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微塑污染与海鲜安全

Microplastic Contamination and Seafood Safety

“微塑污染和海鲜安全”
“Microplastic Contaminationand Seafood Safety”
1869年 在台球的生产过程中
In 1869, a patent was taken out for a new substance
取得了一项取代象牙的新物质的专利
to replace elephant ivory in the production of billiard balls,
塑料产业由此诞生
and the plastics industry was born.
讽刺的是 当初以环保为出发点的措施
Ironically, what started out as aconservation-minded measure
已经变成了一个环境问题
has turned into anenvironmental problem.
无以计数的塑料微粒
Hundreds of thousands of tons oftrillions of tiny plastic particles
正漂浮在海面上
are now floating on thesurface of the sea.
这是它的由来
This is how it works,
无非来自塑料制品
either from plastic objects
像饮料瓶磨损而成的极小碎片
like water bottles that get worn down intotinier and tinier pieces,
或从水槽流入下水道的塑料微粒
or plastic microbeads flowing downinto the sewers from our sinks.
塑料微粒常用作
Plastic microbeads are often used
个人护理和化妆品的洗涤剂
as a scrubbing agent in personal care and cosmetic products,
像洗面奶 发胶和牙膏
such as facialcleansers, shower gels, and toothpaste,
一次简单的洗漱就有高达94000个塑料微粒流入下水道
and up to 94,000 microbeads could go down the drain in a single wash.
然后当你在海里搜罗时
Then when you trawl the oceans
就能发现和面部护理产品所含相同的微粒
you can find the same beads you find in the facial scrubs.
美国每天都有数以亿计的微塑粒排入水源
Billions are emitted into aquatic habitats every day in the United States.
美国产生的微粒足以
Laid end to end, the United Statesemits enough microbeads
环绕地球七圈以上
to wrap around the planetmore than seven times.
这成为了一个问题是因为
The reason this may be a problem is
塑料在水中积累产生有毒化合物
that the plastic then accumulates toxic compounds from the water
并游离在水中
and then shuttles them,
源于塑料的化学物质又被海洋生物摄取
along with any chemicals originally inthe plastic, into marine organisms,
毒素在食物链中积聚最终回到我们的餐桌上
concentrating up the food chain and eventually ending up on our plates.
它对人的潜在危害包括
The potential hazardous effects onhumans then evidently include
“染色体变异导致不育 肥胖 癌症”
“alterations in chromosomes which lead to infertility, obesity, and cancer.”
等等 我们退一步并重新审视一下证据
Wait, let’s take a step back,and review the evidence.
塑料流入海中 但鱼体内有吗?
Plastic gets into the oceans, but does it even get into the fish?
是的 鱼类及其他海鲜已经被证实含有塑料微粒
Yes, microplastics have been shown to be ingested by fish and other seafood.
但我们吃的鱼真的含有微塑吗?
But are we then actuallyeating plastic-ingesting fish?
是的 我们吃的鱼含有微塑
Yes, we are eatingplastic-ingesting fish.
但难道我们不会把这些塑料排出体外吗?
But don’t we just poop the plastic out?
足够小的塑料微粒实际上可以被吸收
Small enough microparticles mayactually be able to get absorbed
穿过肠壁进入血液循环
through the intestinal walland into our bloodstream.
这种“摄入塑料微粒经小肠
This “uptake of ingested microparticlesinto small intestinal tissues
进入次器官的过程已经从
and on to secondary organs has moved
一件轶事转变为经验证且可计量的过程”
from being an anecdotal phenomenon to a recognized and quantifiable process.”
但那是在啮齿动物体内
But that’s in rodents.
只因在一些动物实验中被证明
Just because it’s been demonstratedacross a variety of lab animals,
不能说明在人身上也是这样
you don’t know if it happens
直到在人身上进行测试
in people… until you put it to the test.
我们用人体胎盘进行了试验
The closest we have is working withhuman placentas after childbirth,
发现塑料微粒确实能
and what they found is that plasticmicroparticles could indeed cross
从母体血液中穿过胎盘
the placental barrier fromthe maternal blood stream;
所以如果微粒进入孕妇体内
so, if it could get into apregnant woman’s circulation
它也会进入婴儿体内
it might get into herbaby’s circulation as well.
这倍受关注是由于塑料碎片
The reason this isconcerning is that plastic debris
是有毒化学物质的来源
can be a source of toxic chemicals,
塑料中的化学添加剂
both chemical additivesin the plastic itself,
和塑料在水中产生的污染物
and then pollutants the plastic sucks up from the water
都可能释放到体内
that can then be later released into the body.
双酚A是一种塑料中产生的化学添加剂
BPA is one of the chemical additives that can originate from the plastic itself.
考虑到它在塑料中的浓度
Given that BPA concentrations havebeen measured in plastic debris,
微塑可能是海鲜中双酚A的主要来源
microplastics may be a majorsource of BPA in seafood,
但没人深入调查……直到现在
but no one’s really looked into it…until now—
可食用海鲜中的双酚A含量
BPA levels in the edible parts of seafood.
没错 鱼和海鲜中的
Yes, fish and seafood present one
双酚A浓度处于最高水平
of the highest BPA contamination levels,
但那是因为他们只检测了
but is that just becausethey were looking at
像金枪鱼和沙丁鱼之类的罐头产品吗
canned fish products liketuna and sardines?
因为制造商会在罐头盒内涂层加入双酚A
Manufacturers may use BPA in thelining of food cans directly.
对 海中的塑料也可能析出双酚A
Yes, BPA may also leachfrom the plastic in the oceans,
直接污染海鱼
causing a direct contamination of fish-
实际上有些观点认为海鱼中的双酚A污染
in fact some argue that this BPAenvironmental contamination in fish
比罐头容器中使用的更严重
could be worse than the BPA from the cans themselves,
但我们并不清楚
but you don’t know…
直到对它们进行了测试
until you put it to the test.
这是罐装海鲜中的双酚A含量
Here are the BPA levelsfound in canned seafood.
可以看出含量最高的是金枪鱼 海扇
You can see the highest levels were found in like tuna, cockles,
沙丁鱼和蓝蟹
sardines, and blue crab
但这些都是罐装的
but these were all canned;
所以多少来自罐头多少来自海鲜本身并不清楚
so you don’t know how much is from the can versus the seafood itself,
直到对非罐装海鲜进行测试
until you look at non-canned seafood,
一些软体动物 蛤蚌 比目鱼和鳕鱼中
and sometimes found evenhigher levels in some
甚至检测出更高的含量
fresh mollusks, clams, flounder, and cod.
这可不妙 因为像双酚A这样的塑料化学物质
That’s not good, since plasticschemicals such as BPA
是已知的内分泌干扰素 即它能干扰激素
are known endocrine disruptors,meaning known hormone disrupters.
除此之外
And besides that,
海水中的脂溶性污染物
fat-soluble pollutants from the seawater
会附着在微塑粒表面并可能带来附带的风险
can glom on to the microplastic surfaces andpotentially present additional risk,
我们下次再讲
which we’ll cover next.

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视频概述

塑料原本是为保护自然而产生,现在竟发现在我们的餐盘中。本视频简述了塑料污染及其不良影响,尤其是在对海鱼的污染

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Gekko Shea

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qbOPQDeAYAA

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