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错误归因:我们如何把害怕错以为爱情 – 译学馆
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错误归因:我们如何把害怕错以为爱情

Misattribution: How We Mistake Fear for Love

片头曲
[♩INTRO ]
难道爱情不是伟大的吗
Isn’t love just grand?
你感觉心跳加速 七上八下
The way your heart races and your stomach gets all full of butterflies.
寝食难安…等等
You can ’ t sleep or eat or … wait, wait,
这听起来太可怕了
that sounds terrible!
事实上 它的感觉
In fact, it kind
有点像你大考前的神经紧张
of sounds like the nerves you get before a big test or that brief moment
或者是过山车暴跌之前的短暂恐慌
of panic just before a roller coaster plummets.
原因在于爱 焦虑
That ’ s because emotions like love, anxiety,
和恐惧这些情绪的感觉非常相似
and fear can feel really similar.
事实上 它们感觉很类似 以至于你有时会弄混
In fact, they can feel so similar that you sometimes mix them up.
这种现象叫做错误归因
It ’ s called misattribution,
理解它的原理可以让你知道自己如何
and understanding why it happens can tell you a lot about how
以及为什么会体验这种情绪
and why you experience emotion.
心理学家有很多关于情绪运作方式的不同理论
Psychologists have a bunch of different theories about how emotions work,
但有一个
but there ’ s one
特别理论可能会帮助解释情绪线交叉的原因
in particular that might help explain why we sometimes get our emotional wires crossed.
这一理论叫做沙赫特-辛格情绪二因论
It ’ s called the Schachter-Singer two-factor theory of emotion,
它基于的观点是
and it ’ s based on the
情绪是两个因素
idea that emotions are the sum of two factors:
即身体反应和认知评价的综合产物
your physical reaction and a cognitive label.
你站在悬崖边上
So you could be standing on the edge of a cliff,
但如果你的身体完全放松
but if your body is totally relaxed,
你可能不会感到害怕
you might not feel scared.
反过来说
And on the flip side,
如果对你的生理唤醒没有明显的说明
if there ’ s no obvious explanation for your physical arousal — what
也就是心理学家口中的极度兴奋的感觉
psychologists call that amped-up feeling where your heart
心跳加速 警戒度
’ s racing and you ’ re more alert
和精力都异于寻常 你就应该
and energized than usual — you ’ ll
利用环境去弄清楚自己的感受
use environmental cues to figure out what you ’ re
及其原因
feeling and why you’re feeling it.
这意味着你有时可能会选择错误的理由
Which means you might sometimes pick the wrongreason.
1962年 沙赫特和辛格
In 1962, Schachter and Singer
通过向184名学生注射
showed their theory in action by injecting 184 students
肾上腺素或安慰剂来显示他们的理论
with either adrenaline or a placebo.
一些注射肾上腺素的人
Some of the people who got adrenaline were
被告知他们的身体会如何反应 而另一些人
told how their bodies would react, while others
则被告知药物有一些副作用 或者什么都没有
were told some made up side effects, or nothingat all.
然后 他们与受训者一起做一堆
They then spent time doing a bunch
无聊的任务或者填写令人沮丧的问卷
of silly tasks or filling out a frustrating questionnaire
我说的受训者是一名秘密的实验者
with a trained plant — someone who was secretly an experimenter, I mean. Not,
这和榕属跳呼啦圈不同
like, ficus jumping hula hoops.
那些知道
Those who knew
肾上腺素会让自己感觉更舒服的人报告说他们感觉到的
that adrenaline would make them feel more amped up reported feeling less
快乐或愤怒比较少 根据研究人员的说法
happiness or anger, and according to the researchers,
可能是因为他们把自己的心跳归咎于药物
that was probably because they blamed their
与此同时
pounding heart on the drug. Meanwhile,
其他人把药物影响误解为情绪
the others misinterpreted the drug ’ s effects
换句话说 他们
as emotions — in other words, they
错误地归因了 现在
misattributed them. Now,
关于沙赫特-辛格
there ’ s still a lot
模型是否准确还有很多争论
of debate about whether the Schachter-Singer model is accurate,
部分原因是很难复制他们最初的实验
partly because it’s been hard to replicatetheir original experiment. Regardless,
许多证据表明错误归因是真的
there is plenty of evidence that misattribution is a real thing,
尽管我们
even if we
不确定它背后的精确机制
aren’t sure about the exact mechanism behindit.
研究表明 我们可以用各种方式
And studies have shown that we can misinterpret our emotions
曲解我们的情绪
in all kinds of ways.
