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宇宙简说

Michio Kaku: The Universe in a Nutshell (Full Presentation)

【移动大学】
[The Floating Univetsity]
我是加来道雄
My name is Professor Michio Kaku.
我是纽约城市大学理论物理学的教授
I’m a professor of theoretical physics at the City University of New York.
我专门研究弦理论
And I specialize in something called string theory.
【宇宙简说–万物的物理学】
[The Universe in a Nutshell–The Physics of Everything]
我是一名物理学家 有些人会问我
I’m a physicist. And some people ask me the question,
“现在 物理学能为我做什么
“What has physics done for me lately?
物理学能带给我更好的彩电
I mean, do I get better color television,
还是能让上网速度更快?”
do I get better internet reception with physics?”
答案是肯定的
And the answer is yes.
物理学是一切事物和能量的基础
You see, physics is at the very foundation of matter and energy.
物理学家发明了镭射光线和晶体管
We physicists invented the laser beam, we invented the transistor.
协助制造了首台电脑
We helped to create the first computer.
物理学家还协助构建了互联网 编写了万维网
We helped to construct the internet. We wrote the World Wide Web.
而且 还协助发明了电视 无线电通信 雷达 微波炉
In addition, we also helped to invent television, radio, radar, microwaves,
更不用说核磁共振扫描 正电子发射层析扫描和X射线
not to mention MRI scans, PET scans, x-rays.
换句话说 几乎在客厅看到的所有东西
In other words, almost everything you see in your living room,
几乎在现代化医院看到的所有东西
almost everything you see in a modern hospital,
在某种程度上 都可以追溯到一位物理学家
at some point or other, can be traced to a physicist.
当我还是孩子 就对物理产生了兴趣
Now, I got interested in physics when I was a child.
我8岁时 一位伟大的物理学家去世了
When I was eight, a great scientist had just died.
我依旧清晰记得那天 小学老师走进教室
I still remember my elementary school teacher coming into the room
宣布我们这个时代最伟大的科学家刚刚逝世
and announcing that the greatest scientist of our era has just passed away.
那一天 几乎所有报纸都刊登了他桌子的照片
And that day, every newspaper published a picture of his desk.
阿尔伯特.爱因斯坦的桌子
The desk of Albert Einstein.
我永远不会忘记报道的标题
And the caption said, I’ll never forget,
我们这个时代最伟大科学家的最伟大著作的未完成手稿
“The unfinished manuscript of the greatest work of the greatest scientist of our time.”
我问自己 为什么他没有完成 何以这么难
And I said to myself, “Why couldn’t he finish it? I mean, what’s so hard?
这不就是一个家庭作业问题吗
It’s a homework problem, right?
为什么他不去问他的母亲
Why didn’t he ask his mother?
为什么他无法解决这个问题
Why can’t he finish this problem?
所以 作为一个8岁的小孩 我决定去弄明白问题所在
So as a child of eight, I decided to find out what was this problem.
多年后 我才开始认识到那是万物理论
Years later, I began to realize that it was the theory of everything,
统一场论 【万物理论】
the Unified Field Theory [the theory of everything]
一个涵盖宇宙中所有物理力学的方程式
An equation that would summarize all the physical forces in the universe.
这个方程式就是E=mc²
An equation like E=mc².
这个半英寸长的等式 揭示了星星的秘密
That equation is half an inch long and that equation unlocks the secret of the stars.
为什么星星会发光 为什么银河系会发光
Why do the stars shine? Why does the galaxy light up?
为什么地球上有能量
Why do we have energy on the earth?
但在我8岁时 还发生了另外一件事
But then there was another thing that happened to me when I was around eight years old.
我被周六电视晨间秀 特别是被“飞侠哥顿”节目深深吸引
I got hooked on the Saturday morning TV shows. In particular, Flash Gordon.
