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鲁珀特之泪的秘密 – 译学馆
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鲁珀特之泪的秘密

Mystery of Prince Rupert's Drop at 130,000 fps - Smarter Every Day 86

嘿 我是戴森 欢迎回到每天聪明一点点
Hey it’s me Destin. Welcome back to Smarter Every Day.
Orbix Hot Glass在阿巴拉马州的观景峰 带上护目镜
Orbix Hot Glass here at Lookout Mountain Alabama. Goggle up.
科技之光马上发生 我们将用高速摄像头记录并了解鲁珀特之泪
Science is about to happen. We’re gonna use a high speed camera and learn about Prince Rupert’s Drop.
这个从未在网上播过 你马上就能学到新东西了
[whispers] It’s never been done on the internet. You’re gonna learn something.
走吧
Let’s go.
现在我们正和凯尔一起待在店里
OK we are here inside the shop with
凯尔是这家店的老板 您能演示一下如何制作鲁珀特亲王之泪吗
Cal. Cal owns the place. Can you show me how to make a Prince Rupert’s Drop?
当然 我要取一些液态玻璃 放入盛有凉水的桶内
(Cal) Sure. I’m gonna gather some glass, drop it in a bucket of cold water.
当它冷却之后 就留下了这个
(Destin) So after it cools down, this is what you’re left with.
看起来有点儿像蝌蚪 但它其实真的具备一些有趣的力学性能
It kinda looks like a tadpole, but it has some really interesting mechanical properties.
事实上 我们用锤子来敲它 也不会破碎
We can actually hit this thing with a hammer and it won’t break.
我准备好了 没有成功
OK I’m ready. [bang] Didn’t go.
我认为凯尔有点儿弱 所以我……可以打碎它吗
OK I think Cal is kind of a pansy so I.. You think you can break it? [laugh]
我们打算再试一次 这次我会让他多使点儿劲
So we’re gonna try again only this time I’m gonna make him hit it really hard
我将用高速摄像机记录 怎么样 可以打碎它吗 好了 我们开始吧
and I’m gonna record it with high speed. Does that work? Think you can break it? Alright. Let’s do it.
接受挑战直接砸吗
-对
The challenge is on. (Cal) Just hit it?
– Yep.
那么 你认为是自己打破碎它了吗 我不觉得
[bang] [shattering] [laughs] So do you think you actually broke it? I don’t think
确实 你认为自己打碎 它了吗-我确信
you did. You think you broke it? – I know I broke it. [laugh]
来看看高速摄像机
– Let’s look at the high speed.
好的 这一滴破了 但从技术上来说 它不是
OK so the drop broke, but technically it wasn’t the
锤子打碎的 通过摄像机仔细观察 你会发现是尾部的扭动
hammer that broke it. If you look close in the high speed you can see that it’s the wiggling of the
使它破碎的 这是鲁珀特之泪的秘密
tail that makes it go. This is the mystery of the
你把最大的劲都使出来
Prince Rupert’s Drop. You can try
去砸头部 也没有碎
as hard as you can to break the bulb, but you can’t.
但是 如果你只是弄破尾部 整个玻璃都会爆炸 而非破碎
But, if you even nick the tail, the entire thing will explode. Not shatter,
事实上是爆炸 我们先出去 我会给你们展示更多
but actually explode. Let’s go outside and I’ll show you more.
现在我们将播放极高的帧数比率 我们有
OK we’re gonna just run an obscene frame rate here. We have this
虚幻的V1610 那么 玻璃破裂的速度太快
Phantom V1610. So, glass breaking occurs
以至于不得不以每秒上千帧来查看 所以我们将
so fast that you have to have like hundreds of thousands of frames per second, so we’re gonna
用低一点的分辨率 而且我们也还需要亮一些的光 我们要用这个 米罗
have a lower resolution and we have to have a lot of light as well. We’re also gonna use this Miro over
以每秒3000帧来播放 并且我们可以用广角镜头来观看整个过程
here to run about 3000 frames per second so we can get a wide shot to see the whole event.
3..2..1..开始
as well. 3..2..1.. go.
好了 现在我们了解了鲁珀特之泪的性质 但此时
OK now we understand what a Prince Rupert Drop does, but at this point
我们并未完全弄懂其中的原因 更近一点看看
we don’t quite understand why it does it. Let’s take a closer look.
这东西被称作偏光器 它有一片滤过的
OK this is called a polariscope and basically what it is is it’s a filtered piece of
偏振的玻璃片 这儿还有一个 你可以看到 如果我转动它
glass that’s polarized. I have another filter here. You can see if I turn it,
就可以遮住光 现在 我把这个加到你用于观察
then I can block out the light. Now if I put this on the camera
的摄像机上 然后把鲁珀特之泪放在两块玻璃间
that you’re looking through here, and then I put the Prince Rupert’s Drop in between
你应该能看到在鲁珀特之泪内部
the two pieces of glass, you should be able to see the internal stresses built up
形成的压力 那么去了解这些压力怎么形成的吧
inside the Prince Rupert’s Drop. So to understand how these stresses got here, let’s
用灰色代表精密坚固的固体玻璃 用红色
use the color grey to represent nice and strong solid glass. We use red
代表融化的(液态)玻璃 并且因为热胀冷缩之故 它足够安全
