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蒙台梭利教学法

Montessori School Education

Montessori Education is based on the principles
蒙台梭利教学法基于
developed by Maria Montessori,
玛丽亚·蒙台梭利提出的教育理念
who opened her first school for children of low-income workers
1907年她在罗马的一间公寓内
in an apartment building in Rome in 1907.
为低收入工人的孩子开办了第一所学校
The school was called “Casa dei Bambini”, Home for Children.
这所学校被称为“儿童之家”
This first “Casa” was furnished with a teachers table,
第一个“儿童之家”配有一个讲台
a stove, a blackboard,
一个炉子 一块黑板
some chairs, group tables for the children
一些孩子们的桌椅
and a cabinet filled with materials
以及一个装满教具的柜子
that Montessori developed in her earlier career when she researched
这些教具是蒙台梭利在早期
how to teach kids who experience some form of mental disability.
研究如何教智障儿童的时候发明的
Maria Montessori created the materials after she realized that
在意识到调用不同的感官
students seem to understand complex concepts better
有助于孩子们更好地理解复杂的概念之后
when they engaged all their senses.
蒙台梭利制作了这些教具
Activities at this first school
第一所学校里的活动
included personal care, such as dressing and undressing,
包括个人护理 比如穿衣和脱衣
care of the environment like sweeping, dusting and gardening.
爱护环境 比如打扫 除尘和园艺
Otherwise they were free to move around and play with the materials.
其他时间他们可以自由活动并拿着教具玩耍
Montessori did not teach herself
蒙台梭利自己不讲课
but instead oversaw the classroom work of her teachers.
但是她会监督老师们的课堂工作
Montessori observed that
蒙特梭利发现对于同一个活动
children showed episodes of deep concentration and multiple repetitions
孩子们有时注意力会非常集中
of the same activity.
而且愿意不停重复
Given free choice,
允许他们自由选择的话
kids showed more interest in practical activities and the materials
相比于普通的玩具 糖果和其他奖励
than normal toys, sweets or other rewards.
孩子们更喜欢实践活动和教具
Over time spontaneous self-discipline emerged.
久而久之 孩子们会自发变得自律
Montessori concluded that working independently
蒙台梭利得出的结论是
children seemed to reach new levels of autonomy
独立学习可以培养孩子们的自主性
and become self motivated learners.
并让他们成为主动学习的学生
She began to see the role of the teacher as a facilitator
她开始把教师角色定位为一个引导者
of young human beings who are free to move and act
引导在已经准备好的环境中
within the limits of a prepared environment.
可以自由活动的儿童
The goal: to grow children to become
教育的目标是使孩子们变成
independent and responsible adults who share a love for learning.
独立负责 热爱学习的成年人
Soon after, Montessori herself and her ideas
不久 蒙台梭利和她的理念
started travelling the world,
在全世界广泛传播
to inspired progressive thinkers and educators from all over.
影响了世界各地进步思想家和教育家
The inventors, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison,
发明家亚历山大·格雷厄姆·贝尔和托马斯·爱迪生
became early advocates.
成为早期的支持者
Later alumni include Jimmy Wales from Wikipedia,
后来的支持者包括维基百科的吉米·威尔士
author Gabriel Garcia Marquez
作家加布里埃尔·加西亚·马尔克斯
as well as the two Google founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin.
以及谷歌的两位创始人拉里·佩琪和谢尔盖·布林
Today the term “ Montessori ” stands more for a method,
如今的蒙台梭利一词更多地代表一类教学方法
than a school itself.
而不仅仅是学校
The fact that it can be used freely by anyone
这种教学方法可以让人们自由应用
led to a great variation of schools.
所以诞生了很多类型的学校
Educators all over the world
世界各地教育工作者
borrow Montessori’s name, insights and materials
借用蒙台梭利的名义 理念和教具
to organize kindergartens, elementary schools,
创办了幼儿园 小学
special needs programs, or even full 12 year curriculums.
特殊需求项目 甚至是12学年制课程
Some parents use it for homeschooling.
一些父母将其用于家庭教育
The following characteristics are shared among most programs:
大多数项目都具有以下特征
– Students are free to choose what to learn
学生可以自由选择学习内容
– Open classrooms that allow free movement
允许自由活动的开放式的课堂
– Use of specialised Montessori materials
使用专门的蒙台梭利教具
– Mixed age classes (from 0-3, 3-6 or 6-12)
混合年龄段课堂(0-3 3-6或6-12岁)
so children can learn from each other
这样一来孩子们可以互相学习
– Uninterrupted blocks of study time, usually three hours
无打扰的学习时间 一般是三个小时
– No grading or homework
没有成绩排名和作业
and a trained teacher.
一名训练有素的老师
Maria Montessori once famously said:
玛利亚·蒙特梭利有一句名言
“Never help a child with a task
“如果孩子觉得这是他自己能完成的事情
at which he feels he can succeed. ”
就千万不要帮他做”
What are your thoughts on Montessori?
你对蒙台梭利教学法有什么看法呢?
Please share your opinions in the comments below!
请在下方的评论区分享你的观点吧!

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视频概述

本视频介绍了蒙台梭利教学方法的发展历史以及核心理念

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UzmvtVAuuyI

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