未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

最神秘和古老的世界建筑

Most MYSTERIOUS Ancient Structures In The World!

Hi everyone, it’s Katrina.
大家好 我是卡翠娜
From a city built on a coral reef
从建在珊瑚礁上的城市
to ruins that may tell us the secrets of humanity,
到诉说人类秘密的废墟
here are 8 of the most mysterious ancient structures in the world.
以下是八个世界上最神秘的古建筑
《解说起源》
8. Nan Madol
第八 南马都尔
Off the coast of the island of Pohnpei in Micronesia
南马都尔古城遗迹坐落于
stand the ruins of the ancient city of Nan Madol.
密克罗尼西亚的波纳佩岛沿海附近
That’s Pohnpei, not Pompeii. Just in case.
以防误解 说的是波纳佩 不是庞贝
The only ancient city ever built entirely on a coral reef,
这是唯一整座建于珊瑚礁上的古城
the city is made up of almost 100 artificial islands
由100个珊瑚和石头构成的
made of coral fill and stone,
人工岛屿组成
separated by narrow canals and protected by an outer seawall.
由狭窄的运河隔开 外围还环绕着防波堤
Like Easter Island, this place is an engineering marvel!
就像复活节岛 这片地方是个工程奇迹!
The name Nan Madol means “the space between”
南马都尔之名的意思是“环绕此间”
and refers to the canals that cut through the ruins.
指的是穿过遗迹的一条条运河
The megalithic structures are estimated to have been built
据估计 这座巨石建筑建于
in between the 12th and 13th century,
12至13世纪之间
about the same time as the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris.
和巴黎圣母院建造的时间差不多
The entire city covers an area of about 75 hectares
整座古城的占地面积约为75公顷
and features walls built of columnar basalt.
装饰外墙由柱状玄武岩建成
The walls are up to 15 meters tall and 5 meters thick.
城墙高达15米 厚达5米
The average weight of each individual stone is almost 5 tons,
每块石头的平均重量几乎达到了5吨
but some weigh as much as 50 tons.
但有些石头则重达50吨
Amazingly, the total weight of the stone used to build the city
令人惊讶的是 建造这座古城所用的石块
is estimated to be about 750,000 metric tons.
据估计 总重量约75万公吨
The building of such structures must have taken a herculean effort,
建造一座这样的古城势必付诸了巨大的努力
but nobody really knows when it was built,
但依然无人知晓的是 它于何时建成
how the massive rocks that were used in the construction
如何将工程所需的巨大石块
were transported to the city,
运入城中
or where those rocks came from in the first place!
或这些石块最初来自哪里!
Why it was built on the reef,
它为何而建于珊瑚礁之上
separated from the actual land of the island, is also a mystery.
与实际的岛屿陆地隔开 也依然成谜
7. Teotihuacan
第七 特奥蒂瓦坎
Before Europeans came to North America,
在欧洲人来到北美之前
an unknown culture arose in central Mexico
墨西哥中部兴起了一种不为人知的文化
and built a grand city that
他们建造了一座巨城
we have come to know as Teotihuacan.
也就是我们所说的特奥蒂瓦坎
In its heyday,
在鼎盛时期
it was a city that covered 20 square kilometers
这座城市占地20平方公里
and was home to 200,000 people,
有20万人在此定居
all of them in carefully constructed and delineated neighborhoods
这些居民都聚居在精心建造和划分的社区中
where people were grouped according to the crafts that they constructed.
根据他们各自的手艺职业来分组聚居
The Teotihuacanos, as the mysterious residents have been called,
曾被称为特奥蒂瓦坎人的神秘居民
left no written records,
没有留下任何文字记载
and their city predated the Aztecs by as much as 1000 years.
而他们的城市比阿兹特克要早1000年
The city was marked with pyramids, one of which,
这座城市以金字塔为标记
the Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent,
其中有一个羽蛇神金字塔
was found to contain the bodies of over 100 human sacrifices.
在里面发现了100多具活人祭祀的尸体
The city collapsed and was abandoned,
这座城市崩然倒塌 变成一片废墟
and nobody knows why.
而原因无人知晓
We don’t even know who built the city,
我们甚至连这座城市由谁而建
or what it was actually called.
或它真名都不知道
The name Teotihuacan (“the place where the gods were created”)
特奥蒂瓦坎(“上帝创造的地方”)这个名字
was given to the city by the Aztecs,
是阿兹特克人取的
who found the city already in ruins when they entered the area.