我着迷了 每周六早晨都看节目
And I was hooked. I mean, every Saturday morning watching programs about
例如来自外太空的外星人 宇宙飞船 激光枪
alien from outer space, star ships, ray guns,
隐形护盾 天空之城等 都让我着迷无法自拔
invisibility shields, cities in the sky, that was for me.
但几年后 我开始注意到一些事
But after a few years, I began to notice something.
首先 我开始充分注意到 我没有跟飞侠哥顿一样的金发碧眼
First of all, I began to notice that well, I didn’t have blond hair and blue eyes,
也没有像他一样的肌肉
I didn’t have muscles like Flash Gordon,
但让节目完美呈现的是一位科学家
but it was a scientist who made the series work.
特别说明 是位物理学家
In particular, a physicist.
他才是发现激光枪和宇宙飞船的人
He was the one who discovered the ray gun, the star ships.
他才是发明隐形护盾的人
He was the one who created the invisibility shield.
之后 我又意识到别的事
And then I realized something else.
如果你想了解未来 首先你要了解物理
If you want to understand the future, you have to understand physics.
物理是一切未知力量和未知科技的基础
Physics is at the foundation of all the gadgetry, the wizardry, all the marvels of the technological age,
所有一切都可以追溯到物理学家的成果上
all of it can be traced to the work of a physicist.
【物理学与不可能之事】
[Physics and the Impossible]
事实上 大多数科幻小说都遵循现有物理学定律
Most of science fiction is in fact well within the laws of physics,
实现书中可能之事需要100年
but possible within maybe 100 years.
要成就书中不可能之事 也许至少需要1000年
And then we have impossibilities that may take 1,000 years or more.
包括时空旅行 曲速引擎 高维空间
That includes time travel, warp drive, higher dimensions,
时间和空间的连接 星际通道 虫洞
portals through space and time, star gates, worm holes.
你知道 如果重返1900年去见祖父母 他们那时应该是质朴的农民
You know, if you were to meet your grandparents at the year 1900, they were dirt farmers back then.
他们的平均年龄不会超过40岁
They didn’t live much beyond the age of 40, on average.
1900年左右的长距离通信只能靠向邻居大声喊
Long distance communication in the year 1900 was yelling at your neighbor.
如果他们能够见到现在的你
And yet, if they could see you now,
通过平板电脑 音乐播放器 卫星 全球定位系统以及镭射光线
with iPads and iPods and satellites and GPS and laser beams,
他们会怎么看你
how would they view you?
他们会将你视为巫师或魔法师
They would view you as a wizard or sorcerer.
如果我们现在可以看见2100年的孙辈
However, if we can now meet our grandkids of the year 2100,
我们又将如何看待他们
how would we view them?
我们或许会将他们视为神 就像希腊神话故事
We would view them as gods, like in Greek mythology.
宙斯通过单纯的意识操纵物体
Zeus could control objects around him by pure thought.
通过意念去具现物体
Materialize objects just by thinking.
成为神 还有很多好处
And there’re perks to being a Greek god,
维纳斯拥有完美的躯体 不会随时间流逝而衰老
Venus had a perfect body, a timeless body.
我们现在开始从基因分子水平去揭开人类衰老的过程
And we are beginning now to unravel the genetics at the molecular level, of the aging process.
阿波罗有一辆可以驰骋于天际的战车
And then Apollo, he had a chariot that he could ride across the heavens.
或许我们终将在车库中拥有一辆梦寐以求的飞车
We will finally have that flying car that we’ve always wanted to have in our garage.
到2100年 我们就能拥有上帝的力量
By the year 2100, we will have the power of the gods.
套用亚瑟·C·克拉克的话
To paraphrase Arthur C. Clark,
“任何足够先进的科技都与神性无异”
“Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from divinity.
现在开始我们的故事 【物理学的历史】
So let’s now begin our story. [History of physics]
物理学的历史就是现代文明的历史
The history of physics is the history of modern civilization.
在艾萨克·牛顿和伽利略之前
Before Isaac Newton, before Galileo,
我们笼罩在神秘的迷信中
we were shrouded with the mysteries of superstition.
