嗨 我是德斯丁 欢迎来到「每天聪明点」
Hey, it’s me Destin. Welcome back to Smarter Every Day.
You might not know this,
but every single hydraulic pump in every car you’ve probably ever been in
has a little bitty magnet in it to catch shavings so that the mechanism doesn’t foul up.
Now, I know this because when I was growing up both of my parents worked at this plant
and made steering pumps.
The cool thing about that is that they would bring home the magnets that were out of spec
and bring them to me and I got to play for hours
and understand things about how magnets attract and how they repel each other.
So, today I wanna talk about magnets.
Specifically, I want to do a slow motion experiment with a little boy named Garrett
who reminds me of my child-like fascination with magnets,
and then after that I wanna talk to you about the next great manufacturing leap in magnets.
Printable magnets! It’s amazing.
Let’s go get Smarter Every Day.
[Destin] Two “R”s two “T”s? [Garrett] Mhm…
[Destin] This is Garrett, two “R”s two “T”s.
德斯丁：嗨 加勒特！加勒特：嗨 你好吗？
[Destin] Hello, Garrett![Garrett] Hello, how are you?
德斯丁：我在美国康乃迪克州 加勒特带来了一些东西 我们将在慢镜头下演示
[Destin] I am in Connecticut and Garrett brought something for me to do in slow motion.
加勒特 给我带了啥 加勒特：磁铁
What did you bring me, Garrett? [Garrett] I brought magnets that
I don’t want to flip them right now ’cause that’ll take a long time to redo
但是当你翻起一个 它们就会全转过来 几乎是瞬间合在一起
but when you flip one they all turn together and almost instantly go back into one.
[Destin] And you observed this yourself, right? This is
是你想出并要做的 那么我们在慢镜头下尝试 好吗
something you came up with and you want to do. So, we’re going to try in slow motion right?
[Garret] Once I flip this first part over and these are all going to fold over onto it.
五 四 三 二 一 零
Five, four, three, two, one, zero.
德斯丁：真的很酷 加勒特 真的超级超级酷
[Destin] That was really cool actually, Garrett. That was actually very very cool. (laughter)
Alright so… (laughter)
[Destin and Garrett] Whoa… [Unknown voice] The force is strong with this one.
[Destin] And you came up with this idea, huh?[Garrett] Yup.
有一天 我盯着它们 把它们排成那样 然后 偶然翻起一个 之后就这样了
I was looking at them one day and I was making them into that and I accidentally flipped one and it did that.
[Destin] Really? Alright! (applause)
Playing with magnets as a kid was pretty simple:
you had a north face and a south face and they would align and slap together.
But now, something else is happening.
We’re at a company called Polymagnet here in Alabama
and if you look at their design you kinda get an idea of what they’re doing.
They can print specific magnetic designs on the surface of a magnet.
Now, you’ve never seen anything like this because it’s bizarre.
当你操纵磁场时 会产生新颖 独特 神奇的事情 让我们拭目以待
You can get new, unique, crazy, behaviours just by manipulating that magnetic field. Let’s go check it out.
This is Jason Morgan, head of engineering.
He’s agreed to teach me about Polymagnets and show me some stuff that most people don’t get to see.
[Morgan] So, this is a conventional magnet. [Destin] Ok.
[Morgan] So, if you look at the conventional magnet…
德斯丁：等下 等等 这是什么摩根：这是个磁场观察膜
[Destin] Wait, hold on, what is this? [Morgan] This is magnetic viewing film.
[Destin] Magnetic viewing film. [Morgan] Yes.
[Destin]OK.[Morgan] What that does is shows you transition
in the magnetic field.[Destin] Uh-huh?
[Morgan] So it allows us to see where the magnetic field transitions from north to south.
[Destin] Got it, ok. [Morgan] So, this is a conventional magnet,
it’s a neodymium magnet.
So, got a north face and a south face and the magnetic field goes from one face around to the other face.