他们在进入这片区域时 发现这座城市已然成为废墟
In its day, Teotihuacan was the largest city in the western hemisphere,
当时 特奥蒂瓦坎是西半球最大的城市
but by 550 AD it was a ghost town.
但到了公元550年 它成了一座废都
Where did everybody go?
所有人都去哪儿了?
And now for number 6, but first be sure to subscribe
在说第六个之前 如果你刚刚看到这个视频
and click the notification bell if you are new here! We’d love to have you.
首先请订阅频道 并点击提醒按钮哦!欢迎你来收看
6. Puma Punku
第六 普玛彭古
The massive ancient city of Tiwanaku in Bolivia is dominated by
位于玻利维亚的巨大古城蒂亚瓦纳科 被一座名为
a temple complex called Puma Punku
普玛彭古的大型庙宇所占据
that has puzzled archaeologists for decades.
几十年来一直困扰着考古学家
The city was already standing
当印加人在1470年迁居此地时
when the Inca moved into the region in 1470,
这座城市已经屹立于此了
although it was completely abandoned.
虽然在当时完全是废弃状态
The stone buildings of Puma Punku
普玛彭谷石头建筑
(an Incan name, since we have no idea what the original inhabitants called it)
(这是印加名字 因为我们不知道原住民的叫法)
are built with massive stone blocks
由巨大的石块建成
that were so exquisitely shaped and fitted
每一块都精雕细琢且严丝合缝
that even today you can’t fit a knife blade between the blocks.
即使到了今天 两块石头间也插不进一把刀片
Even more curious, none of these obviously man-made blocks
更奇怪的是 这些明显的人造石块
show any sort of chisel marks
没有任何人工开凿的痕迹
or other signs indicating how they were constructed.
也没有任何显示建造的痕迹
Like with Teotihuacan, nobody really knows who built Puma Punku,
和特奥蒂瓦坎一样 没人知道谁建造了普玛彭谷
and even its age is a matter of debate.
甚至连其存在时间也依然存疑
Some scholars say that
某些学者认为
the buildings date back to about 500BC,
该建筑可以追溯到公元前500年
but others believe that the city is much, much older.
但其他学者则认为 这古城的历史远比这更悠久
What is known is that the buildings
而为人所知的是
were built as ancient observatories.
这座建筑是作为古天文台而建造的
On the equinoxes, the sun rises directly above the center of the temple,
在春分或秋分日 太阳会从寺庙的正上方升起
visible through and perfectly framed by stone archways.
透过石拱门 可以看到一幅完美的构图
On the summer and winter solstices,
在夏至和冬至时
the researchers thought the sun would rise over the cornerstones,
研究人员以为太阳会从基石上方升起
but the sunrise is actually over a different point.
但是实际上 太阳从另一个地方升起
It’s odd that a culture capable of such feats of accuracy
很奇怪的是 有能力做到如此精确性的文化
would have failed to mark
却没能标明
two of the most important dates on the ancient calendar,
古代日历上最重要的两个日子
but if you take into account
但如果你考虑到
where the sunrise would have been 17,000 years ago,
17000年前的日出地点
the cornerstones are in perfect alignment.
会发现基石的排列无比整齐
This seems to indicate a much more ancient origin for the city.
这似乎表明 这座城市有着更古老的起源
Who built it? And how?
它是谁建造的?又是如何建造的?
Your guess is as good as mine!
谁也说不准!
5. Ggantija, Malta
第五 马耳他的詹蒂亚神庙
On the Mediterranean island of Gozo,
在地中海戈佐岛
one of the islands of Malta,
即马耳他的一座岛屿上
stands a megalithic temple complex
矗立着一片比埃及金字塔
that predates the pyramids of Egypt.
更为古老的巨石神庙群
The two towers were built during the Neolithic Age,
两座庙宇建于新石器时代
between 3600 and 2500 BC.
在公元前3600年至2500年之间
They are the second-oldest manmade religious structures in the world.
它们是世界上第二古老的人造宗教建筑
Number one is coming up so stay tuned!
第一古老的建筑马上到来 继续看下去哦!
The temples appear to have been built to honor fertility deities.
这些寺庙似乎是为了纪念生育神而建造的
There have been many figurines and other artifacts found on the site
在遗迹处 发现了大量和生育崇拜有关的
that are associated with fertility cults.
小雕像和相关文物
According to local folklore, they were built by a giantess,
根据当地的民间传说 寺庙是由一个女巨人建造的
but the true builders are unknown.
