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现代日本餐桌礼仪 – 译学馆
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现代日本餐桌礼仪

Modern Japanese Table Manners

如过你对日本的餐桌礼仪有所研究,你就会发现大多数人会对此有一样的说法
If you’ve read up on Japanese table manners you’ll realize that most people generally say
但问题在于,这些所谓的“规则”有些并不会被日本人遵循
the same things. The problem is that some of these ‘rules’ are not always followed in
有时候他们根本不曾听说过这样的规定
Japan, and in some cases Japanese people have never even heard of them!
所以今天我来带你们重温一些过时了的规则
So today I’m going to go over a couple of these outdated rules,
和一些其它的事情
as well as a lot of other things.
我并不能覆盖到每一种情况,所以我将
Now I’ll never be able to cover every situation, so what I’m going to talk
谈谈那些最常见的,那些每天会发生在身边朋友同事
about is what’s common in normal, everyday situations with your friends co-workers,
或者家人身上的事情
or host family.
我们先来看看饭前的准备工作
I’ll start with meal preparation.
如果你带了包包,你不该把它放在桌子上
If you have your purse with you you should never set it on the table.
日本的地板被认为是很脏的,
The floor is considered very dirty in Japan, even though they don’t wear
即使人们并不在室内穿鞋
their shoes inside.
因为你的包包曾被放置在地板上,再把它放到桌上就显得不那么合适了
Since your purse sits on the floor, it’s inappropriate to set it on the table.
但是你可以把它放在椅子或地板上
It’s okay to place on a chair or the floor, though.
如果寄宿在别人家里,房东可能会请你帮忙一起准备餐食
If you’re homestaying, the family may ask you to help prepare the meal or
或者摆桌子放餐具
set the table.
在大多数情况下,人们对于餐具放置的位置是否合适并不在意
As is common in most places most people don’t care about proper place-setting.
你只需要确保把每位家庭成员的筷子放在他们常坐的地方就好了
Just make sure to place each family member’s chopsticks at their usual seat.
此外,日本人在吃饭的时候不喝点什么也是很正常的事情
Also, it’s not unusual for Japanese people eat their meal without drinking
所以如果他们不想喝东西,请不要感到惊讶
anything, either, so don’t be surprised if they don’t want anything to drink.
通常他们可能会等到吃好饭后再来点茶喝
In that case they’re probably waiting until after the meal for tea.
在日本,如果大家的餐点不在同一时间送上
In Japan, if it’s not practical for everyone’s meals to be served at the
他们可能是希望你先吃,
same time, they may ask you to starting eating first so that your food doesn’t
这样你的食物就不会冷掉了
get cold.
这种情况在餐厅很常见,因为食物只有做好才会被送出,
This happens frequently in restaurants, where food is typically brought out as it’s
而它们通常情况下又不是一起被制作的
made and not altogether.
当你在家或在餐厅开始吃饭前,
Before you begin eating, at home or at a restaurant,
你该说“我开动了”
you should say ‘itadakimasu’.
有些人会双手合十呈现一个祈祷的姿势
some people put their hands together in a praying motion but this isn’t always
但这并不是必须的
necessary.
在这顿饭的最后你该说“多谢款待”
At the end of the meal you should say ‘gochisousama deshita’.
如果有人带你去餐馆,
If someone took you out to the restaurant,
你该在每个人都吃完了的时候说一句“多谢款待”,
you should say ‘gochisousama deshita’ either once everyone has finished
或者在别人付款的时候说
eating, or once the meal has been paid for.
吃饭的时候,你应该右手拿筷
While eating your chopsticks should go in your right hand,
小碗或盘子装的米饭,汤,配菜等等
and small bowls or plates, like rice, soups, side dishes, etc,
应该用左手拿
should be held in your left hand
你的大拇指应该在碗的边缘,其余四指在下面托好
with your thumb on the edge of the bowl, and your four fingers underneath.
当你吃饭的时候把碗放到嘴边,这样食物就不会掉到桌上了
Bring the bowl up to your mouth while you eat so the food does not drop onto the table.
