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艺术佳作欣赏之《蒙娜丽莎》

Mona Lisa (Full Length) by Leonardo da Vinci: Great Art Explained

Some people are disappointed
第一次看《蒙娜丽莎》时
when they first see the most famous painting in the world.
很多人感到很失望
At first glance it doesn’t have the wow factor that
它并不像卢浮宫里的其它作品一样
other paintings in the Louvre have.
第一眼就抓人眼球
It lacks drama.
《蒙娜丽莎》缺乏戏剧感
But if we can ignore the hundreds of people that surround her,
但如果我们能无视成百上千的围观者
if we can turn down the volume and just push the off button for a second.
如果能一键静音 暂时将人群消除
What we actually see is a quiet – contemplative painting.
我们将看到一幅宁静且深遂的作品
The greatest psychological portrait ever painted.
它是有史以来最棒的心理学人像
A portrait so ahead of its time that centuries later,
如此前卫和领先于那个时代
we are still trying to figure it out.
时至今日我们仍在探究其中奥义
The Mona Lisa however is not just the most famous painting in the world,
但《蒙娜丽莎》不仅是闻名世界的神作
it is also the source of innumerable myths legends and supposition.
还是无数神话传说和猜想的源泉
艺术杰作赏析
最后的日子
In 1516, the 22 year old french king
1516年 22岁的法国国王
Francis the first offered leonardo a job,
弗朗索瓦一世交给达芬奇一个任务
court painter, engineer and architect to the king.
帮他招募画家 工程师和建筑师
Leonardo, now in his sixties,
此时已六旬高龄的达芬奇
moved to the château d’Amboise in France,
搬进了法国的昂布瓦斯城堡
and never went back to Italy.
从此再也没回意大利
The young king and Leonardo would form a deep friendship
这位年轻的国王将和达芬奇建立深厚友谊
and the artist was given the king’s royal summer home Close Lucé
国王将夏宫克洛吕斯城堡赐给达芬奇
where he lived for the last three years of his life
达芬奇在那里度过了人生的最后三年
– doing what he loved best, learning and creating.
他不断学习和创作 做着自己喜欢的事
He worked on architectural plans for a royal residence in central France,
他曾为一个法国中部的皇家建筑做设计
and one of his masterpieces of this period is the double helix stairway at Chambord.
此阶段代表作要数香波城堡的双螺旋楼梯
He brought dozens of notebooks like these with him to France,
达芬奇带了好几打这样的笔记本到法国
but he also brought the Mona Lisa.
也带着《蒙娜丽莎》
Leonardo knew how important it was,
因为他知道这副画很重要
he knew it was a masterpiece
这是一幅伟大的作品
– and he would continue to work on the painting
他也将继续完善这幅画
until his death in 1519.
直到他在1519年离世
Mona Lisa is the end product of the greatest inquisitive mind in history.
《蒙娜丽莎》是这位好学的大师最后的作品
Leonardo anticipated theories by both Galileo and Newton.
伽利略和牛顿的理论在达芬奇的笔记中早有提及
His anatomical drawings are unparalleled
而他在解剖学和植物学上
as are his botanical studies.
也有同样杰出的研究成果
His treatise on painting explored radical new ideas
他的绘画论著提出了很多激进的新观点
– as we shall see.
正如我们所见
He designed war machines,
他设计了很多战争器械
he used fossils to disprove biblical accounts of the flood,
他用化石驳斥圣经上对洪水的解释
and he had the skill to open the still-beating heart of a pig
他能解剖开还在跳动的猪心
to explain how ventricles work.
只为研究心室的运作原理
He was a man for whom science and art are complementary,
对他而言 艺术和科学是互补的
rather than distinct disciplines.
而不是两个截然不同的学科
He believed that ideas formulated in one realm could
他认为在一个领域提出的观点可以
– and should, inform the other.
并且应该给其它领域提供有用的信息
He would take all his scientific knowledge
达芬奇在《蒙娜丽莎》里倾注了
and apply it to the Mona Lisa,
所有他所学到的科学知识
a portrait of an ordinary woman
他将一个普通女人的画像
that he would transform into a myth.
变成了近乎神话的传奇作品
蒙娜丽莎是谁?
Often called “the first art historian”
常被称作“第一艺术史学家”的
Giorgio Vasari published his book about
乔尔乔·瓦萨里在1550年出了一本书
the Renaissance artists in 1550, and in it,
在这本关于文艺复兴艺术家的书中
he wrote the very first account of the painting,
他最早对《蒙娜丽莎》这幅画做出了解读
“Leonardo undertook to execute for Francesco del Giacondo,
书中说达芬奇答应弗朗切斯科·德焦孔多
the portrait of Mona Lisa – his wife”.
为他的妻子蒙娜丽莎画一幅人像
There has always been a dispute about Mona Lisa’s true identity.
蒙娜丽莎的真实身份一直存在争议
But in 2005 a German scholar found a handwritten comment
直到2005年 有一个德国学者
in the margins of a 15th century book
找到一本15世纪的古书
in Heidelberg university’s library.
在书的空白处有一条手写的评论
It was dated october 1503
标注的日期是1503年十月
and was by Agostini Vespucci,
署名是奥古斯蒂诺·韦斯普奇
the secretary of Nicolo Machiavelli,
他是意大利外交官马基雅弗利的秘书
the writer of “The Prince”
马基雅弗利是《君主论》的作者
and a good friend of Leonardo.
也是达芬奇的好友
Vespucci notes that
韦斯普奇在评论里写道
“Leonardo was painting a portrait of Lisa del Giacondo”.
达芬奇当时正为丽莎·德焦孔多画人像画
This is an eyewitness account
这是一条目击者的直述
that firmly establishes not only the identity of Mona Lisa
不仅确认了蒙娜丽莎的身份
but also the date when leonardo was working on the portrait.