不过 真正的建造者还不得而知
The Ggantija complex includes two complete temples
詹蒂亚神庙包括两座完整的寺庙
and a third that was never finished.
以及从未完工的第三座寺庙
They face the equinox sunrise
它们面对着春秋分日的日出
and are enclosed inside a boundary wall,
并被封闭在外墙内
setting them apart from the daily lives of the people who worshipped there.
将它们与前来朝拜的人们的日常生活分隔开
The temples were built in a clover-leaf shape,
庙宇呈三叶草形
with semi-circular apses connected with a long central passage.
有一个半圆形的壁龛 连接着一条长长的通道
The walls were covered with plaster, some of which can still be seen.
墙上覆盖着灰泥 其中一些至今仍能看见
The largest temple is the one furthest to the south,
最南边的那座庙宇面积最大
and it’s also the most complete.
同时也最为完整
It stands 6 meters tall and includes multiple altars
它高达6米 内里有多个祭坛
and huge stone block with a carved recess,
以及凿出凹室的巨大石块
which might have been used as a place of ritual ablution, or purifying baths.
可能是用于宗教洗礼或净化浴的地方
Based upon the sheer volume of animal bone that has been found on the site,
根据在遗迹发现的大量兽骨来看
it’s conjectured that the temple was used as a site of animal sacrifice.
人们推测 这座神庙是用于牲畜祭祀的场所
These temples were built at a time
这些庙宇是在
when the wheel had not yet been introduced to Malta,
动轮还未传入马耳他时建造的
and when there were no metal tools available to the islanders.
当时 岛上居民也没有可用的金属工具
Researchers have found many small, spherical stones,
研究人员找到了很多小小的球形石头
which they think were used like ball bearings
他们认为 这些石头是被当成
to help transport the huge stones.
滚珠轴承来搬运大石块的
4. Stonehenge
第四 巨石阵
The Salisbury Plain in England is home to
在英格兰的索尔兹伯里平原上
possibly the most famous mysterious megalithic structure in the world,
坐落着一座可能是世界上最著名的神秘巨石建筑
so of course, I had to mention it!
所以当然啦 我必须提到它!
Stonehenge was built from 3000 BC to 2000 BC,
巨石阵建于公元前3000年到公元前2000年
constructed in a series of stages.
分好几个阶段建成
The site currently consists of a ring of standing stones,
目前 该遗迹由一圈立石组成
each stone at least 4 meters tall,
每块立石至少有4米高
2.1 meters wide, and weighing around 25 tons.
2.1米宽 重量在25吨左右
These stones are set inside a circular earthen bank and ditch,
这些石块被安置在一个环形的土堤和道沟中
which might date back to 3100 BC.
这可以追溯到公元前3100年
The standing stones were made of bluestone
这些立石 由取自普雷塞利丘陵的
taken from the Preseli Hills,
胆矾加工而成
which lie about 250 kilometers away in Wales.
而普雷塞利位于威尔士 距此处约250公里
How were the stones brought?
石头是如何运过来的呢?
How were they erected?
又是如何立起来的呢?
That’s only part of the mystery.
那只是未解之谜的一部分
Like many other Neolithic monuments,
和许多其他新石器时代遗迹一样
Stonehenge is a kind of ancient observatory,
巨石阵是一种古老的天文台
with the great trilithons aligning with the sunrise on the summer solstice
在夏至时 宏伟的巨石阵会和日出连成一线
and with the sunset at the winter solstice.
而在冬至时 则和落日连成一线
Apart from its astronomical uses,
除了作为天文用途
the site was also probably used as a burial ground
该遗迹似乎也是墓地和
and a religious gathering area of sorts.
各种宗教的聚集区
Deposits of human remains have been found dating back to
人们在那里发现了可以追溯到
the very earliest stages of the monument’s construction,
遗迹最初建造阶段的人体遗骸
and it has been determined that
可以确定的是
burials continued at the site for nearly 500 years.
遗迹的墓葬已存在了将近500年
It was long believed that
长久以来 人们都认为
Stonehenge was built by the Celtic Druids,
巨石阵是由信奉德鲁伊教的凯尔特人建造的
and certainly modern-day Druids have laid claim to the place.
当然 现代的德鲁伊们宣称自己拥有该地的主权
It’s now thought that the monument was built by
如今 人们认为该遗迹是由
three different groups of ancient people,
三个不同的古代群体建造的
each one using a different construction style and process,
每个群体都使用了不同的建造风格和过程
all of whom pre-date the arrival of the Celts in Britain.
