未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

牛奶有害vs牛奶有益

Milk. White Poison or Healthy Drink?

Over the last decade,
过去十年里
milk has become a bit controversial.
牛奶成为一个有些争议的话题
Some people say it’s a necessary and nutritious food,
有的人说牛奶是必不可少的营养食物
vital for healthy bones,
对骨骼健康至关重要
but others say it can cause cancer and lead to an early death.
但还有一些人说牛奶致癌 而且会减少寿命
So, who’s right?
那么谁才是对的?
And why are we drinking it anyway?
我们为什么还要喝牛奶呢?
[Intro music]
[开场音乐]
Milk is the basis of every mammal’s diet after birth,
哺乳动物刚出生的时候 消化系统还不成熟
when our digestive systems are immature and small.
所以母乳是我们的基本食物
Basically, it’s power food
基本上 它是一种能量食物
to kick-start our bodies and help us grow.
它能启动我们的身体并帮助我们生长
Milk is rich in fat, vitamins, minerals, and milk-sugar: lactose.
母乳富含脂肪 维生素 矿物质以及乳糖
On top of that, for a while after birth,
最重要的是 在我们出生后的一段时间内
it also contains antibodies and proteins
它还含有抗体和蛋白质
that protect us from infections and regulate our immune system.
能保护我们免受感染并调节免疫系统
But it’s a lot of effort for mothers to produce.
妈妈们分泌母乳十分不容易
Eventually, humans stop drinking mother’s milk
最后 宝宝们断奶了
and transition to the diet of their parents.
开始吃父母为他们做的食物
This is how it’s been for thousands of years.
这样的情况持续了几千年
Until about eleven thousand years ago,
直到11000年以前
when our ancestors settled down in the first agricultural communities.
我们的祖先第一次在农业社会安顿下来的时候
Soon, they domesticated the first dairy animals:
很快他们便驯养了第一批乳畜:
goats, sheep, and cattle.
山羊 绵羊以及牛
They found that dairy animals are able to eat useless and abundant stuff
人们发现乳畜可以吃掉无用且数量多的食物
and turn it into nutritious and tasty food.
随后将其转化为营养美味的食物
This made a huge difference in terms of survival,
这对人们的生存产生了巨大影响
especially in hard times.
尤其是在困难时期
So groups that had milk available had an evolutionary advantage.
有牛奶喝的群体就有了进化的优势
And through natural selection,
在自然选择过程中
it changed the genes of communities
大量饮用牛奶的人群基因得到改变
who consumed a lot of it.
他们更加适应周围的环境
This adaptation has to do with a specialized enzyme: lactase.
这种适应与一种特殊的酶有关 即乳糖酶
Babies have a lot of it in their system,
婴儿体内有许多乳糖酶
so they can break down the milk-sugar lactose
因此他们能分解乳糖
and digest milk easily.
并轻松消化牛奶
But the older we grow,
随着我们逐渐长大
the fewer lactase enzymes our body produces.
体内产生的乳糖酶也逐渐减少
Worldwide, about 65% of the population
全世界大约有65%的人在婴儿期之后
do not have the enzyme after infancy,
体内就没有乳糖酶了
which means they are not able to digest more than
也就是说 他们每天所消化的牛奶
about 150 milliliters each day.
不能超过150毫升
This lactose intolerance is not
而这些对乳糖不耐受的人
spread evenly around the world, though.
在全球的分布并不均匀
In some East Asian communities,
比如 在东亚的某些地区
for example, it’s up to 90%.
有90%的人对乳糖不耐受
In Northern Europe and North America, the rates are the lowest overall.
在北欧和北美 对乳糖不耐受人群的比例是最少的
There are probably a few reasons for this uneven distribution.
造成这种不均匀分布的原因可能有几个
The trait was first introduced by random mutation,
乳糖不耐受最开始是由于基因的随机突变
which happened independently of each other in a few populations.
这种现象在一些人群中是独立发生的
The fact that farming replaced
另外 农业取代狩猎
hunting and gathering more and more
人们逐渐聚集到一起生活
created natural-selection pressure.
给自然选择带来压力
People who were able to digest lactose had more foods at hand,
能够消化乳糖的人有更多的食物作为选择
which was an advantage.