也表明了达芬奇绘制这幅画的具体时间
Lisa Gherardini married Francesco del Giacondo in 1495.
1495年 丽莎·盖拉蒂妮年仅15岁
She was 15 and he was 30.
嫁给了30岁的弗朗切斯科·德焦孔多
Francesco was a nouveau riche silk merchant.
弗朗切斯科是陡然暴富的丝绸商人
AndLisa was from an old noble family – with no money.
而丽莎则是来自一个落魄的旧贵族家庭
She had five children with him and lived a long, and it seems happy life.
她有五个孩子 丽莎很长寿 貌似很幸福
One of the great mysteries is why Leonardo, who was used to painting for royalty and Popes,
但为何一直为皇室和教皇画画的达芬奇
painted the wife of a bourgeois merchant?
会给一个资产阶级的富商之妻画像呢
Family connections
答案是家族关系 达芬奇的父亲
– Leonardo’s father Ser Pierro da Vinci was Francesco’s lawyer,
西尔·皮埃诺·达芬奇是弗朗切斯科的律师
and it was probably pressure from his father
大概是来自父亲的压力
that made Leonardo take on such a small commission.
让达芬奇承接了这么一个微不足道的委托
But i think Leonardo painted her because he wanted to paint a relatively ordinary woman,
但我觉得达芬奇本来就想画个普通点的女性
to try out new ideas without the fear of interference.
可以不受外界干扰 恣意的尝试和创新
It gave him the unusual opportunity
这给了达芬奇一次非同寻常的机会
to put all he knew about science and poetry of painting
让他可以把所有科学和绘画艺术的知识
into the commission.
全部加入这幅画中
Mona lisa would become a vehicle for all that he knew.
《蒙娜丽莎》将成为他传达毕生所学的媒介
This high resolution scan taken by
技术专家帕斯卡·柯特在2004年
art technician Pascal Cotte in 2004,
对《蒙娜丽莎》进行了高分辨率扫描
revealed that there is a similar sketch underneath,
揭示了在画的底层还有一幅相似的素描
reconstructed here as to how it might look.
重构后大概就是这个样子
The pose looks the same,
姿势与原作完全相同
and it is quite possible that this is the face of the real Mona Lisa.
这极有可能是蒙娜丽莎的原貌
Leonardo worked on the painting for 16 years.
这幅画达芬奇画了16年
Knowing that it is Lisa del Giacondo
知道画中人是丽莎·德焦孔多之后
gives us more information to work with.
我们就有了更多信息来研究
One example is, because we have Francesco’s will,
例如我们知道弗朗切斯科要求作画的意愿
we know that Lisa owned a large amount of jewelry,
我们知道丽莎拥有大量的珠宝首饰
that is not shown in the painting and that
本应出现在画中 但实际上并没有
– as we shall see – is significant.
这一点非常重要
We can be sure that the mona lisa is
我们能确定蒙娜丽莎就是
Lisa del Giocondo from Florence.
佛罗伦萨的丽莎·德焦孔多
绘画技巧
To say that aspects of the Mona Lisa
如果有人说这只是一个巧合
are just “happy accidents” that he just painted
他就只是想画成这样罢了
and hoped for the best is to deny all the evidence
那真的是对达芬奇一生心血的否定
of a lifetime spent experimenting with techniques,
他穷尽一生尝试各种技术
dissecting human bodies,
解剖人体结构
and collecting scientific and geological data.
并且不断搜集科学和生理学资料用于画作
For a painting with such a huge impact
对于这样一幅极具影响力的作品来说
it is surprisingly small at 77 by 53 centimeters
77厘米×53厘米的画布实在太小
or 30 inches by 21.
也就是30英寸×21英寸
画在什么上?
For Mona Lisa Leonardo used a thin grain of poplar tree
《蒙娜丽莎》是画在细纹理的白杨木上的
and applied an undercoat of leadwhite,
涂了一层铅白色的底涂
rather than just a mix of chalk and pigment.
并没有用颜料和白垩粉的混合涂料
He wanted a reflective base.
因为他想要一个带反光的底面
Leonardo painted with semi-transparent glazes
达芬奇用了半透明的釉彩作这幅画
that had a very small amount of pigment mixed with the oil,
这种釉彩是在油中混入很少量的颜料
so how dark you wanted your glaze to be,
所以釉彩的颜色深浅
depends on how much pigment you use.
取决于颜料量的多少
He used more like a “wash”,
他用了“刷色”的方法
which he applied thin – layer by layer.
薄薄的一层又一层
Here you can see two colours of contrast – light and dark.
现在你能看到两种对比色 一深一浅
When you apply thin glaze over both of them
当你给两种颜色刷上薄薄的一层釉彩后
you can see it starts to unify the contrast
你会发现色差逐渐变小
but also brings depth and luminosity
但深度和光度变强
The lead white undercoat reflects the light back through the glazes,
铅白底涂会将光透过釉彩反射出来
giving the picture more depth and in essence,
给画增添了一些深度
lighting Mona Lisa from within.
还能从内部照亮《蒙娜丽莎》
As we move around the painting
因此随着我们观看角度的变化
that light shifts around.
这些反射的光线也随之改变
图层
This microscopic cross section is taken from another Leonardo painting.
这张图是达芬奇另一幅画的微观横截面
The first layer is the lead white ground.
第一层是铅白铺底
Layer two is known as “Imprimatura”.
第二层则被称作“色底”
This layer gives the painting a transparent toned ground
这层色底给了油画一个透明的底面
which will allow light falling onto the painting to reflect through the paint layers.