而他们都比凯尔特人率先进入英国
3. Newgrange
第三 纽格莱奇墓
Another Neolithic site, with important astrological alignment,
位于爱尔兰博因宫的纽格莱奇墓也是新石器时代的遗迹
can be found at Newgrange in Ireland’s Boyne Valley.
该地能看见重要的星阵对齐现象
Older than Stonehenge and the Great Pyramids of Giza,
纽格莱奇墓比巨石阵和胡夫金字塔更为古老
Newgrange was originally believed to be a tomb,
最初被认为是一处坟墓
but it’s actually a temple complex that was built by Stone Age farmers
但实际上 这是由石器时代的农民们于5200多年前
more than 5,200 years ago.
建造的一座神庙
Newgrange is a large mound that is 85 meters in diameter
纽格莱奇墓是一片大土丘 直径为85米
and 13.5 meters high, covering about one acre of land.
高度为13.5米 占地约1英亩
It is ringed and held in place by a retaining wall of some 97 kerbstones.
它被97块镶边石组成的护墙所环绕和固定
Some of these stones are highly decorated with carvings,
某些石头上有大量雕刻
often with spirals or whorls.
通常是螺旋形或涡形
There is one doorway into the mound,
有一处通向土丘的入口
which leads to a passageway that extends more than 19 meters
入口内有一条长19米多的通道
into the man-made hill.
建在一座人造山内
The passage leads to a room with three alcoves,
这条通道通向一个有三个凹室的房间
and the chamber and the passage
在冬至时 日出会正好
are aligned with sunrise on the Winter Solstice.
照在墓室和通道上
Newgrange is just one of a series of structures
纽格莱奇墓只是沿着博因河
built along the River Boyne,
建造的一系列建筑之一
making up a complex known collectively as Brú na Bóinne.
这一系列建筑群被统称为博因宫
There are as many as 35 other smaller mounds in the complex, as well.
在这个建筑群中 还有多达35个其他更小的土丘
2. Skara Brae
第二 斯卡拉布雷
Located on the windy Orkney Islands of northern Scotland
在苏格兰北部多风的奥克尼群岛上
stands the Neolithic settlement known as Skara Brae.
坐落着名为斯卡拉布雷的新石器时代遗迹
The most complete Neolithic village in Europe,
作为欧洲最完整的新石器时代村落
Skara Brae was probably occupied between 3180 BC and 2500 BC.
斯卡拉布雷可能在公元前3180年到公元前2500年间为人占据
The site consists of eight clustered houses,
该遗迹有8所群居的房子
which were sunk into the mounds called middens,
底部沉在一片叫做贝冢的土堆里
which were made up of domestic waste.
通常堆积着很多家庭垃圾
The middens provided stability for the walls and shelter
贝冢为屋墙和庇护所提供了稳定的屏障
from the brutal winds that scour the islands.
免受肆虐岛屿的狂风侵袭
Each house is about 40 square meters,
每个屋子的面积大约是40平方米
with a large square room holding a stone hearth
有一个很大的方形房间
that was used for heating and cooking.
里面有个用来取暖和烹饪的火塘
Seven of the eight buildings have stone-built furnishings,
其中7间石屋的家具都是石头做的
including cupboards, dressers, seats, beds and storage boxes.
包括橱柜 梳妆台 座椅 床和储物柜
It’s like the real life flintstones!
很像真人版的《摩登原始人》!
The beds and dressers are in the same place in every house.
每间屋子的床和梳妆台位置都一模一样
Each house had a stone slab door
每间屋子都有一扇石板门
that could be closed with a sliding bar,
可以通过滑动杆来关闭
and there was a sophisticated drainage system,
同时 还有一个复杂的排水系统
and each house had its own toilet!
每间屋子都有独立的厕所!
The eighth building was not a house and was not sunk into a midden.
第8间石屋并不是居所 也没有沉在贝冢内
Instead, it seems to have been a sort of workshop,
而这间屋子可能是一间工作室
with the space divided into small cubicles
整体被分成了几间小隔间
where fragments of stone, bone and antler were found.
在里面还发现了石头 骨头和鹿茸的碎片
The people who lived at Skara Brae were not,
住在斯卡拉布雷的人
as some wild-eyed folk have fantasized,
并不像某些狂热分子幻想的那样
an enclave of philosophers and spiritual teachers
是一群研究星象和神秘事物的
who studied the stars and other esoterica.