人们相信各种不同的神灵鬼怪
People believed in all sorts of different kinds of spirits and demons.
是什么让星球运动
What made the planets move?
为什么事物之间会有相互作用 这是个谜
Why do things interact with other things? It was a mystery.
让我们回到中世纪 举个例子 人们阅读亚里士多德的著作
So, back in the Middle Ages, for example, people read the works of Aristotle.
亚里士多德提问:“物体为什么会朝向地球运动?”
And Aristotle asked the question, “Why do objects move toward the earth? “
那是因为 他说道 “物体十分渴望与地球结合”
And that’s because he said, “objects yearn, yearn to be united with the earth.
“运动的物体为什么会逐渐慢下来”
And why do objects slow down when you put them in motion?
“运动的物体之所以会减速是因为它们累了”
Objects in motion slow down because they get tired.”
亚里士多德的研究支配了人类思想近2000年
These are the works of Aristotle, which held sway for almost 2,000 years
直到伽利略和艾萨克·牛顿开创现代物理学
until the beginning of modern physics with Galileo and Isaac Newton.
【现代物理学的开端】
[Beginning of Modern Physics]
当古人仰望天空时 天空中充满了神秘和困惑
When the ancients looked at the sky, the sky was full of mystery and wonder,
1066年是英历上具有里程碑的时刻
and in the year 1066, the most important date on the British calendar,
一颗彗星划过黑斯廷斯的战场
there was a comet, a comet which sailed over the battlefield of Hastings.
哈罗德国王的军队受到了惊吓
It frightened the troops of King Harold,
随后 来自诺曼底的一位年轻人横扫英格兰
and a young man from Normandy, swept into England
在黑斯廷斯战役中打败了哈罗德国王
and defeated King Harold at the Battle of Hastings,
创建了现代英国君主制
creating the modern British monarchy.
但问题是 这颗彗星从哪而来
But the question is, where did the comet come from?
这颗神秘彗星又是如何为英国君主制的到来铺平道路
What was this comet that mysteriously paved the way for the coming of the British monarchy?
好吧 信不信由你 正是那颗开辟了英国君主制的彗星
Well, believe it or not, that same comet, the very same comet that initiated the British monarchy,
在1682年再一次飞跃过伦敦
sailed over London once again in 1682.
这一次 每个人都在问 “慧星从何而来”
This time, everyone was asking the question, “Where do comets come from?”
“彗星预示着国王的逝去吗”
Do they signal the death of the king?
“为什么我们会有从天堂而来的信使”
Why do we have messengers from the heavens in the sky?”
有个人敢于参透彗星的秘密 他就是艾萨克·牛顿
Well, one man dared to penetrate the secrets of comets, and that was Isaac Newton.
事实上 艾萨克·牛顿年仅23岁时
In fact, when Isaac Newton was only 23 years old,
他偶然发现了万有引力
he stumbled upon the universal force of gravitation.
根据一种说法 牛顿当时正在乌尔索普的庄园里散步
According to one story, he was walking on his estate in Woolsthorpe,
看见一个苹果掉了下来
and he saw an apple fall.
然后艾萨克·牛顿看见月亮 提出了解开天体秘密的关键问题
And then Isaac Newton saw the moon, and then he asked the key question which helped to unlock the heavens.
如果苹果能落下来 那么月亮是否也能落下来
If apples fall, does the moon also fall?
答案是 可以
And the answer was, “Yes.”
这一答案推翻了上千年来关于天体运动的神秘猜测
And that answer overturned thousands of years of mystery and speculation about the motions of the heavens.
月亮像苹果一样做自由落体运动
The moon is in freefall, just like an apple.
月亮不断地落向地球
The moon is constantly falling toward the earth.
然而月亮不会撞击地球 因为月亮围绕地球运行 而且地球是球体
It doesn’t hit the earth, because it spins around the earth, and the earth is round,
不过月亮是在万有引力的作用下运动的
but it’s acting under a force, a force of gravity.
