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肌肉生理小常识 – 译学馆
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肌肉生理小常识

Muscle Basics: What Athletes Need to Know About the Muscular System

关于肌肉的基本常识
Muscle Basics
似乎每个人都想要更强壮 更紧致的肌肉
It seems like everyone wants stronger, more toned muscles.
不过 要是说到如何练出强壮的肌肉
But if you’re gonna talk about how to get those big muscles,
首先你需要明白这些肌肉的基本常识
you first need understand the basics.
这会让你变得更加明智
It makes you sound smarter,
而且 你也不想成为那样的家伙:
and well, you don’t want to be that guy who
自己连基本的肌肉的生物学基础都不清楚
doesn’t know his basic muscle biology,
却在肌肉训练方面到处给人提意见
yet likes to give everyone training advice.
首先 最重要的是要明白:
First, it’s important to understand that
人类肌肉所控制的 不仅是所有有意识的机体运动
your muscles not only control every movement you consciously make,
而且 它们还控制全部无意识的机体运动
but they also control every movement you don’t know you are making.
这意味着肌肉会控制食物在食道内的吞咽
That means muscles control the movement of food down your esophagus,
控制动脉收缩调节血压
they control the blood pressure by constraining arteries,
控制心脏的跳动
and they beat your heart.
根据肌肉的功能和构造 我们将其分为三种类型:
Based on their function and structure, we divide muscles into three types.
心肌
Cardiac muscle,
其存在于心脏处
which is found in your heart.
平滑肌
Smooth muscle,
存在于像肠胃和血管这些地方
found in the places like your stomach and intestine and blood vessels.
最后 骨骼肌
And finally skeletal muscle,
其通常附着于骨骼上
which is usually attached to bones.
它们有640块
There are 640 of them,
而且也是唯一能通过意识操控的肌肉
and they are the only ones that we consciously move.
它们也是我们脑海中一般认定的肌肉形象
They are also what we normally think of when we think of muscles.
让我们来看一看典型的骨骼肌
Now let’s look at a typical skeletal muscle,
肱二头肌
your biceps.
它看起来 有点像这样
It looks a bit like this.
红色的是真正的肌肉的部位
The actual muscle is the red part.
它的上端通过肌腱与肩部相连
It connects up here to your shoulder via tendons,
下端通过肌腱与桡骨相连
and down here it connects the tendons to your radialis.
肌肉收缩是通过中间部分的肌肉细胞来实现的
The work of contracting and shortening is all done right here, in this middle part, where the muscle cells.
一般人的肱二头肌的细胞数量大约为10亿个
And in anyone’s biceps, we are talking on the order of a billion muscle cells.
这些肌肉细胞 会聚集形成肌束
Now, these muscle cells are packaged within bundles,
肌束会参与形成更大的肌肉结构
within bundles and the large framework of the muscle,
而这些构造都是沿着肌肉纵向延伸的
and they all running lengthways down the muscle.
这里有个很酷的地方
And here is the cool part,
单个的肌肉细胞形状细长 被称为肌纤维
a single muscle cell called muscle fiber is long.
而肌纤维中 又充满着这样细长的肌原纤维
It’s also packed full of these long myofibrils.
如果放大肌原纤维
If you were to zoom into a myofibril,
就会发现 其组成结构是一小段一小段的
you’d see that they are made of little sections,
称之为肌小节
called sarcomere.
其所含有的肌丝 以很酷的交替方式排列着
They have this cool alternating pattern of myofilaments.
这是真正让肌肉产生运动的地方
This is where the real work of your muscle happens.
将肌丝进一步放大
Let’s zoom in even further.
会看到肌球蛋白和肌动蛋白平行伸展
You have myosin and actin filaments running parallel to each other.
在肌球蛋白上 都有这样弯曲延伸的部分
The myosin filaments all have these bend extensions on them.
它们在接受到水解能量和神经信号后
With the additional energy and signal from the nerve system,
会将肌动蛋白 大致上这样抓住