哲学家和灵性导师
Instead, they were pastoralists,
相反 他们是一群牧民
meaning that they were settled herders
也就是说他们是定居的牧人
who lived and died according to the welfare of their flocks.
他们以牛羊放牧为生
When the climate changed in 2500 BC,
在公元前2500年 气候开始变化
the residents abandoned their cold and rocky settlement
居民们放弃了冷冰冰的石屋居所
and moved south, where the grazing was better.
向牧场更肥沃的南方迁移
The village was gradually covered over by sand and lost
这片村落逐渐被沙尘覆盖并埋没
until it was revealed by a blistering storm in 1850.
直到1850年才因一场猛烈的风暴重现人间
1. Göbekli Tepe
第一 哥贝克力石阵
Its name is Turkish for “potbelly hill,”
这个名字是土耳其语 意为“大肚山”
and it’s the most recently found ancient structure on this list.
这是本视频中提到的所有古建筑中 最新发现的一个
Found on the plains of Anatolia, Göbekli Tepe is a man made hill,
哥贝克力石阵位于安纳托利亚平原 是一座人造山
standing about 15 meters tall,
高度约为15米
and about 300 meters in diameter.
直径约为300米
Who cares?
谁在乎呢?
Well It’s about 11,000 years old,
作为世界上最古老的庙宇建筑
making it the oldest temple structure in the world.
它已经有11000年的历史了
The temple was built in two phases.
这座庙宇分两个阶段建造
During the first phase,
在第一阶段
more than 200 pillars in about 20 circles were erected.
200多根柱子被竖立在了20个环圈中
Each pillar is about 6 meters tall and weighs up to 10 tons.
每根柱子高约6米 重达10吨
They are fitted into sockets that were dug into the bedrock.
它们被安装在掘进基岩的凹槽中
The second phase saw smaller pillars that were set up in
在第二阶段 小一些的柱子被安装在
rectangular rooms that had floors polished with lime.
一个矩形的房间内 房间的地板用石灰抛过光
The site was abandoned in the Neolithic era
该遗迹在新石器时代就废弃了
for reasons that remain a mystery.
而原因依然成谜
The site was excavated by a German archaeological team
该遗迹是由克劳斯·施密特领导的德国考古队
directed by Klaus Schmidt from 1996 until he passed away in 2014.
从1996年开始挖掘的 直到他于2014年去世
Schmidt compared the site to a cathedral,
施密特将该遗迹比作一间大教堂
believing that it was a place where
他认为这里是
people intermittently gathered for religious reasons.
人们出于宗教原因而间歇性聚集的地方
The site was a place of pilgrimage for people
远在150公里外的
coming from as far away as 150 kilometers.
人们会到这里来朝圣
The remnants of butchered and cooked animal waste have been found,
这里还发现了屠宰和烹煮的动物尸体残留
indicating food that was prepared for large numbers of people.
表明这里曾为很多人准备过食物
Although there have been no graves yet found at the site,
虽然该遗迹没有发现任何坟墓
Schmidt was convinced that
施密特依然确信
Göbekli Tepe was a central location for a cult of the dead.
哥贝克力石阵是死亡崇拜的中心地点
The 2017 discovery of human skulls with deliberate incisions
2017年发现的带有人为切口的人头骨
might support that theory.
也许能支持那个理论
There are more questions than answers about Göbekli Tepe,
关于哥贝克力石阵 还有更多的问题有待寻找答案
because only 5% of the site has been excavated.
毕竟该遗迹仅被发掘了5%而已
What is certain is that, since it is so old,
可以确定的是 因为它如此古老
the site may be a window into the way
该遗迹可能是一扇窗口
that mankind first developed its concept of religion,
可以了解人类最早发展出宗教观念的方式
making Göbekli Tepe one of the most important
这让哥贝克力石阵成为了迄今为止发现的
early human monuments ever found.
最重要的早期人类遗迹之一
Thanks for watching!
谢谢收看!
What did you think of these sites?
你对这些遗迹有什么看法?
Have you been to any of them,
你去过这些地方吗
and do you have any theories about these unanswered questions?
对于这些悬而未决的问题 你有什么看法吗?
Let me know in the comments below. Remember to subscribe!
请在下面的评论中留言 记得要订阅哦!
And I’ll see you soon! Bye!
下次再见!拜拜!

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

介绍世界上八个最为古老和神秘的遗迹

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Lauraaaaaa

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=83Knw8LuTS0

相关推荐