使光照在画上后能够反射并透过各个图层
The imprimatura became widely used during the Renaissance.
在文艺复兴时期 色底被广泛使用
Then we have a dark glaze
第三层是黑釉彩层
– and that is followed by various layers of different coloured glazes.
在这层上面还有各种不同颜色的釉彩层
Scientific analysis shows us
根据技术分析
that Leonardo used up to 30 different layers
《蒙娜丽莎》里达芬奇用了多达30个
of painted glaze on the Mona Lisa, applied so thinly
不同颜色的釉彩层 每一层都极薄
that it only totals 40 micrometers of paint!
全部叠起来厚度一共竟然才40微米
That’s half the width of a human hair.
也就是一根头发直径的一半
All of these layers applied differently,
每个图层都是以不同方式画上去的
with varying amounts of pigments
用了不同剂量的颜料
refract the light in unique ways.
光线在每层的折射都呈现独特效果
He used tiny, almost invisible brush strokes
他用细小到几乎看不见的笔刷缓慢的画着
applied super slowly over months
耗费的时间加起来有几个月
– or in Mona Lisa’s case years.
对《蒙娜丽莎》来说这步持续了几年
By contrast on her skin
通过对比发现
the brush strokes were applied in an irregular way
皮肤处的下笔则用了一种特殊的方式
– and that makes the grain of the skin look more lifelike.
这种方式使皮肤的质感显得更加逼真
He also used the “Verdaccio” technique.
他还用了“佛罗伦萨铜绿底”的画法
We see it here on one of his unfinished works.
这里我们从他的一幅半成品中可见一斑
He would use green as a base color
他用铜绿色作为基色
to produce nuanced flesh tones.
通过细微的差别来表现不同肤色
If you look down at your own hands,
如果你低头看看自己的手
there is a surprising amount of green showing through the skin.
你会吃惊的发现皮肤带有一点这种铜绿
This infraredimage taken in 2004 by the Louvre,
卢浮宫在2004年拍摄了这张红外图
tells us a lotabout his techniques and use of paint.
让我们看到了很多达芬奇的绘画技巧
We know the Mona Lisa was meticulously created
《蒙娜丽莎》的每一笔都是精雕细琢的
– nothing was accidental.
没有一笔是意外或巧合
A technique he pioneered is “Chiaroscuro”,
达芬奇是“明暗对比法”的鼻祖
where he contrast prominent shades of light and dark
他增强了阴影的明暗对比
to create the illusion of three-dimensional forms.
来达到一种视觉上的三维效果
Along with this, Leonardo used the “Sfumato” technique,
此外达芬奇还用一种叫“晕涂法”的技巧
which he is credited as inventing.
这也是他最先摸索出来的
Sfumato means “smokey”
晕涂法是一种渲染技巧
and it is a blending technique
会有一种“雾蒙蒙”的感觉
for softening the transition between colours.
可以柔和的进行色彩过渡
To make sure there are no sharp, unnatural lines.
确保没有突兀和不自然的线条
The soft blending creates an ambiguous mood,
这种柔和的混色给人以模糊和朦胧的感觉
particularly around the corners of the mouth and the corners of the eyes.
在嘴角和眼角附近尤其明显
This means there are no hard edges anywhere on the Mona Lisa.
这表示《蒙娜丽莎》没有任何一处是突兀的
They are all blended in,
所有地方都是柔和过渡的
to form an ambiguous image.
因此整张画都带着朦胧的美感
You can see how the smile ends at each corner
你能看到笑容在嘴角两边逐渐弱化
– it simply tails away unresolved and open-ended.
给人以不确定感和无限遐想
We can demonstrate this with an X-ray.
这一点通过X光可以看的很清楚
If we put Raphael and Leonardo side by side,
如果我们把拉斐尔和达芬奇的画并排放
an X-ray shows us that Raphael used clearly defined edges
透过X光可以看到 拉斐尔的画轮廓清晰
whereas Leonardo’s figure disappears, as he uses none.
而达芬奇的则没有 看起来似乎模糊一片
As Leonardo wrote:
就如达芬奇写的那样
“The eye never knows the edge of any body”.
眼睛是永远看不到人身体上有明显棱角的
This makes her facial expression “blurry” or “fuzzy”,
蒙娜丽莎的表情是模糊而含蓄的
so that when we look at her,
因此我们注视她时
we perceive the expression in different ways.
对她的表情捉摸不定
This, brings her to life.
这使她显得更栩栩如生
Leonardo understood light as well as optics.
达芬奇对光线和光学的研究都非常透彻
The man who had worked out the reflection of light from the Earth to the Moon,
他研究了光线从地球到月球的反射
had also studied how ratios of light and shade hit the face
也研究了脸在不同照射角度下
according to the angle of impact.
阴影和高光的比例
And this knowledge combined with the Sfumato, the Chiaroscuro,
这些知识加上晕涂法和明暗对比法
and the glazes which affect light refraction,
以及会影响光线折射的釉彩的使用
means she constantly changes
制造了光学和感知上的奇幻
– through optical and perceptual illusion.
让蒙娜丽莎显得变幻莫测
In essence these techniques take painting one stage further.
这些技巧从本质上推动了绘画迈向新阶段
It allows us to look at a painting the way our eyes work.
让我们能按照视觉原理看一幅画
It allows “depth of field” never seen in a painting before.
让我们能从画中看到前所未有的“景深”
The best way to see how incredibly skilled Leonardo was,
如果想体会达芬奇高超的绘画技巧
is by looking at Mona Lisa’s gossamer thin veil.
最好的方法就是看蒙娜丽莎丝般轻薄的面纱
Look at it for a bit.
盯着面纱看一会儿
On her forehead we can see the dark edges of the silk veil,
我们能在额头上看到丝绸面纱的黑边
but the light of her skin shines through the translucent material.