they essentially grab onto the actin filaments,
通过曲向运行 向前拖拽 然后再放开
bend to bring it along and then release.
无数这样的运动同时发生 从而让肌肉能够收缩
With millions and billions of these working together, you are able to lift stuff.
我们首先有必要记住
Now it’s important at this stage to remember that
骨骼肌有两种不同类型的肌纤维
there are two different types of skeletal muscle fibers,
分别是 “慢肌纤维”和“快肌肉纤维”
they are often refer to as ‘slow twitch’ and ‘fast twitch’.
“快肌纤维” 能够让肌肉短时间内快速爆发
Fast twitch muscles are optimized for short explosive burst,
不过 耐力较差
and they tire quickly.
“慢肌纤维” 在爆发力上较为逊色
Slow twitch don’t have much short term power,
但是耐力很强
but are really good at endurance.
每个人出生时带有确定比例的肌纤维
Everyone is born with a certain ratio of these.
但也取决于你如何训练
But depending on how you train,
你可以通过不同的运动来优化整个肌肉系统
you can optimize your whole muscular system for different sports.
另外要知道肌肉的生长首先要让肌纤维断裂
The next thing to understand is that muscles grow first by breaking down,
然后再重建组织
then rebuilding the tissue.
当肌肉断裂和生长发生时候
For muscle break down and growth to occur,
你必须通过创造压力来使你的肌肉适应
you must force your muscles to adapt by creating stress.
这与你先前身体
That’s different than your previous threshold,
已经适应的极限不同
that your body’s already adapted to.
现在可以通过举更重的重量来创造这种压力
Now this can be done by lifting heavier weights,
不断的改变你的训练方式
continually changing your exercise,
并且让你的肌肉达到疲劳
and pushing your muscles to fatigue.
直到你感觉精疲力竭 当运动完成时
That’s when your feel the burn. After the workout is completed,
最重要的部分来了
and the most important part begins,
充足的休息 并为你的肌肉提供充足的能量
which is at adequate rest and providing ample fuel to your muscles,
然后它们就可以重新生长
so they can regenerate and grow.
每个人都说你需要蛋白质的原因
The reason everyone says you need protein
与我们所谈论的基础生物学密切相关
has everything to do with the basic biology we talked about.
那些肌丝 包括肌动蛋白和肌球蛋白
Those myofilaments, both the actin and myosin,
只是蛋白质的长链
are just long chains of proteins.
如果你的体内没有足够的蛋白质
If you don’t have enough protein in your body,
你的身体就不会重建 不会产生新的肌丝
your body won’t start rebuilding and growing those filaments,
就这么简单 这就是真正需要做的
and that’s where the real work is done and it’s as simple as that.
现在你知道了 有了这些肌肉的基础知识你又进步了一点儿
So there you have it, a few muscle basics that you can be smarter,
更加懂得了如何让你的肌肉更加结实强壮
and more informed when you’re trying to build and tone your muscles.
希望你们喜欢这个视频
Hope you guys enjoy that video.
我真的很认真的在做这个视频 以确保
I work really hard on them. I’m trying to make sure that I can pass on
把这些基础的运动科学知识传授给你
this basic fundamental sport science knowledge to you.
顺便说一句
By the way,
我们正在Tandem上与Ortho Carolina制作一系列的科学运动相关的视频
we’re doing this whole sports science video in Tandem with Ortho Carolina.
下个视频我们将和Dr. Majors一起来到体育馆一定要看哟!
Be sure that you check out the next video, we’re heading to the gym with Dr. Majors.
我们将要探究如何更科学的训练 并避免受伤这都是你身体应有的权利
We’re gonna find out how to train smarter and stay injury free. I mean it’s all physics right.

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视频概述

本视频介绍了一些肌肉相关的生理常识,肌肉是怎样工作的?怎么才能更强壮?想知道的话就来看一看吧~

听录译者

Emma

翻译译者

懿曌

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=94Q-fvCAJzQ

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