把你的头低下凑到盘子上吃饭是很不礼貌的行为
It’s considered bad manners to bend your head down to your plate.
这种吃饭的方式和狗没什么两样
That way of eating is said to resemble a dog.
很多菜都是装在一个公用的盘子里供大家吃的
Many meals will have a shared dish that everyone eats from.
传统意义上你应该把筷子反过来夹菜
Traditional rules say that you should use the back end of your chopsticks to
因为这样更加干净
take food from this dish since it’s the most sanitary,
但实际上人们并不这样做
but in reality most people don’t actually do this.
你是否这样做其实是取决于和谁一起吃饭
Whether you should do this or not will really depend on people you’re with.
实际上,如果主菜是那种类似火锅的煮物,
In fact, if the main meal is nabe, which is a pot dish,
有些家庭会在吃好后把他们碗中的酱汁倒回大锅里
some families may dump their bowls back into the nabe pot at the end of the meal
然后第二天继续用剩下的酱汁吃饭
and then use the remaining sauce for a meal the next day.
但别担心!如果你的房东家这样做了,他们是不会让你吃的
But don’t worry! If your host family does this they shouldn’t ask you to eat it,
如果他们真的请你一起吃,他们也会理解你为什么谢绝的
and if they do they will probably be understanding if you decline.
关于吃寿司!
As for eating sushi!
寿司的种类有很多种,但是对于西方人而言两种最有名的
There are many types of sushi, but the two most familiar to Westerners are
寿司是寿司卷和生鱼片寿司
sushi rolls and nigiri.
生鱼片寿司是被称作“shari”的米盖上鱼片“neta”
Nigiri is rice, called shari, and a topping, called neta.
传统意义上,在吃生鱼片寿司的时候你只能把鱼片沾在酱油里
When eating nigiri, traditional rules say to dip only the neta in soy sauce.
然而,现今并没有人真的在意你是怎么沾酱油的
However, these days no one really cares how you dip it in soy sauce.
把米先沾在里面?完全可以!
Shari first? That’s fine!
实际上,在一些现代餐厅里,
In fact, at some modern restaurants, they will ask you to conserve soy sauce by
他们会让你直接把酱油倒在寿司上来吃
pouring it directly onto the sushi.
我最喜欢的回转寿司就是这样
This is the case at my favorite kaiten-zushi, or
那种有旋转带的寿司店
conveyor belt sushi restaurant, Sushiro.
传统意义上你应该一口就吃掉寿司
Traditional rules say you should eat sushi in one bite.
然而如果你的嘴不够大,不能一口吞
However, if your mouth simply is not big enough to eat the whole thing at once,
那样也没有问题
it’s fine.
你可以用筷子把寿司切成两段,或者直接咬一半下来
you can either cut in half of your chopsticks, or just bite half of it off.
你的嘴里堆积太多食物才显得更加粗鲁
It’s more rude to shove too much food in your mouth,
所以不要强迫自己一次性吃那么多
so don’t force yourself to eat the whole thing at once!
如果你认为你咬寿司会搞得一团糟,
If you don’t think you can bite it off without making a mess
或者你并不擅长用筷子切断东西,
and if you’re not good at cutting things with your chopsticks,
你可以像我一样用双手
you can try my method, which is using both hands.
不论何时你用双手用筷子总会被觉得有点孩子气
Whenever you use both your hands with chopsticks it’s considered a bit childish.
但是如果你不是在一个正式场合,
But if you’re not in a formal setting,
又或者你是个歪果人这就不是什么大问题
or since you’re a foreigner it’s usually not a big deal.
用你的筷子戳食物也被视作是孩子气的行为
Poking through your food with chopsticks is also considered really childish,
所以即使他们真的很滑很难捡,尽你所能把他们捡起来
so do your best to try to pick them up even if it’s really slippery.
在日本,打嗝被视作极其粗鲁的行为
Burping in Japan is considered extremely rude.
如果你呼噜呼噜的流鼻涕,你应该离开这个房间去擤掉
If you have a runny nose you should leave the room to blow it.