皮肤的光泽从半透明的面纱中透射出来
But where the veil crosses the sky, it becomes darker and more visible.
但左边的面纱在天空下显得更深也更明显
He would have painted the background first
他是先画完了背景
and then used a transparent glaze to paint the veil over it.
再用透明的釉彩画上面的面纱
His representational skill is spectacular.
他具有代表性的绘画技术无比高超
But his powers of observation are uncanny.
而他敏锐的观察力近乎神奇
她穿了什么?
Actually let’s start with what she’s not wearing.
让我们从画上她缺了哪些服饰开始
When was the last time you employed a professional photographer?
你上次请一个专业摄影师是什么时候?
The answer is usually: A wedding or a prom.
答案大多是在婚礼或者舞会时
What were you wearing in your prom photo?
那舞会照片上你都穿戴了些什么呢
Your best clothes? Your best jewellery? Of course!
当然是最漂亮的衣服和最华丽的首饰
Being painted by one of the most celebrated and in demand painters of the day,
如果当世最著名最受欢迎的画家给你画像
is your chance to really “show off”
那真是个“炫富”的好机会
– and yet Mona Lisa is stripped of all the usual high status “symbols”.
但蒙娜丽莎身上却没有任何“身份标志”
Her clothes are nothing special, they tell us nothing.
她的衣服很普通 完全看不出有什么特别
Instead of the usual flamboyant, expensive outfits
对比其它委托画像里常出现的
we see in commissioned portraits,
那些浮夸昂贵的服饰
hers are pretty simple for a wealthy woman.
作为富贵人家的女人 她的服饰非常简朴
Along with the complete lack of jewellery and the simple hair,
再加上首饰全无 发型简单
they serve one purpose
这些都为传达一个目的
– and one purpose only.
只有一个目的
Leonardo made sure
那就是达芬奇希望
we would not be distracted from the face of Mona Lisa.
我们把注意力全都放在蒙娜丽莎的脸上
她的眉毛去哪了?
Let’s talk about her eyebrows, or lack thereof.
让我们谈谈她的眉毛 或者说缺失的东西
It’s not down to “fashion”.
这并不是当时的一种“时尚”
She almost certainly once had them,
几乎能确定她原来有眉毛
but over time with cleaning and restoration,
但随着时间推移 经过清扫和修复
the most delicate parts of the painting – her eyebrows and eyelashes – have disappeared.
眉毛和睫毛这两个最微妙的部分已经消失了
Copies of the painting produced by Leonardo’s own studio,
这里有几幅达芬奇工作坊的模仿画
are a good source of information
我们可以从中获取信息
on how she looked in 1503.
了解1503年《蒙娜丽莎》的样子
And here’s why.
下面我来解释一下
Leonardo had a team of about six assistants and apprentices.
达芬奇有六个助手和学徒
Workshops were training grounds for young artists
那几年里 工作坊是年轻艺术家们
to learn their craft over several years.
学习技艺的地方
And they begin by copying the masters works.
他们从模仿大师作品开始学起
It’s how Leonardo, Michelangelo
达芬奇 米开朗基罗和许多大艺术家
and other great artists learnt.
都是这样开始学起的
By copying masters – then they developed their own style.
先模仿大师 然后逐步建立起自己的风格
Multi-spectral analysis in 2004
技术专家帕斯卡·柯特在2004年
by art technician Pascal Cotte, revealed that
通过多光谱分析发现
Leonardo used a preparatory sketch
达芬奇从一个初步的素描
or a “Cartoon” to create the Mona Lisa,
或者说“底图”来创作《蒙娜丽莎》
using the “Spolvaro” technique, a similar idea to tracing.
用了一种类似复刻的“斯波瓦罗”技术
It is a technique that Renaissance artists would use
这是一种文艺复兴艺术家会用到的技术
to make lucrative copies of their paintings from an original drawing,
用来从原作上复刻出可以售卖的复制品
as well as copies for their students to work on.
也有一些复制品用来给学生学习模仿
Leonardo used the Spolvaro technique
达芬奇用这种技术
to transfer his sketches of the Mona Lisa to a wooden panel.
把《蒙娜丽莎》的草图转到一块木嵌板上
More than once. With this technique,
转移了不止一次 这种技术的具体操作是
holes are pricked along the outline of an original drawing known as a “Cartoon”
沿着原来的素描底稿的线条戳一个个小洞
and then dusted with charcoal to produce an outline ready for painting.
然后撒上木炭粉 制作出一幅新草图
The analysis shows faint traces of the charcoal drawing.
多光谱分析发现了微量木炭底稿的痕迹
It is most obvious on her hands
最明显的地方是在手上
where the scan shows us the charcoal pinpricks
通过扫描发现了孔状木炭粒
used to trace the drawing onto the wood.
这是用来复制底稿到木片上的
The same sketch would have been used as a base for his apprentice’s copies.
复制出的底稿也被学徒用来画模仿品
From these scans we also know
通过扫描我们还知道了
that as Leonardo made changes to his painting,
每当达芬奇对画做出修改时
the pupil made the same changes to his copy.
他的学生也对自己的复制品做相同修改
The logical conclusion is
由此得出一个结论
that the Prado Mona Lisa was painted by an apprentice
普拉多博物馆的《蒙娜丽莎》是学徒画的
– side by side with Leonardo
画的时候达芬奇就在旁边
-using the same pigments and the same adjustments
用同样的颜料 做着同样的修改
This copy was not really considered important
直到2012年被修复的时候
until it was restored in 2012,
这幅复制品才开始得到重视
and the original background was revealed.
