤退到东面
The order to retreat to the east was sent to the Allied left,
但当时法军从北面袭击
but it was either ignored or impossible to implement
导致这条军令不是被无视就是无法执行
as the French attacked from the north.
俄军试图行军跨过已经结冰的扎钱湖
The Russians attempted to move across the Satschan Pond which was covered in ice.
但一门法国大炮击破了冰层 淹没数千俄军
A French artillery bombardment broke the ice and thousands of Russians drowned.
此次战役无疑是法国胜仗中轰动的一役
The battle was a resounding French victory.
在3万6千名联盟兵死亡或被捕的情况下 拿破仑军仅损失了9千兵
36,000 Allied soldiers were either killed or captured while Napoleon lost just 9,000.
拿破仑军由于太过疲惫而无法继续追捕敌军
His troops were too tired to chase the
这意味着战争还在继续
enemy and that meant the war would continue.
拿破仑会继续奋战 同时第三次反法同盟
Napoleon would fight on and the War of the Third Coalition would morph
也将向着第四次反法同盟转变
into the War of the Fourth Coalition.
感谢观看这期关于乌尔姆战役和奥斯特里茨战役的纪录片
Thank you for watching our documentary on the battles of Ulm and Austerlitz.
两周后我们会带着新一期的
In two weeks we will be back in your presence
双子战 耶拿-奥尔施塔特战役的视频重新回来
with the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt.
诚挚的感谢赞助者们
We would like to express our gratitude to
有你们才有这个系列视频的存在
our patreon supporters who make the creation of these videos possible.
本视频由我 Officially Devin担任旁白
This video was narrated by me, Officially Devin.
别忘了顺便看看由我解说的let’s play
Don’t forget to stop by my channel for my narrative Let’s Plays.
这里是王侯将相频道
This is the Kings and Generals channel,
下个视频见
and we will catch you on the next one.

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译制信息
视频概述

拿破仑通过乌尔姆战役和奥斯特里茨战役再一次展现了他在军事上的才能

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

楼舜

审核员

审核员GL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OaoNMLKDCQU

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