这是他们的优势
The migration of dairy farmers to the north then spread it further,
饲养乳畜的牧人向北边甚至更远的地方迁移
which probably pushed back populations there
这可能造成迁出地范围内
that didn’t have the trait.
对乳糖耐受的人口减少
Okay, but if milk has been a valuable part of our diet
如果牛奶几千年来一直是我们饮食中
for thousands of years,
非常重要的一部分
why is it so controversial?
它为什么会有如此大的争议呢?
There are a number of claims regarding
关于牛奶对人体健康的好处和坏处
the negative and positive health effects of milk.
存在着许多说法
The negative ones cover a wide variety,
牛奶对人体有害的说法涉及很多方面
from brittle bones to cancer, and cardiovascular diseases
比如使骨头变脆 致癌 引发心血管疾病
to intolerance and allergies.
乳糖不耐症以及过敏
So, how do they hold up?
这么说的依据是什么呢?
Some older studies found a connection
一些较早的研究发现
between milk and a high risk
牛奶和乳腺癌 结肠癌
of breast, colon, and prostate cancer
以及前列腺癌的高风险之间存在联系
But meta analyses found no impact on your cancer risk.
但Meta分析发现牛奶对患癌风险没有影响
On the contrary, the calcium in milk might even
相反 我们发现牛奶中的钙质
have a protective effect against colon cancer.
还有预防结肠癌的作用
Although this could be calcium in general,
虽然一般来说 这可能是钙
it’s not clear milk plays a role in this effect.
但还不清楚牛奶在防癌方面发挥了什么作用
Only studies on prostate cancer showed an increased risk
只有某些关于前列腺癌的研究显示
for people who consumed more than one and
每天饮用牛奶超过1.25升的人
a quarter liters of milk a day.
患前列腺癌的风险增加
But again, the association is inconsistent
不过 这种关联也缺乏科学依据
and other studies don’t find any effects.
其他研究也没有显示牛奶对前列腺有影响
We discuss these studies in more detail in our sources document.
我们在源文件中深入地分析这些研究结果
All in all, the research seems
总来的说 研究结果似乎表明
to show that if you drink between 100 to 250 milliliters
如果你每天喝100到250毫升的牛奶
of milk per day, cancer is not a concern.
你不必担心患癌
Similarly, meta-analyses could not find any impact
同样地 Meta分析并未发现
from milk or dairy products on
牛奶或其他乳制品
your risk of heart disease, stroke, or your total mortality.
对心脏病 中风 或总体死亡率有影响
Some studies even suggested that high blood pressure
还有研究表明 大量食用乳制品的人
might be rarer in people who eat a lot of dairy,
患高血压的风险可能很低
although the evidence is not strong enough to claim this with confidence.
尽管证据不足 无法充分证明这一点
The case gets more complicated though when we look at bones.
谈到牛奶对骨骼的影响 情况就更复杂了
A number of studies found neither positive
许多研究发现牛奶对成年人的骨骼
nor negative effects for adults.
既没有益处也没有害处
What most people worry most about though
而人们最担心的是
are harmful amounts of pesticides, antibiotics, or hormones.
有害的的杀虫剂 抗生素以及激素
There are hormones in milk, but only in very low concentrations.
牛奶中虽然含有激素 但其浓度非常低
For example to get the same amount of hormones as from the pill,
比如 要获得药片所含激素的剂量
you’d need to drink about 5000 litres of milk,
你需要喝掉5000升的牛奶
and even if you did,
即便你喝了
most hormones would be destroyed
在激素对你造成影响之前
by your digestive system before they could affect you,
有很大一部分就已经被消化系统破坏了
which is the reason why so much medication
所以人们给许多药物包衣
is coated to protect it from our digestion.
以保护它们免受消化道的破坏
For pesticides and antibiotics,
至于杀虫剂和抗生素
there are regulations in most parts of the world
全球大多数国家的法规
that only allow completely harmless amounts.
规定杀虫剂和抗生素的含量必须对人体完全无害
Milk that surpasses these thresholds is not allowed to go on the shelf.
含量超标的牛奶是不能进入市场销售的
So there’s nothing in particular to worry about.
所以没什么特别需要担心的