【宇宙四大力学——万有引力】
[Four Forces of the Universe–Gravity]
所以牛顿立刻试着用数学计算
So Newton immediately tried to work out the mathematics
但他意识到 17世纪的数学还不足以解决落月的运动问题
and he realized that the mathematics of the 1600’s was not sufficient to work out the motion of a falling moon.
那么牛顿是怎么做的呢
So what did Isaac Newton do?
他23岁时不仅偶然发现了万有引力
When he was 23 years old, not only did he stumble upon the force of gravity,
还创造了微积分
but he also created calculus.
实际上 当你还是大一新生时 牛顿以你学习微积分的速度创造了这一学科
In fact, he created calculus at the rate at which you learn it, when you are a freshman in college.
为什么他会创建微积分
And why did he create calculus?
是为了计算落月的运动问题
To calculate the motion of a falling moon.
他那时的数学 还无法计算在平方反比力场作用下运动的物体轨迹
The mathematics of his age was incapable of calculating the trajectories of objects moving under an inverse square force field,
而艾萨克·牛顿做到了这一点
and that’s what Isaac Newton did.
他计算出了月亮的运动轨迹
He worked out the motion of the moon.
他还意识到 如果能弄清楚月亮的运动
And then he realized that if he understands the moon,
也就明白了太阳系所有星球的运动
he also understands the motion of the planets in the solar system.
艾萨克·牛顿还发明了一种新式望远镜
And Isaac Newton invented a new telescope.
叫做反射式望远镜 用来追踪彗星的运动
It was the reflecting telescope and he was tracking the motion of this comet.
每个人都在谈论彗星的事情
Well, it turns out that everyone was talking about the comet,
包括一位富有的英国人艾徳蒙·哈利
including a rather wealthy Englishman by the name of Edmund Haley.
富有的英国人艾徳蒙·哈利决定去一趟剑桥
So Edmund Haley, being a wealthy merchant, decided to make a trip to Cambridge
和英国杰出的科学家艾萨克·牛顿爵士交谈
to talk to England’s illustrious scientist, Sir Isaac Newton.
艾徳蒙问牛顿:“你对这颗彗星怎么看
Well, Edmund Haley asked Newton, “What do you make of this comet?
从来没人明白 它们一直是谜
No one understands comets, they’re a mystery.
人们已为之着迷成百上千年 你怎么看”
They’ve been fascinating people for centuries, for millennia, what are your thoughts?”
我来解释一下 艾萨克·牛顿是这么回答的
And then, I paraphrase, but Isaac Newton said something like this,
他说:“哦 很简单 彗星是以完美的椭圆轨迹运动的
he said, “Oh, that’s easy. That comet is moving at a perfect ellipse.
而且是在平方反比力场中运动
It’s moving in an inverse square force field.
每天 我都用反射式望远镜追踪它
I’ve been tracking it every day with my reflecting telescope
而且那颗彗星的路线与我的数学计算一致”
and the path of that comet conforms to my mathematics exactly.”
当然 我们不知道艾德蒙·哈利的反应 但我猜测如下
And of course, we don’t know what Edmund Haley’s reaction was, but I paraphrase,
他一定说了类似的话:“上帝啊
he must have said something like this, “For God’s sake, man,
你为什么不出版科学史上最伟大的著作
why don’t you publish the greatest work in all of scientific history?
如果你是对的 你就破译了恒星的秘密 以及天空的秘密
If correct, you have decoded the secret of the stars, the secret of the heavens.
没人知道彗星从何而来”
Nobody understands where comets come from.”
然后牛顿回答说:“噢 成本太高了
And then Newton responded and said, “Oh, well, it costs too much.
我没有钱
I mean, I’m not a wealthy man,
要总结概述我所发明的微积分
it would cost too much to summarize this calculus that I’ve invented
研究星体全部运动的代价太高了”
and to work out all the motion of the stars.”
哈利一定这么说
And then Haley must have said this,
“牛顿先生 我有钱 我做生意赚了不少钱
“Mr. Newton, I am a wealthy man. I have made my fortune in commerce.