这幅画原先的创作背景才被揭示
Scientific examination tells us
通过科技手段检测发现
it was painted by someone working in Leonardo’s studio
这幅画是某个达芬奇工作坊的学徒画的
as an apprentice – and therefore under Leonardo’s supervision.
因此画的时候也有达芬奇的监督和指导
By use of infrared radiography we know
通过红外线成像技术我们可以知道
it is likely that it was created simultaneously in the same studio.
赝品和真迹是同时在同个作坊里画出来的
The Prado copy doesn’t have
普拉多《蒙娜丽莎》没有
the mystery of Leonardo’s achingly beautiful painting,
达芬奇原作的神秘美感
this is something that cannot be copied.
这是无法模仿和复制的
But the excellent state of conservation of the copy
但复制品保存的非常好
gives us unique insights into the original painting,
我们可以借此对原作有更深入的研究和了解
which has become cracked and yellowed with age.
因为达芬奇的原作已经随时间发黄开裂了
If we take the copy and overlay the two,
如果我们把两幅画叠起来看
we get some idea of what the Mona Lisa might look like.
或许能得到蒙娜丽莎的原貌
If it were possible to restore her.
如果可以复原她的话
Now we see the “rosy lips” described by Vasari in 1550,
我们能看到瓦萨里在1550年描述的“玫瑰红唇”
and the “thin eyebrows and eyelashes” he wrote about.
以及他书上写的“纤细的眉毛和睫毛”
Suggesting that indeed the Mona Lisa once had eyebrows.
都表明《蒙娜丽莎》确实曾有眉毛
它是怎样构图的?
Leonardo uses the classic “pyramid shape” composition
达芬奇用了经典的“金字塔形”构图
that was introduced during the Renaissance.
这是在文艺复兴时期引入的构图方式
It is an important change from the paintings of the 15th century.
相比于15世纪的画 这是一个重大改变
The structure provides stability,
这种结构提供了稳定性
but more importantly it provides a clear central focus,
更重要的是它提供了明确的中心焦点
and directs your gaze.
同时能引导你的视线
In Mona Lisa’s case, it is pulling us into her face.
《蒙娜丽莎》里这种构图引导我们看她的脸
姿势是怎样的?
Leonardo pioneered the use of the “three-quarter length pose”
达芬奇最早使用“四分之三身长姿势”
rather than producing a full length portrait or the standard profile used at the time.
他没画全身长像 或当时常见的标准侧像
But why?
为什么他要这么做
Because he completely fills the frame with his subject,
因为他用人物主体几乎填满了整个画面
making the painting more intimate and cutting down on distractions.
使整张画看起来更亲切也更能避免观众分神
This three-quarter length pose becomes the norm
后来“四分之三身长姿势”成为惯例
in Italy for 400 years.
被意大利画家效仿了400年
Today we look at Mona Lisa’s pose and it seems fairly “normal”.
现在看蒙娜丽莎的姿势可能会觉得很普通
But for its day it was groundbreaking.
但在当时 这种姿势是创造性的突破
Previously subjects were stiff and upright, aristocratic.
之前的贵族人像画是呆板僵直的
But Mona Lisa is relaxed,
但蒙娜丽莎表情放松
her hands are resting gently on the arm of her chair,
她的手轻轻的放在椅子扶手上
as she turns towards us.
像是要朝着我们转过来
Almost as if it’s a “snapshot”.
这幅画看起来好像抓拍的照片一样
Mona Lisa is also rather content and self-assured,
而且蒙娜丽莎看起来自信而满足
which was more how aristocratic men were portrayed,
这是当时的贵族男性画像才有的表情
not women.
女性画像一般没有
The standard renaissance portraits of women were in profile
标准的文艺复兴时期女性画像是侧面姿势
and they didn’t smile.
而且一般不笑
We are looking directly into her eyes and she is looking directly at us.
蒙娜丽莎眼睛直视我们 仿佛有眼神交流
Women in paintings just didn’t do that.
当时人像画里的女性不会像这样
They didn’t look boldly and directly at the viewer.
大胆而直接的看向观众
The entire painting deviated from the traditional way women were painted in Italy.
整幅画颠覆了意大利当时对女性的传统画法
背景是什么?
Portraits were usually drawn with an open sky as the background
人像画一般会以开阔的天空作为背景
– a monotone background – or a simple room.
或是纯色背景 抑或是简单的房间作背景
Mona lisa is in front of a complicated landscape
蒙娜丽莎背后的却是复杂迷离的背景
that only existed in Leonardo’s imagination.
只存在于达芬奇的想象之中
Paintings in this period had both the subject and the background in sharp focus.
这个时期的画里背景和人物都画的很清晰
Whereas the background of the Mona Lisa is hyper-realistic
但《蒙娜丽莎》的背景却有超现实的迷幻
and is created using an illusion of depth or recession.
而且有一种向后延伸的错觉 显得很遥远
This is “aerial perspective”.
这就是“空间透视法”
Leonardo was the first to write about it,
达芬奇最早记录和论述这种方法
and if he didn’t invent it,
就算不是他发明的
then he certainly perfected it.
但一定是他总结和完善的
Behind Mona Lisa,
在蒙娜丽莎背后
the vast landscape proceeds to distant icy mountains.
辽阔的风景逐步向远处的冷山延伸
A path and a bridge are the only indication of human presence.
只有小径和小桥暗示这里有人类的踪迹
The curves of her hair and clothing
蒙娜丽莎的头发和衣服的曲线
reflect the rolling valleys and rivers behind her,
映衬在背后绵延的山谷和河流之中
connecting humanity and nature.
将人与自然联结起来
Microcosm and macrocosm, a favourite theme of Leonardo’s.