[Destin] Can we draw on the whiteboard? [Morgan] Absolutely.
[Destin] We’ll say this is our magnet here.[Morgan] Right.
德斯丁：那么 磁场线是这样出入的 对吗
[Destin] So, the field lines are going to go out and in, right?
大卫：你说的对 我们知道 磁场线是闭合的圈 这样才不违背麦克斯韦定理
[David] Yeah, you’ll have, you know, closed loop, don’t wanna break Maxwell’s equations,
all the way around from your north pole to your south pole by convention.
[Destin] Gotcha, ok.
摩根：所以 我们所做的不同之处就是 把磁极设计到磁铁表面
[Morgan] So, what we do different is we take a magnet and create pole regions on the surface.
So, we create north and south on the same surface of the magnet
and what that allows us to do is close that circuit that David was talking about
in a much more compact space,
贴近磁铁的地方就会产生更强的磁场 磁力也更强 但……
and that gives us a stronger field close to the magnet, a stronger force, but…
德斯丁：好 我大概懂了 你的意思是 之前我们的磁场线是从北极到南极的大圈
[Destin] Ok, so, I think I got it. So, what you’re saying is if we’ve got the big loop here north and south
you’re doing the same thing only they’re looping much closer together.
[Morgan] Correct.[Destin] Like that?
Even in on itself.
[Morgan] Almost. Right, so, what actually happens
is you have the north and the south on one face the magnet
and so what happens is we have the field go like this and so
instead of this long field that can create interference and waste energy
you have a tight field so that it’s tightly controlled and you have the force really focus near the magnet.
[Destin] These people are like modern-day wizards. They can create whatever magnetic field they
want on any of these magnets.
I sat and talked with him for about an hour
and came to understand that the way the magnet interacts with the target material
determines how strong it’s attached.
And so what you’re saying is the magnetic field in this one
is going to come up and around and go all the way back to the back of the magnet, correct?
[Morgan] Correct.[Destin] Ok, in this one we have a tighter grouping of the
magnetic field so the circuits are going through the steel and they’re completing
just outside of the steel on the other side, correct?
摩根：不 它们是在同一面德斯丁：磁铁的同一面 那它们其实
[Morgan] On the same face of the magnet [Destin] Same face of the magnet. So, they’re
not going all the way back around to the back side… Gotcha.
Here, I have a very dense spacing of magnetic fields
and so they’re all completing inside the steel.
[Morgan] Inside the steel, correct.[Destin] Do I understand magnets?
[Morgan] You understand polymagnets. [Destin] Polymagnets.
Let’s say you have a piece of steel that’s a certain thickness
and you wanna attach this one-inch magnet to it.
Engineers first design and print the magnetic field and input both the magnet and the steel
into this pull test machine to quantify the exact force versus distance curve.
If they want to they can then change the magnetic field
and tailor it until they get the exact force curve they’re looking for.
This ability to manipulate the strength of the magnetic field coupled with a really clever geometry
allows you to create fascinating magnetic behaviors.
For example, these magnets, they’re attracted to each other
but they don’t touch.
They stop just a few millimeters away and seem to hover.
This behavior is what they call a spring.
[Morgan] These are Springs. Alright this is a spring that’s a little bit different
a little more complex and can be used as a latch.
So you see that it acts as a spring so if you think about it, let’s say, like a
cabinet door closure. You could have a cabinet door that came together in a soft close with some,
就像吸收冲力的东西 然后扭一下就能吸住了（惊讶） 它们吸得很紧
some shock absorption but then you could twist it to lash (Destin gasps) and it holds strong.
[Destin] No way.
所以 我可以把它拉开 像这样 我把它拿近一点然后旋转……
So, I can pull against you, like that. I close it and then when I turn it…
[Morgan] Locks into place.[Destin] That’s ridiculous.
Time out! This is way different in your hands than it is on a video.
Attraction and repulsion in the same axis in then you rotate and you can’t pull it apart.