我愿意出资 以多种语言出版这部最伟大的科学著作”
I will pay for the publication of the greatest scientific work in any language.”
这本著作就是《自然哲学的数学原理》
And it was Principia.
用数学准则指导天文
The principals, the mathematical principals that guide the heavens.
相信与否 这部著作或许是自人类十万年前从非洲进化以来
Believe it or not, this is perhaps one of the most important works ever written
最重要的著作之一
by a human being in the 100,000 years since we evolved from Africa.
这本书开创了宇宙物理学的开端
Realize that this book sets into motion a physics of the universe.
控制行星运转的力量
Forces that control the motion of the planets,
可被计算出来
forces which can be calculated,
支配炮弹 火箭 鹅卵石等一切运动的力量
forces which govern the motion of cannonballs, rockets, pebbles, everything that moves,
都要按照艾萨克·牛顿爵士的运动定律和微积分而变化
moves according to the laws of motion and the calculus of Sir Isaac Newton.
实际上 现在我们发射空间探测器也没有运用爱因斯坦方程式
In fact, even today, when we launch our space probes, we don’t use Einstein’s equations,
只有速度接近光速 或靠近黑洞时才会使用爱因斯坦方程式
they only apply when you get near the speed of light or near a black hole.
我们使用牛顿的万有引力定律
We use Newton’s laws of gravity.
牛顿万有引力定律十分精确 当发射一枚空间探测器经过土星环时
They are so precise that when we shoot a space probe right past the rings of Saturn,
我们运用的正是艾萨克·牛顿在17世纪阐明的定律
we use exactly the same equations that Isaac Newton unraveled in the 1600’s.
这就是我们能揭开太阳系之谜的原因
That’s why we’ve been able to unravel the secrets of the solar system,
向艾萨克·牛顿运动定律致敬
compliments of the laws of motion of Isaac Newton.
牛顿不仅开创了计算天体运动轨迹的可能性
So what Newton did was not only did he set into motion the ability to calculate planets,
他还开创了力学
he also set into motion a mechanics.
现今运行的机器都遵守明确定义的定律
Machines now operated upon well-defined laws:
牛顿三大定律
Newton’s three laws of motion.
牛顿第一运动定律
The first law of motion says that
运动中的物体永远保持运动 直到外力迫使它改变运动状态为止
that objects in motion stay in motion forever, unless acted on by an outside force.
可以在溜冰场看到
You see that in an ice skating rink.
推一个冰球 在没有外力的作用下
You should a puck and it goes all the way down forever,
冰球会一直滑行
unless acted upon by an outside force.
这与亚里士多德的运动定律完全不同
That’s different from Aristotle’s law of motion.
亚里士多德说 “运动的物体总会停下 因为它们累了”
Aristotle said, “Objects in motion eventually stop, because they get tired.”
牛顿第二定律是 重力等于质量乘以加速度
The second law of motion says, force is mass times acceleration.
此方程式实现了工业革命
And that equation made possible the Industrial Revolution.
蒸汽机 火车头 工厂 机器的实现
Steam engines, locomotives, factories, machines,
都归功于力学的产生 遵循艾萨克·牛顿第二定律
all of it due to the mechanics set into motion by Isaac Newton’s second law of motion,
重力等于质量乘以加速度
force is equal to mass times acceleration.
牛顿力学第三定律
And then Newton had a third law of motion.
每个作用力都有一个大小相等 方向相反的反作用力
For every action, there’s an equal and opposite reaction,
火箭遵循这条定律
that’s the law of rockets.
这也是为什么我们能让火箭发射至外太空
That’s why we have rockets that can sail into outerspace.
所以这一课是 当科学家解开宇宙第一种力 万有引力
So the lesson here is, when scientists unravel the first force of the universe, gravity,
他们引发了工业革命
that set into motion the Industrial Revolution.