微观与宏观 这是达芬奇最爱的主题
He used his pioneering studies of hydrodynamics,
他最先开始研究流体力学
not only to explain how an aortic valve closed,
不仅解释了主动脉瓣是如何关闭的
but also to explain the weight, volume and direction of the curls of hair.
还解释了卷发的重量 体积和方向
The twist of the earth parallels her torso.
弯曲的陆地和蒙娜丽莎的躯干平行
Look at the river on the right.
再看右边的河流
It flows into the scarf over her left shoulder
它流入左肩上的丝巾里
and we see that she is connected with the earth.
我们能看到蒙娜丽莎和陆地是相连的
Even the background is informed by science.
运用科技手段 连背景都能获取很多信息
This time of “sedimentary layers” he studied in the Apennines.
这回达芬奇研究了亚平宁山脉的沉积岩层
that the world is far older than Genesis claims.
猜想世界比《创世纪》描述的要久远的多
His knowledge of geology
他的地质学知识
ensures that there are no accidents in his plotting of the background.
保证了在绘制背景时没有任何偶然和意外
And yet the horizon of the landscape
人物背后风景里的地平线
does not quite line up behind the figure.
并没有完全对齐 这也不是偶然
It is very slightly “skewed”,
两边地平线有点“不齐”
while her shoulders are painted level.
但蒙娜丽莎的肩膀是水平的
This is a typical Leonardo visual trick
达芬奇用了一个他常用的视觉技巧
that gives an illusion of movement.
制造了一种人物在动的感觉
Leonardo knew that
达芬奇知道
our brains would struggle with this conflicting visual information:
视觉上看到的这一矛盾会让大脑产生误会
We know that the horizon should line up
日常认知里地平线是水平的
so we read it as level.
所以大脑就认定画里的地平线是水平的
This causes us to interpret the shoulders as being on a slant
这就导致肩膀看起来像是倾斜的
– which they are not.
但其实肩膀才是水平的
As our brain corrects this,
当大脑把两者联系起来
it creates an illusion of movement,
就产生了一种人在动的错觉
as if the figure “shuffles” a bit in its frame.
就像人物在画框里“挪动”了一下
为何她的眼睛跟着我们?
Lisa’s eyes are in fact looking to her left,
丽莎的眼睛其实是看向她的左边的
but step back and she is looking directly at us.
但退后点再看她的眼睛是直视我们的
If your screen is big enough,
如果你的屏幕够大
move to the right and left.
试着左右移动
Her eyes follow you.
她的目光会追着你
This effect only works with two-dimensional images,
这种效果只在二维图片上有
since the elements of perspective and light and shadow
因为二维图片的透视元素和光影
are fixed and don’t change.
都是固定不变的
They look the same, no matter from what angle you are standing.
所以不管站在什么角度看到的都一样
It is a real phenomenon,
这是一种真实的现象
but not unique to this painting.
并不是只在这幅画里出现
神秘的微笑
Then there is the smile that pulls everything together.
接下来就是那个将一切联结起来的微笑了
Before, during and long after the Renaissance,
在文艺复兴之前之中以及之后很长时间里
artists did not paint their subjects smiling.
艺术家们都不画笑着的人像
When you think about it, portraits are generally very serious.
印象中 人像画一般都是很严肃的表情
It’s easy enough to smile for a few minutes,
保持微笑几分钟很容易
but not for the weeks
但画人像要几周
if not months it takes to paint a portrait.
甚至几个月 一直保持微笑很难
And yet despite the scarcity of a smile in paintings,
人像画中的笑容在当时很少见
Leonardo almost makes it his signature.
因此这笑容成了达芬奇的标志
It is said that Leonardo kept Lisa happy
据说达芬奇请了乐手和小丑
by employing musicians and jesters.
来让丽莎一直开心
Look at her for a while. Really look into her eyes.
盯着画看一会儿 仔细看她的眼睛
First she is smiling and then she is not.
一开始她在微笑 然后笑容会逐渐消失
The smile “comes and goes” as we scan around the face.
当我们盯着脸周围看时 笑容会逐渐消失
When we look away the smile lingers.
当我们看向别处时 笑容就又出现了
When Leonardo was perfecting Lisa’s smile,
达芬奇画丽莎的笑容的这段时间里
he was spending his nights in the morgue
经常在晚上呆在停尸房里
peeling the flesh off cadavers
他剖开尸体
and exposing the muscles and nerves underneath.
观察里面的肌肉和神经
He became fascinated by “how a smile works”
他痴迷于“笑容是怎么出现的”
and analysed every possible movement of each part of the face.
分析了脸上每一块可能与笑有关的肌肉
Working out the origins of every nerve which controls the facial muscles.
研究了每一条控制面部表情的神经的走向
Here we see two partially dissected faces in profile.
这是两张被部分剖开的侧脸
They show the muscles which control the lips and other elements of expression.
显示了控制嘴唇和其它产生表情的部位
In the one on the left,
左边的图里
Leonardo has removed part of the jawbone to expose the muscle
达芬奇移除部分下颚骨 露出里面的肌肉
which pulls back the angle of the mouth,
这些肌肉负责把嘴角往后拉
and flattens the cheek – as a smile begins to form.
让脸颊变平 然后笑容就逐渐出现了
Leonardo reveals the actual mechanisms
达芬奇揭示了从情绪
that transmit emotions into facial expressions.
转变为面部表情的真正原理
Extraordinary.
太厉害了
Here are puckered lips, pouting lips,
这是撅起来的嘴唇
the muscles that move the mouth.
和控制嘴部活动的肌肉
Then almost forgotten at the top of this page is a simple drawing
这一页顶部还有一幅简图 容易被遗漏
of a gentle smile sketched lightly in black chalk.