Besides allergies and those suffering from lactose intolerances,
除了过敏和乳糖不耐受
the best known negative effects of milk are probably acne
牛奶最为人熟知的不良影响可能还有痤疮
and general discomfort after drinking milk or eating dairy products,
以及食用牛奶或乳制品之后出现的浑身不适
and here the effects are very real.
这些不良影响是真实存在的
For example, skimmed milk has been found
例如 从数据来看
to statistically increase the rate of acne by 24%.
脱脂奶会使人患痤疮的几率增加24%
Allergies against milk products are especially prevalent among children,
对牛奶过敏的人主要是儿童
with one in 18 kids in Germany suffering from them.
在德国 每18个孩子中就有1个对牛奶过敏
In general, these allergies tend to get better
一般来说 随着他们逐渐长大
or disappear as they grow older though.
这种状况会有所好转或是消失
Okay. Is milk healthy then?
那么牛奶有益健康吗?
Milk, no matter if it comes from mothers, cows, sheep, goats,
不论是母乳 牛奶 绵羊奶 山羊奶还是骆驼奶
or camels is a nutrient-dense food.
都是富含营养的食物
It contains all necessary macronutrients
它们含有人体所必需的所有常量营养素
and many micronutrients.
以及许多微量营养素
Especially in regions where people struggle to get enough calories,
尤其是在难以获得人体所需热量的地区
milk can contribute to a healthy life
牛奶使人们身体健康
and lower child mortality.
还能降低儿童死亡率
For those living in the developed world,
对于发达国家的人来说
in general milk is not harmful
牛奶通常是无害的
if you are not allergic or intolerant to it.
除非你对它们过敏或是不耐受
Especially for children,
特别是对于儿童来说
it’s a good way to get large amounts of calcium
他们能从牛奶中获得大量的钙
and for vegetarians,
对素食者来说
it’s a good source of vitamin b12
他们能从中获得维生素B12
and B vitamins in general.
以及其他B族维生素
This does not mean there are not
但这并不意味着世界上没有其他
other alternatives with the same effect.
和牛奶有着同样功效的食品
You do not need to drink milk to be healthy
你不必为了保持健康而喝奶
Milk is also definitely not a substitute for water.
也绝不能用它们替代饮用水
Milk is power food,
牛奶是能量食物
and the additional calories from drinking a lot of it
大量饮奶而摄入过多的热量
on a regular basis can contribute to being overweight.
常常会导致人们体重超标
Especially flavored milk or chocolate milk
尤其是调味奶或巧克力奶
is more comparable to beverages
它们并非健康的零食
like lemonade than a healthy snack,
而是和柠檬水一样的饮料
and there’s another thing to consider.
还有一个问题需要考虑
Milk production has a significant impact on the global climate.
乳制品的生产对全球气候有重大影响
About 33 percent of cropland is used to feed grazing animals
约33%的耕地用于饲养食草牲畜
including dairy cattle
包括奶牛
Even though the carbon footprint
虽然自1990年以来
of dairy products has declined since 1990,
乳制品生产过程中的碳排放量减少了
Dairy production is still responsible for 3 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions,
但仍占所有温室气体排放量的3%
even more than all airplanes combined.
甚至超过了航空业的温室气体排放量
Milk is a huge industry
乳制品是一个巨大的产业
and sadly, most of its production
不幸的是 在工厂化的农场里
in factory farms causes incredible suffering.
它的大部分生产给动物造成了极大的痛苦
Cows are impregnated over and over,
母牛不断受孕
separated from their young shortly after birth,
人们迫使它们和刚出生的幼崽分离
and slaughtered once their tortured bodies
一旦它们受尽折磨的身体不能再产奶
are not productive anymore.
就会被宰杀
We can’t ignore that
我们不能忽视的是
much of the milk we consume stems from an industry
我们消费的大部分牛奶
that is basically torture and contributes to climate change.
都来自一个折磨动物并导致气候变化的行业
What about plant-based milk?
那么植物奶呢?
In terms of protein levels and nutritional value,
就蛋白质水平及营养价值而言
only soy milk can compare to cow milk.
只有豆奶可以和牛奶相提并论