例如 一项研究发现
For example, one study found
在考试前通常会感到紧张的人
that people who would normally get really nervous before tests
如果给他们安慰剂 并告诉他们
were less anxious when they were given a
这会让他们坐立不安 他们的焦虑感反而会减少
placebo they were told would make them antsy, probably
这可能是因为他们把手掌出汗归因于药片
because they attributed their sweaty palmsto the pill.
他们在测试中表现得更好
They also did better on the tests,
比没有考试焦虑的人得分更高
scoring as well as people who didn ’ t have test anxiety.
1975年 一项对45名男性大学生的研究发现
And a 1975 study of 45 male college students found
那些运动后立即看色情电影的人
that those who watched erotic films
对色情电影的评价不那么强烈了
immediately after exercising rated the porn less sexually arousing,
有可能是因为他们
probably because they
把自己的一些生理症状归因于锻炼
attributed some of their physical symptoms of arousal to the workout instead.
关于唤醒的错误归因
One of the most well-known studies
最著名的研究之一是
on the misattribution of arousal is the so-called
1974年所谓的 “危桥” 研究
“ shaky bridge ” study from 1974,
它着眼于吸引力和焦虑的
which looked at the connection between attraction
联系
and anxiety.
85名男性受试者被要求
85 male subjects were asked to
告诉一位女面试官 在想象一个女人
tell a female interviewer what they thought was happening
手捂着脸 紧紧抓住门的模糊画面
in a kind of ambiguous image of a woman holding
是什么感受
onto a door with her face in her hand.
事情是这样的 面试在一座桥上
The thing is, the interview took place
进行 无论是宽桥 稳固的桥 混凝土桥
on a bridge—either a wide, stable, concrete
还是高桥 危桥 悬索桥都可以 之后
bridge or a high, shaky, suspension bridge. Afterwards,
面试完提供了她的电话号码
the interviewer offered the subjects her number,
你知道的 以防他们需要
you know, in case they needed
“跟进研究”
to “follow up about the study.”
危桥上的男人在画面中看到了更多的
The men on the shaky bridge saw more sexual content
色情内容 更有可能
in the images and were more likely
给面试官打电话
to call the interviewer.
据研究人员说
According to the researchers,
这可能是因为他们在危桥上会产生焦虑
that was probably because being on the unstable bridge produced anxiety,
却被受试者认为是吸引力 同样
which the subjects interpreted asattraction. Similarly,
2003年的一项研究发现
a 2003 study found
人们在经历过山车之后更容易发现
that people were more likely to find a photo of a stranger
陌生人的照片有吸引力
attractive after they’d been on a rollercoasterthan before.
当然 这并不是说
Of course, this isn ’ t to say that
如果你第一次约会就去看恐怖电影
if you went to a horror movie on your first date,
你们的关系就完全是谎言之类的
your relationship is ALL A LIE or anythinglike that.
当然 这也不是说
And it definitely doesn ’ t mean
你应该把约会对象带到某地
that you should take your date somewhere creepy just
让他们更喜欢你
to make them more attracted to you.
不要这样做
Do not do that.
而且 它也不意味着我们总是
And it ’ s not like we ’ re always terrible
搞不清楚自己到底在想什么
at figuring out what we ’ re really feeling.
大多数时候 我们都是正确的
Most of the time, we get this stuff right.
如果场景熟悉
If a situation is familiar or what ’
或者有什么导致你的身体反应非常明显
s causing your physical reaction is super obvious, you ’ re
你不会花太多时间去弄清它
not going to have too hard of a time figuring it out.
只有当你很难解释
It ’ s only when you can ’
自己的感受时 才会选择错误的情绪
t easily explain how you feel that you might pick the wrong emotion,
你感觉到的浪漫
and what feels like romantic butterflies
可能与
in your stomach might not have anything to
约会无关
do with your date.
感谢您收看本期的心理科学秀
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShowPsych.
如果你想了解更多
If you want to learn more
关于思想影响身体的奇怪方式
about the weird ways our minds affect our bodies, you can
可以登录youtube.com/scishowpsych 点击订阅
go to youtube.com/scishowpsych and subscribe.
片尾曲
[♩OUTRO ]

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视频概述

我们如何把害怕错误归因于爱情?

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视频来源

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