用黑色白垩粉淡淡的画了一个温雅的微笑
Even though the fine lines at the end of the mouth turn down slightly,
尽管嘴角边的线条是微微向下弯曲的
the feeling is that the lips are smiling.
但给人的感觉依然是这个嘴唇是在笑的
This simple anatomical drawing is the beginning of Mona Lisa smile.
这幅结构简图就是蒙娜丽莎微笑的初稿
Astonishingly Leonardo had studied
让人惊讶的是达芬奇还学习了
the 11th century Islamic physicist Al-Hazen,
11世纪的伊斯兰科学家阿尔·哈增的理论
whose pioneering theories on the psychology of visual perception
阿尔·哈增最早研究了视觉的生理学原理
inspired his own work on optics.
这一理论又给他在光学研究上带来灵感
Leonardo knew from his optic studies,
从哈增的研究中达芬奇得知
that light rays do not come to a single point in the eye,
光线并不是到达眼睛中的某一点
but instead hit the whole area of the retina
而是到达整个视网膜上
– and this is the key to her enigmatic smile.
这是蒙娜丽莎神秘微笑的关键
“Her expression changes as you look at this painting…”
你看这幅画的时候 她的表情会有变化
In the year 2000, Dr. Margaret Livingston,
2000年 一个哈佛神经科学家
a Harvard neuroscientist discovered
玛格丽特·利文斯顿博士发现
that MonaLisa’s smile changes
蒙娜丽莎的微笑之所以会变
because of how the human visual system is designed.
是由于人类视觉系统的生理构造
She explains that the human eye has two distinct regions for seeing the world:
她解释说人眼看东西是分两个不同的区域
A central area called the “Fovea” is where people see colours,
一个中心区域叫“中央凹” 负责看颜色
read fine print and pick out details.
阅读细小的文字以及读取细节
And the peripheral area surrounding the Foveais
另一个部分是“中央凹”外围的区域
where people see black and white, motion and shadows.
专门负责看黑白 动作和阴影
When we look at a face,
当我们看一张脸时
we spend most of the time focused on the other person’s eyes
我们大部分时间都在看这个人的眼睛
using central vision.
用的是中央视觉
So when a person’s center of gaze is on Mona Lisa’s eyes,
因此当一个人盯着蒙娜丽莎的眼睛看时
the less accurate peripheral vision,
外围视觉停留在她嘴上
is on her mouth.
外围视觉没那么准确
And because peripheral vision is not interested in “specific details”,
而且外围视觉并不负责看具体细节
it also picks up shadows from Mona Lisa’s cheekbones.
外围视觉会读取蒙娜丽莎颧骨上的阴影
This is where both his Sfumato and Chiaroscuro techniques come into their own.
刚好颧骨部分用了晕涂法和明暗对比法
Keep looking directly into her eyes.
盯着她的眼睛看一下
The shadows and tones suggest the curvature of a smile,
阴影和色调给了我们她在微笑的感觉
but when your eyes go directly to Mona Lisa’s mouth,
但当你的眼睛盯着她的嘴看时
your central vision doesn’t see the shadows
你的中央视觉看不到那些阴影
and she isn’t smiling – smirking at best.
所以你看不到她在微笑 或者说“假笑”
You can prove this theory quite simply
这个理论很容易证实
by scanning back and forth between her eyes and her lips,
只要你的目光在她的眼睛和嘴巴切换
and her expression changes.
她的表情就会有变化
That is not your imagination
这并不是你的幻想
it is all to do with how we “see”, not how we “think”.
一切都是因为视觉原理而非大脑的处理
The genius of Leonardo, is that he understood this 500 years ago!
达芬奇的厉害在于500年前就了解这些
失窃
Some claim that the Mona Lisa is only well known
有些人说《蒙娜丽莎》之所以出名
because she was once stolen.
只是因为之前失窃过
This is nonsense.
这种言论完全没有道理
As previously noted,
就如之前提到的那样
Mona Lisa, was seen as a gteat painting, right from the start.
《蒙娜丽莎》从一开始就被视为杰作
In 1797 she was moved to the Louvre,
1797年 《蒙娜丽莎》被搬到卢浮宫
where Napoleon saw her and decided he “had to have her”.
拿破仑看到之后决定要拥有这幅画
So in 1800,
因此在1800年
he had her moved to his private bedroom in the Tuilleries.
他把画搬到了杜伊勒里宫的卧室中
Already the Mona Lisa was a “masterpiece”
《蒙娜丽莎》已是一幅杰作
fit for Europe’s greatest leader.
配得上这位欧洲的伟大领袖
In 1825,
在1825年
the first engravings of Mona Lisa were made – and sold
第一幅《蒙娜丽莎》版画问世并被买下
– adding to her popularity.
这又增加了她的名气
And in 1854
在1854年
the first photograph was taken of her.
第一张《蒙娜丽莎》的照片诞生
Charles Baudelaire, George Sand and Jules Verne
查尔斯·波德莱尔 乔治·桑德
were amongst many to write about her.
和儒勒·凡尔纳都为这幅画写文章
And in 1867, the art critic Theophile Gautier
1867年 艺术评论家泰奥菲勒·戈蒂
published a popular article
发表了一篇著名的文章
“praising her mysterious smile and her eyes that hid secrets”.
称赞蒙娜丽莎神秘的微笑和藏着秘密的眼睛
While Baedeker guidebooks told tourists as early as the 1870s
1870年 贝德克尔旅行指南称
that she was “the most celebrated work of Leonardo in the Louvre”.
《蒙娜丽莎》是卢浮宫最知名的达芬奇作品
She was being mass produced and written about extensively.
她被大量印刷 无数人为她撰写文章
Mona Lisa was already on her way to becoming known worldwide.