男性经常用力吸气来避免打喷嚏
Men will often snort or sniff to avoid having to blow their nose.
这真是挺恶心的,尤其当你想要吃点什么的时候他们这样做
It’s pretty gross, especially when you’re trying to eat, but they’ll do it anyway so
别对此感到惊讶
don’t be surprised.
所以,当你并不喜欢住家给你做的食物的时候要怎么做呢?
So, what do you do if you don’t like the food your family made for you?
很不幸,你处于一个非常尴尬的境地,
Well unfortunately you’re in a really tough spot, because it’s very rude to not eat the
因为不吃别人给你做的食物实在是很不礼貌
food someone made for you.
如果有人邀请你一起吃饭,
If someone is inviting you over for a meal,
他们可能会事先准备好主菜,
they’ll probably work out the main dish with you beforehand so they don’t accidentally
这样就不会不小心给你做你不喜欢的东西了
make something you hate.
然而,当你的住家每天都做常规的家常菜该怎么办呢?
However, what if you’re homestaying and your family’s making normal meals every day?
坦率讲你应该努力把它们吃下去
Well, to be honest you should really do your best to eat it.
如果你有实在不能下咽的食物,可能最好的方法是
If you have a food you absolutely cannot eat, it would probably be best to find a
找个好机会在住家不小心做之前提醒他们
good time to mention it to them before they accidentally make it.
如果你不能当面告诉你的住家那是吃下去会要你命的食物,
If you absolutely cannot confront them with a food that really kills you
你可以考虑告诉他们你对这种食物过敏
then you can also consider telling them that you’re allergic.
可能不是最理想的办法,但是长期看来非常实用
It’s not ideal but it is done from time to time.
其它的技巧来源于一些十分挑剔的人
Other tricks coming from someone who is a picky eater:
尽量能吃多少吃多少,然后告诉他们你饱了,再也吃不下了
Do your best to eat as much as you can and then say you’re too full to finish.
如果偶尔出现这样没有把饭吃完的情况,那也不是什么太失礼的事
It’s not THAT rude to not finish a meal, if it’s just an occasional occurrence.
如果你是和你的朋友一起吃饭,你可以试试让他们帮你一起吃
If you’re with a friend you can also try to work out having them finish your food
举个例子,当我吃不下的时候,我的丈夫就会替我吃掉它
for you. For example, if I can’t finish my meal, my husband will eat it for me.
我也经常会把我菜里的蘑菇挑给他
I also always give him my mushrooms.
又如果你实在吃不下了,你可以说
Or, if you absolutely have to refuse you can say
此处见上方↑
‘sumimasen, chotto (food name) wa nigate de’
可以翻译为
Which roughly translates to,
非常抱歉,这个食物我实在是不能……
‘I’m sorry. About this food, I can’t really…’
别担心,不会有日本人指望你能吃纳豆
Oh, and don’t worry! No Japanese person is going to expect you to eat natto!
不论怎样,你都不该给你的住家列一条关于你不喜欢吃的食物的清单
No matter what you shouldn’t give your host family a whole list of foods you don’t like
因为这会给他们留下一个很坏的印象
because this will give them a really negative image of you.
在这里,挑剔可不是什么好事
Being picky about anything here is bad,
而且告诉别人你的食物偏好实在是很失礼,并且会添麻烦
and it’s especially rude to inconvience others with your food preferences.
最终,他们会认为你是个总是爱抱怨的人
Eventually they’ll come to view you as someone who always complains about things,
这可是你在日本能留下的最糟糕的个人形象之一!
which is one of the worst things you can do about your image in Japan!
但是,犯错没什么大不了,我们每个人也总会犯错的!
But, as always, it’s okay to make mistakes because we all do!
所以当你不确定自己该遵循什么规则的时候,问就好了!
And if you’re not sure what rules apply with the people you’re with, just ask!
如果你还对其它的餐桌礼仪感到好奇,又或者
If there are any other table manners you’re curious about, or if you have any
你有其它评论或问题,请在下方评论区留言!
comments or questions, leave them in the comment section below!

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