The others need to be artificially enriched
其他植物奶则需要人工添加维生素和钙质
to reach similar levels of vitamins and calcium.
以达到与牛奶相似的水平
So they can be an alternative to milk.
所以它们是可以替代牛奶的
And another option might be available soon.
我们很快就会有新的选择
Several startups have created non-animal milk
几家创业公司造出了非动物奶
that is nutritionally identical to dairy milk,
这种奶与牛奶的营养价值一样
for example, through fermentation by gene modified bacteria.
例如 通过转基因细菌来发酵
This lab-grown milk can even be turned into cheese,
这种人造奶甚至可以用来制作奶酪
something that plant based alternatives struggle with
这是植物奶所面临的难题
because they lack casein and whey protein,
因为它们缺少酪蛋白和乳清蛋白
the key ingredients that give dairy its taste and structure.
牛奶的质地和口感离不开这两种关键物质
The environmental impact is a different story though.
但这对环境的影响又是另一回事了
Many milk alternatives use significantly less energy, land and less water to produce
许多牛奶替代品使用的能源 土地和水都要少得多
so they have a much lower environmental impact than animal milk.
所以它们对环境的影响比动物奶要小很多
If you want to have the lowest possible negative impact on the planet,
如果你想尽可能减少对地球的负面影响
the best choice is whatever milk alternative is regional.
最好的办法就是购买本地的牛奶替代品
As with almost any topic, milk is complicated.
和几乎所有话题一样 牛奶也是复杂的
It’s not harmful for the majority of the population
牛奶对大多数人来说是无害的
and it’s crucial for many people around the world.
它对世界上很多人来说非常重要
It’s good, nutritious food, but also harmful
牛奶营养美味 是很好的食物
to the planet and causes a lot of suffering.
但它对环境有害 对动物造成了伤害
We need to decide as a society how we want to deal with these facts.
我们要一起设法解决这些负面影响
If you feel like watching more documentary style videos now,
如果你想看更多纪录片
check out CuriosityStream.
去好奇心流看看吧
A subscription streaming service
它是一家订购流媒体
with thousands of documentaries and non-fiction titles
为大家提供成千上万的纪录片和非虚构电影
and sponsor of this video.
该视频由好奇心流媒体赞助
With a CuriosityStream subscription,
订阅好奇心流可免费获得Nebula
you also get Nebula for free a streaming service owned
这是由CGP Grey Lindsay Ellis
and operated by education content creators
以及Knowing Better等科普频道
like CGP Grey, Lindsay Ellis or Knowing Better.
所运营的流媒体服务
A place to experiment,
这是一个实验之地
where creators are safe from the fun things YouTube throws at us from time to time.
在这里 创造者们可以远离油管的搞笑视频
And, there are also originals like TierZoo’s Let’s Play Outside,
还有TierZoo的Let’s Play Outside
a fun video remix of a popular curiosity stream documentary!
这是人们喜爱的一系列纪录片
Nebula is included with CuriosityStream for our viewers when you sign up at:
登陆curiositystream.com/kurzgesagt
curiositystream.com/kurzgesagt
就能获得Nebula
So summarizing;
另外
CuriosityStream gives you access to big-budget documentaries
《好奇心流》为你提供由大卫·爱登堡
from people like David Attenborough and Stephen Hawking.
和史蒂芬·霍金这些大师制作的高成本纪录片
Nebula is all about independent creators taking control and try new stuff.
Nebula里面都是关于人们自主创造新事物的视频
You get the best of both worlds for $2.99 per month
只需2.99美元一个月或19.99美元一年
or only $19.99 for a full year, by visiting:
就能观看这些视频
curiositystream.com/kurzgesagt
请访问curiositystream.com/kurzgesagt
[Outro music]
[结束音乐]

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

牛奶对人体究竟是好是坏,本视频进行了解释。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Spencer

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oakWgLqCwUc

相关推荐