一场推翻了欧洲国王和女王的革命
A revolution which toppled the kings and queens of Europe,
推翻了封建主义 进入现代时期
which displaced feudalism, ushering in the modern age.
这都归功于一位23岁的年轻人向上看 并提问
All because a 23-year-old gentleman looked up and asked the question,
“月亮也会掉下来吗”
“Does the moon also fall?”
当我还是个孩子在加州时
You know, when I was a kid growing up in California,
我看到帝国大厦的图片
I would see pictures of the Empire State Building.
我对自己说 怎么能建那么高的大楼 还不会倒塌
And I said to myself, “How could that possibly build such a big building and not know that it’s going to fall?
为什么不会倒塌 他们没有建造类似的成比例模型
Why doesn’t it fall? They didn’t build scale models of the thing,
又不能建造庞大的帝国大厦 来试验是否会倒塌
you couldn’t have an Empire State Building that big to test whether it’s going to fall or not.
他们怎么预知 建造那么高的楼而不会倒
How did they know ahead of time that that building wouldn’t fall?
答案就是 牛顿力学定律
And the answer is: Newton’s laws of motion.
事实上 今天我教授牛顿力学
In fact, today, I teach Newton’s laws of motion,
你可以利用牛顿第二定律 重力等于质量乘以加速度算出
and you can actually calculate the forces on every single brick of the empire state building,
每一块帝国大厦砖块的作用力
using Newton’s second law of motion, force is mass times acceleration.
牛顿揭示的万有引力是第一种力
When Newton unraveled the force of gravity, that was the first force.
现在 我们来看看第二种力
Now, let’s take a look at the second force,
一种更重要的力 与日常生活息息相关
an even greater force which has touched all of our lives,
电磁力
and that is the electromagnetic force.
自从人类见到天上闪现的闪电
Ever since humans saw lightning bolts light up the sky,
自从人类对雷声感到恐惧
ever since they were terrified by the sound of thunder,
他们就在问 “是神在控制闪电并制造雷声吗
they’ve been asking, “Do the gods propel lightening bolts and create thunder?
神迁怒于我们吗”
Are they angry at us?”
科学家发现闪电和雷可以在地球上被制造
Scientists began to realize that the lightning bolts and the thunder can be duplicated on the earth.
我们可用电力制造迷你闪电
That we can actually create mini lightning bolts using electricity.
但直到19世纪 我们才最终发现了第二种力
But it wasn’t until the 1800’s that finally we begin to unlock the second great force
它规范全宇宙 即电磁力
which rules the universe, the electromagnetic force.
迈克尔·法拉第在伦敦做圣诞节讲演
Michael Faraday would give Christmas lectures in London,
吸引了从大人到孩子的所有人群
fascinating everyone from adults to children.
他演示不可思议的电性质
And he would demonstrate the incredible properties of electricity.
有些人会问个简单的问题
Some people, for example, ask a simple question.
如果你在车里或飞机上被闪电击中
If you’re in a car or an airplane, you get hit by a lightening bolt,
为什么不会触电 为什么不会身亡
why don’t you all get electrocuted? Why don’t you all die?
法拉第如此回答
Well, Faraday answered the question.
他会建造一个笼子
He would create a cage.
他会走进铁笼子 电击
He would walk into this steel cage, electrify it,
他丝毫不会触电
and he wouldn’t get electrocuted at all.
这就是法拉第笼
That’s called a Faraday cage
每次走入这个铁笼 你都会被保护
and every time you walk into a metal structure, you get shielded by this metal object.
迈克尔·法拉第所做的是
Well, what Michael Faraday did was,
用法拉第定律推动第二次工业革命
he helped to unleash the second great revolution with something calls Faraday’s Law.
磁场中运动的电线 在电子的作用下 制造出电流
A moving wire in a magnetic field, has this electrons pushed, creating an electrical current.
简单的想法发动了电器革命
That simple idea unleashed the electric revolution.
这就是为什么我们有水力发电机
And that’s why we have hydroelectric generators,
制造出庞大能量的大坝
dams that produce enormous amounts of power,
这就是为什么建造核电站
That’s why people build nuclear power plants.