to represent molten glass and because of the thermal expansion coefficient it’s safe to assume that the
设想一下 温度越高 玻璃就变得越大 蓝色代表冷却的玻璃
higher the temperature the larger this glass wants to be. Blue represents glass that’s cooling
或者处于过渡阶段 同样由于热胀冷缩的原因
off, or transitioning between the two states. Because of that same thermal expansion coefficient
这块玻璃在收缩 并最终停止
this glass is shrinking and basically pulling in on itself. Think of a
想想鲁珀特之泪就像一群极小的玻璃因子 它们
Prince Rupert’s Drop as a bunch of little infinitesimal pieces of glass with each piece trying to interact
与周围的因子相互作用 一旦熔化的玻璃落入水中
with the pieces around it. When the molten glass is first dripped into the water, the
其外层就因接触水而迅速凝固 外壳就这样固定了
outside layer touches the water and immediately solidifies. This locks in that
但这滴玻璃的里面仍然是膨胀的热的液体
outside shape of the drop. The inside of the drop however is still a hot expanded
热量转移到水里时 里面的玻璃开始慢慢冷却
liquid. As heat’s transferred to the water that glass on the inside slowly begins to
并且推向外层 问题是
cool down, and pulls in against that outside layer. The problem is that
由于已经被凝成一个圆形的固体 它只有压得更紧来对抗自身的压力
because it’s already locked in as a round solid, it only compresses tighter against
这实际上使它更牢固 有点像拱形承担
itself. This actually makes it stronger. Kind of like how an arch compresses and gets stronger when
你身体施向各个方向的力而更加牢固一样 因为冷却的玻璃不能再改变
you put your weight on it only this is in all directions. And because the cooling glass can’t
外层开始向内施压 产生很大的压应力
move that outside layer it begins to pull against itself, causing it to be
强压之下 它甚至变得更坚硬 鲁珀特之泪就这样形成了
in extremely high tension. It then hardens in this state of tension and there you have it, a
外层处于极高的压应力之下 里面的玻璃
Prince Rupert’s Drop. The outside is in extremely high compressive stress and the inside is in
承受极高的拉应力 如果链条中的一环被切断
extremely high tensile stress. If one link in this tension chain is ever cut, it
整个链条就会破坏 依靠其自身储存的能量 就像化学制品爆炸一样
breaks on down the line, feeding off of its own stored up energy just like a chemical
不同的是 它替代了化学制品潜在的能量
explosive does. The difference here is that instead of releasing chemical potential energy
机械应变能被释放 这种能量波就是我们所说的破坏阵面
mechanical strain energy is released. This wave of energy is what we call a
只要你有一台足够快的摄像机
failure front. You can directly measure the velocity of that failure front as long as
就可以直接测算破坏阵面的速度 我们试试每秒130000帧
you have a camera fast enough. Let’s give it a shot at 130,000 frames
3…2…1…开始
per second. 3..2..1..go.
成功了吗
Got it?
多亏了来自Orbix Hot Glass的凯尔 如果你觉得
So a big thanks to Cal from Orbix Hot Glass. If you found this
这很有趣并想在物质上支持他 就点击链接吧
interesting and you want to support him by buying stuff go click on the link, wherever I
无论我把它放在哪儿 并且看看他的网页 点击鼠标进行捐助
put it, and go check out his web site. Click the cat to subscribe.
带着头盔 这是只看起来不太高兴的猫
With the helmet. [laugh] It’s a sad looking cat.
你没见它兴奋过 对吧-从没见过
-一次都没有吗
You’ve never caught the cat on fire, ever? – Never.
– Not even once?
-没有-这些东西是一个叫普林斯鲁珀特的伙计命名的 想想看
– Never. – These things are named for a guy named Prince Rupert, imagine that,
一个16世纪住在巴伐利亚州的人这里 这里
who lived in Bavaria back in the 1600s. Here, here.
他把这些东西带回来作为礼物献给英王查尔斯二世 查尔斯二世让他的
He brought these over as a gift to King Charles II in England who gave them to his
皇家学会尝试弄明白了 准备好了
Royal Society to try to figure out. Yep ready. [clang]
多么神圣的烟啊!
Holy smokes!
-要被压力杀死啦不 不要爆炸啊
– Aah the tension’s killing me. [shatter] -(Destin in background) NO DON’T BLOW UP!
-你知道它会爆炸吗-对 它爆炸了
– You know it blow.. blowed up? – Yep, it blowed up.
-它爆炸了 耶
– It BLOWED UP Y’ALL! [laugh]
欢迎用不同的语言添加字幕 如果你可以提供帮助 请联系戴森
Captioning in different languages welcome. Please contact Destin if you can help.
(安德鲁杰克森制作)
[ Captions by Andrew Jackson ] captionsbyandrew.wordpress.com

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视频概述

使用高速摄像机分析鲁伯特之泪的形成和原因

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

【MR】Aomine

审核员

审核团V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xe-f4gokRBs

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