《蒙娜丽莎》已经开始走上闻名世界之路
And then she was stolen.
然后她就被偷了
On the 21st of August 1911,
在1911年8月21号
Vincenzo Perugia,a petty criminal,
有一个叫温琴佐·佩鲁贾的小毛贼
stole the Mona Lisa and took her to Italy.
偷了《蒙娜丽莎》并把她带回了意大利
It was not until the next afternoon
直到第二天下午
that anyone realized the painting had been stolen,
才有人发现画作失窃
fuelling the idea that nobody cared
很多人觉得卢浮宫不重视这幅画
– but the truth (as always) was simpler.
但事实其实往往很简单
The Louvre was cataloguing its collection
那天卢浮宫正在清点藏品
and museum staff believed that she had been removed to be photographed.
博物馆工作人员以为画被拿去拍照了
Suspects, including Picasso
包括当时在巴黎的毕加索在内
who was living in Paris at the time, were rounded up
所有有嫌疑的人被集中起来盘问
– but no answers were found.
但是没有任何结果
In fact the Mona Lisa was missing for over two years,
两年多时间里《蒙娜丽莎》都不知所踪
during which people lined up around the block
这段时间里人们只能去《蒙娜丽莎》
to look at the empty space where she once was.
原来挂着的位置看那块空荡荡的墙面
Perugia was eventually arrested
窃贼佩鲁贾最终被逮捕
and the Mona Lisa was recovered.
《蒙娜丽莎》也终于物归原主
But why did he steal the Mona Lisa rather than any of the other paintings?
但为何他不偷其它画而要偷《蒙娜丽莎》
The answer (again) is simple. Because it was the most well-known.
答案还是很简单 因为这幅画最有名
So for sure her fame grew enormously after she was stolen
当然 失窃之后的《蒙娜丽莎》更出名了
– but it did not begin in 1911.
但她在1911年失窃前就已经很有名了
Something else to consider
另外值得一提的是
is that it was only by this time that photography was becoming commonplace.
在这段时间里 照相机慢慢变得普及
Suddenly thanks to the press,
一时间 由于照片的传播
millions of people who might not have seen it in person,
千百万人成了这幅失窃油画的“专家”
might never have even heard of it,
如果没有照片这些人根本看不到这幅画
soon became “experts” on Leonardo’s stolen painting.
甚至都不会有机会听说这幅画
What really cemented her fame
1963年的美国之行
was her 1963 visit to the U.S.
更加巩固了《蒙娜丽莎》的大名
This made global headlines, and television
全球媒体争相报道
brought the Mona Lisa into the livingroom of billions.
几十亿人通过电视机了解到《蒙娜丽莎》
In the same year,
同一年里
Andy Warhol reflected on her transformation
安迪·沃霍尔回顾了《蒙娜丽莎》
from a painting into a “celebrity icon”.
从一幅画作到一个“大明星”的过程
So yes, the theft made her more well-known
是的 失窃让她更出名
and the U.S. tour made her a global “celebrity”.
美国之旅让她成了家喻户晓的“大明星”
But regardless of all this,
但就算抛开这一切
the Mona Lisa was always considered a masterpiece
《蒙娜丽莎》也一直都被视为大师杰作
and would have become famous
也会名扬世界
in the same way “The Birth of Venus”
就像《维纳斯的诞生》
or “The Girl with the Pearl Earring” did.
或《戴珍珠耳环的少女》一样
The Mona Lisa, is an image that is so “familiar”
《蒙娜丽莎》的这张脸我们实在太熟悉了
that it has been stripped of meaning.
以至于她原本的意义反而被忽视
Her “celebrity” status is a distraction
她的“大明星”地位反而让我们
from what a masterpiece she really is.
无暇欣赏这幅杰作本身的美
In an era in which we are bombarded with images,
在这样一个图片信息泛滥的年代
it is more important than ever to stop – and look again.
我们比以往更需要停下脚步 再看一看她
一张普世的画作
Whether she is “Mona Lisa”,
不管她叫“蒙娜丽莎”
“La Giaconda” or “La Jaconde”,
还是“拉乔孔达”或者“拉乔孔德”
she is the face of a revolution in art.
这张脸都代表着一次艺术革命
The Mona Lisa embodies Leonardo da Vinci’s belief
《蒙娜丽莎》体现了达芬奇的信仰
that everything is connected.
万事万物都是相连相通的
He had the ability to combine intellect with imagination.
他有将智慧和想象力融合起来的能力
Art and science are perfectly blended in a single work,
艺术与科学在一幅作品里完美融合
that may have started as a “simple portrait” of a bourgeois woman
也许开始只是一幅资产阶级妇女的简单人像
but has become something much more poetic something “universal”.
但现在已经变成了更具诗意的普世佳作
Leonardo once said
达芬奇曾说
that “Art is never finished – just abandoned”,
艺术永远不会结束 只是有些人放弃了
and it would seem apt
这句话放在这里很合适
that a painting created by a man who never stopped learning
达芬奇一生从未停止学习
still manages to teach us something
在500年之后的今天
– 500 years after he created it.
他依然想通过这幅画教会我们一些东西
Despite all the myths and legends surrounding her,
抛开那些萦绕着蒙娜丽莎的神话和传说
we ARE learning more and more about her
我们通过科技手段和不断研究
through science and studies.
从她身上了解到越来越多信息
Who knows?
谁知道呢
One day we may see the Mona Lisa
也许有天我们能完全了解《蒙娜丽莎》
exactly the way Leonardo saw her.
能像达芬奇一样欣赏《蒙娜丽莎》

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视频概述

详细解读《蒙娜丽莎》背后的秘密,关于达芬奇和《蒙娜丽莎》不为人知的故事

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ElWG0_kjy_Y

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