为什么现在这间屋子有电
That’s why we have electricity in this room right now!
可小规模的用在自行车上
On a very small scale, you use that in your bicycle.
当你打开车灯 运动的车轮带动一块磁铁旋转
When you put a bicycle lamp on your bicycle, the turning of the wheel spins a magnet.
然后磁铁激活一根电线中的电子
The magnet then pushes electrons in a wire
这就是自行车车灯亮的原因
and that’s why electricity lights up in your bicycle lamp.
换句话说 电和磁统一于一种力
So in other words, electricity and magnetism were unified into a single force.
曾经我们认为电和磁是分开的
We once thought that electricity and magnetism were separate.
现在我们知道 电和磁是同一种力
Now we know they are in fact the same force.
所以如果变化磁铁能激发一个电场
So if a moving magnet can create an electric field,
反过来 变化的电场也可以激发一个磁场
this means that a moving electric field can create a magnetic field.
如果电和磁能相互激发
But if they can create each other,
为什么它们不能一直激发重复下去 形成一条波纹
why can’t they oscillate and create a wave?
就是说变化的电场激发磁场
So that moving electric fields create magnetic fields,
磁场激发电场 电场激发磁场 无限循环下去
create electric fields, create magnetic fields, infinitum to create a wave?
在美国内战时期
Well, around the time of the American Civil War,
数学物理学家 詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦
a mathematical physicist, James Clerk Maxwell,
运用法拉第的研究成果 计算电磁波纹的速度
calculated, using the work of Faraday, the velocity of this wave.
这是历史上最重要的科学突破之一
And in one of the greatest breakthroughs of all time,
詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦计算出电磁波纹的速度
James Clerk Maxwell calculated the velocity of this wave
发现那就是光波的速度
and found out it was the velocity of light.
然后他得出惊人的结论 光波是一种电磁波
And then he made this incredible discovery: this is light.
那就是光波的本质
That’s what light is.
不是偶然用电速传播 而是用光速
It doesn’t by accident travel at the speed of electricity, it is light itself.
詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦写下了这些方程式
And the equations were written down by James Clerk Maxwell.
很不幸 迈克尔·法拉第没有接受正规教育
Unfortunately, Michael Faraday himself did not have a formal education.
他无法将研究成果归结于数学公式
He could not put into mathematical form his own work.
詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦是位理论物理学家 我也是
James Clerk Maxwell was a theoretical physicist, just like myself.
他写下由于电场和磁场振荡的数学物理公式
He wrote down the mathematical physics of oscillating electric fields and magnetic fields
被称为麦克斯韦方程式
and they are called Maxwell’s equations.
研究生院的每位物理学学者都要背这些公式
These equations have to be memorized by every physicist in grad school.
想拿到博士学位 就必须背
You cannot get your PhD without memorizing these equations.
每位负责雷达和无线电的工程师必须背
Every engineer deals with radar and radio has to memorize these equations.
如果你去我取得博士学位之地 伯克利 可以买件T恤 上面印着
And so, if you go to Berkley, where I got my PhD, you can buy a t-shirt which says,
“上帝创世之初时说
“In the beginning God said,
一个反对称二阶张量的四维散度等于零 于是就有了光”
the four-dimensional divergence of an antisymmetric, second rank tensor equals zero, and there was light.”
女士们先生们 这就是光波的方程式
Ladies and gentlemen, this is the equation for light.
对我们意味着什么呢
What does this mean for us?
电磁革命的结果与我们息息相关
The consequences of the electromagnetic revolution touch all of us.
这是从外太空拍摄的地球 看看这张图
This is a picture of the earth from outer space. Look at this picture.
欧洲实现电气化
Europe electrified,
你能看到我们辛苦制造电的成果 供给生活能量
you can actually see the fruits of all of our efforts to create electricity, to energize our lives,
从外太空看地球的一张图
in one picture, seeing the earth from outer space.
