未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

从谁身上继承的?爸还是妈?

Mom vs. Dad: What Did You Inherit?

本集由23andMe公司赞助播出
This episode is supported by 23andMe.
你很容易觉得 身上的特征 父母各占一半
It ’ s easy to feel like you ’ re an even mix
然而情况并不总是如此
of your parents, but that ’ s not always the case.
因此 那些你不喜欢的特征 你应该归咎于谁?
So, who should you be blaming over those traits you don ’ t like?
哪些是从母亲那遗传来的 哪些是从父亲得来的?
What did you inherit from Mom and what camefrom Dad?
色盲?
Colour-blind?
如果你是个男性 你得感谢你的母亲
If you’re a male, you can thank your mother.
因为红绿色盲是伴X染色体隐形遗传病
Red-green colour blindness is an X-linked
它影响全世界近6%的男性
disorder that affects nearly 6 % of the male
然而只有0.4%的女性患有此病
population worldwide, but only 0.4% of females.
这是因为男性仅有的一条X染色体
This is because males only inherit one X chromosome,
是从他们的母亲那里遗传来的
which is from their mother, and that ’ s where
而这就是红绿色盲的病因
red-green colorblindness comes from.
如果你是女性
If you ’ re a female,
你就会从父母各自得到一条病变的X染色体
you have to get a the X-variant from both parents.
所以0.4%的患病女性可以把病因归咎于父亲
So that 0.4% can blame dad as well!
秃顶?
Balding?
也是X染色体引起的
A big component comes from the X-chromosome here too,
所以你很可能从你母亲那遗传得到
so you likely inherited this from
但是 一项由52000人参与的研究发现
your mom. However, a study involving 52,000 people found
在其他染色体上的基因也可以引起秃顶
that genes on other chromosomes can affect this condition,
此外 环境因素也会造成秃顶
on top of environmental factors
例如年龄 压力以及日常饮食
such as age, stress and diet.
因此 这不全是母亲的责任!
so, mom isn’t entirely to blame!
研究发现鼻尖的形状
Research has also found that the shape of the end
嘴唇的上下区域
of your nose, the area above and below
颧骨以及眼角
the lips, cheekbones and the inner corner
很大程度上会被基因影响
of the eye are highly influenced by genetics.
更有趣的是 如果你越像你父亲儿时的样子
And interestingly, the more they resemble your father as a child,
你可能就会越健康
the healthier you’re likely to be.
为什么?
Why?
科学家相信儿子与父亲之间的相似性
Scientists believe that a father-child resemblance
能让父亲花更多的时间采用积极的教育方式
causes fathers to spend more time engaging
这能培养出更健康的孩子
in positive parenting, which ultimately contributesto healthier kids.
现在 即使你从母亲那得到23条染色体
Now, even though you get half of your 46 chromosomes
从父亲那得到另外23条染色体
from mom and the other from dad, a study involving
一项由遗传多样性小鼠参与的研究表明
genetically diverse mice found that for 60 %
60%的父系复制基因比
of genes the paternal copy was more active
母系基因更容易表达
than the maternal copy.
这种现象被称为等位基因失衡
This phenomenon is known as allelic imbalance.
这项研究也指出
The same study also noted that
这些老鼠的大脑结构跟父亲的更相似
the brains of these particular mice more closely resembled
而不是母亲
that of their dad than their mom.
但是实际上 人类与之相反
However, in humans we actually see the opposite.
我们的大脑与母亲的更相似
Our brains are more similar to our mother,
对女孩来说 确实如此
which is particularly true for daughters.
更有趣的是 相似的大脑区域与抑郁状态有关联
Interestingly, the similar brain regions areactually associated with depressive conditions,
这意味着 母亲可能会把情感障碍传给女儿
suggesting that mood disorders may pass frommother to daughter.
生物学家过去认为所有来自细胞核的DNA
Biologists used to believe that all DNA came from the nucleus,
但是我们现在知道
but we now know that the
线粒体(抗角蛋白抗体 细胞动力工厂)
mitochondria (AKA the powerhouse of the cell)
也会启动蛋白编码基因
also kicks in some protein coding genes.
而线粒体DNA
And this mitochondrial DNA
只会从母亲那遗传得来
is specifically inherited from your mom
因为父本线粒体在受精后很快就自我降解
because your dad ’ s degraded immediately after fertilization.
考虑到线粒体DNA对人体十分重要
Considering how important mitochondrial DNA is
因此母系遗传与人类更为紧密
in the cell, there is a stronger maternal link.
在线粒体DNA上的突变基因与
Mutations in mitochondrial DNA have been associated
2型糖尿病和帕金森氏症的发生有关联
with Type 2 diabetes and Parkinson ’ s disease
这很可能来自母亲
– which more likely came from your mom.
由母体遗传衍生出“线粒体夏娃”的概念
Maternal inheritance gave rise to the idea of a “ Mitochondrial Eve ”,
生活在 180000到580000年前的女人
a woman who lived between 180,000 to 580,000 years ago
是所有人类线粒体DNA的来源
from which all human mitochondrial DNA is rooted.
归根结底
At the end of the day,
看起来似乎很多特征都是遗传自母亲
it may seem like a lot of traits actually come from your mom,
或者说 来自X染色体
or at least, from the X chromosome –
从遗传学来说 是这样的
and that ’ s generally true, genetically.
Y染色体很小 不能携带过多的基因
The Y-chromosome is very small, and doesn ’ t contain as many genes;
而女性和男性都有X染色体
and both females and
它能携带更多的基因
males contain X-chromosomes, which carry moregenes.
但是当我们继续进一步从基因层面来研究人类本身
But as we continue to research more about ourselves at the genetic level, the division
从母亲与父亲遗传得来的不同部分变得更加明显
between what you got from mom vs. dad may become even more pronounced.
如果你想进一步了解自己的基因
If you want to know more about your own genetics,
你可以访问23andMe.com/asap 本集的赞助商
you can visit 23andMe.com/asap, who sponsored this episode.
如果你想了解你秃顶的概率
Whether you want to know about your chances of balding, of getting
得背毛的概率 味觉如何工作
back hair, how your taste sense work or
或者你的祖先是谁
who your ancestors are, 23andMe’skit will get you started.
23andMe公司会给你答案
23andMe’s kit will get you started.
我们这么做了 然后我得到了个震惊的信息
We both took it, and I found out the GREAT news
我有长背毛的倾向
that I ’ m more prone to having a little
到最近 我想这个信息可能是错误的
upper back hair, which until recently I thought was FALSE,
但格雷格告诉我 我已经老了
but as I ’ ve aged Greg told me
所以 这是真的!
is actually TRUE!!
-它赞成我的看法-是的
-23andMe was on that.-They knew.
我觉得最酷的是
What I thought was cool is
你可以知道影响体重的确切因素
that you can find out how certain factors affect your weight.
像我 我的体重容易受快餐影响
Like for me fast food is likely to
我最近在控制快餐的摄入 我很喜欢吃 但是我会少吃一些
have the biggest impact on my weight followed by exercise.
欢迎到23andMe.com/asap观看最新视频
Be sure to head to 23andMe.com/asap for the latest promotion on your kit.
感谢观看 欢迎订阅每周四播出的科学视频
As always, thanks for watching, be sure to subscribe for more weekly science videos every Thursday,
下次见!
and we will see you next time!

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

23andMe基因公司帮助你更了解父母的基因对子女的影响

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

月半口天吴

审核员

审核员 RN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=71X7a8eu73k

相关推荐