Now we know that any sufficiently mature technology looks like magic until you
understand exactly how it works.
Watch the faces of my highly-educated engineering co-workers as I put this in their hands.
What’s going on there?
[Friend A] I’m not really sure. (Laughter)
[Friend B] That is weird… How does that work?
[Friend C] Ooo it catches… I have no clue.
So, if it’s not magic how does it work?
摩根：你让它处在结合点 它们会紧紧吸住 但是你把它转一下
[Morgan] You have that locking point, where it holds tightly, but then you turn past into it
and it will hold in that spring location.
[Destin] That’s genius.
That’s gonna change doorknobs. I really think it is.
[Destin] Are you excited about that? [Morgan] We like this. We like this one a lot.
Jason agreed to let David show me some of the special machines in the back that
they invented program magnets. They look just like 3d printers only you load a
blank magnet and it can create whatever magnetic field you can imagine.
While we waited the five or so minutes it takes for these things to run,
我离开这里 去见其他磁力技术极客 向他们请教一些术语
I went back out and met more magnet geeks and tried to learn more lingo.
[Destin] You said a “maxel”? [Magnet Geek] A Maxel.
[Destin] A Maxel is a what? [Magnet Geek] It’s a magnetic pixel
[Destin] Really? [Magnet Geek] Yep.
[Destin] And so a magnetic pixel would be a node inside the magnet that’s printed.
So, the image that you just printed is created by magnetic pixels or maxels.[David] More or less.
[Destin] Can we go look at it? [David] Oh yeah.
Think about these maxels. Somehow this machine creates north and south polarized maxels inside the magnet.
You can add these pixels up to basically make images that can create forces.
If you couple one image with a complimentary image
you can then create incredible three-dimensional behaviours.
This technology is so new there hasn’t even been enough time
to think through all the different applications.
I think it’s a game-changer.
I’d love to hear what you think in the comments and
please consider passing this video along to all your smart friends to see what they think.
So this is the Smarter Every Day magnet.
[Morgan] Yeah so we’ll…
德斯丁：哦 老兄 你其实可以搞个大号的弹珠轨道 能做到吗？
[Destin] Oh man! So, you could make a marble track. Could you do that?
[Morgan] Give me bigger magnets. (Laughter)
德斯丁：这个真的很神奇 我们该走了 「每天聪明点」
[Destin] This is bizzare. Alright so here we go, Smarter Every Day.
We have a marble,
And it follows the field lines.
So, there you go.
The entire foundation of magnetic circuit design technology just changed.
I’m not gonna lie it makes me look at magnets just like I did when I was a little kid.
Okay, my parents worked at that plant growing up to support the family.
I choose to be an engineer and make YouTube videos at night so let’s don’t
make this part weird because you’re smart people you know how this works.
Smarter Every Day is supported by audible.com and I would love it if you decided to support audible
so they wanted to continue supporting Smarter Every Day.
You know what’s going on.
等等 看下这个 这个印刷磁铁显示了一个促销码
Oh wait! Look at this! A printed magnet telling you the promo code.
If you want to get a free audio book of your choice,
你可以去audible.com/smarter 这网站我也常去 并没有强迫你的意思
go to audible.com/smarter I actually use this I’m not just telling you to do something
because you know they support Smarter Every Day. This is something that
will actually make you smarter every day. So if you wanna support Smarter Every Day
go to audible.com/Smarter to get a book of your choice. I would like that.
Also, I wanna thank Polymagnets,
the group that actually makes these things, for printing all the crazy stuff this is an untapped potential.
The medical field? What could they use this technology for?
It’s pretty impressive. Anyway go to check out their website they have some really cool features on there.
如果你觉得本节目值得订阅 那就不要犹豫 如果还没有 欢迎订阅「每天聪明点」
If this earned your subscription feel free to do that but if not I just want you to get smarter every day.
I’m Destin. Have a good one.
嗨 我是德斯丁 欢迎来到「每天聪明点」