我们现在讨论的是 法拉第和麦克斯韦的研究如何让生活变得更好
So let’s now talk about how Faraday and Maxwell’s work touches your life as well.
这是因特网 电磁力的典型副产品
This is the internet. The internet is a simple byproduct of the electromagnetic force.
有因特网的地方 繁荣昌盛
And you can see that where there is the internet, there is prosperity.
科学 娱乐和经济活动都蒸蒸日上
There is science, there’s entertainment, there’s economic activity.
没有因特网就摆脱不掉贫困
Where there’s no internet, there’s poverty.
未来 网络可以缩小到放入你的眼镜中
And in the future, the internet will be miniaturized and it will be placed in your glasses.
你的眼镜可识别人脸
Your glasses will recognize people’s faces
对话时 对方的档案就呈现在图像旁边
and display their biography next to the image as you talk to them,
当对方说汉语时
and then when they speak Chinese to you,
你的眼镜可将汉语翻译为英语
your glasses will translate Chinese into English
在他们的图像旁边显示字幕
and print out subtitles right beneath their image.
所以将来 你可以准确地与陌生人谈话
So in the future, you will know exactly who you are talking to without even talking to them,
就是说在一场鸡尾酒会
and this means that at a cocktail party,
如果你在找工作 但不知道该找谁
if you’re looking for a job, but you don’t know who the heavy hitters are,
未来 你将准确地知道该找谁攀谈
in the future you will know exactly who to suck up to.
芯片在将来会很便宜
In the future, chips will only cost a penny,
因为我们能制造越来越小的晶体管
because we can manufacture tinier and tinier transistors.
身体中会有法拉第的电磁力
You will have Faraday’s electromagnetic force inside your body.
这是一粒药 含有一个芯片
This is a pill. It has a chip in it.
芯片比一粒阿司匹林药还小
The chip is smaller than an aspirin pill.
芯片还装有摄像头和磁铁
It also has a TV camera and a magnet.
当你吞服下去 磁铁就开始指导摄像头
When you swallow it, the magnet guides the camera,
在你的胃部拍照 在大肠拍照
taking pictures of your stomach, your intestines,
我们知道中年人最怕什么 结肠镜检查
because we all know what middle-aged men fear the most: colonoscopies.
这赋予“内部网络”新意义
And, this gives new meaning for the expression “intel inside.”
我们下面讨论制约宇宙的下一种力
Now, let’s talk about the next great forces which rule the universe.
我们刚讨论过万有引力 可计算出行星的轨迹
We talked about gravity, which allows us to calculate the motion of the planets.
牛顿创造的机械学推动了工业革命
The mechanics created by Newton helped to unleash the Industrial Revolution.
迈克尔·法拉第研究电磁力 引领我们进入电时代
Michael Faraday worked out the electromagnetic force, which gave us the wonders of the electric age.
我们接下来讨论核时代 星星和太阳
And now, let’s talk about the nuclear age, the stars and the sun.
人类一直对太阳着迷
People have been fascinated by the sun,
神邸阿波罗驾着燃烧的战车驰骋天际
Apollo was the god that strode across the heavens in his fiery chariot.
但是 如果太阳能源是煤或油 你计算能燃烧多久
But hey, when you calculate how long coal or oil will burn like the sun,
你发现在仅仅几百年时间里 太阳就会燃烧殆尽
you realize that in just a few hundred years, the sun would burn to a crisp.
是什么让太阳燃烧了几十亿年
So what could possibly last for billions of years?
一定有种新的力 那就是核力
There must be a new force, a nuclear force.
爱因斯坦和其他科学家帮助解开天体的奥秘
Einstein and others helped to unravel the secret of the stars.
核力有两种形式 弱核力和强核力
The nuclear force comes in two types, weak and strong.
弱核力控制放射性衰变
The weak nuclear force governs radioactive decay.
强核力是整个宇宙中最强的力
The strong nuclear force is one of the strongest forces in the entire universe.
自从创世纪起源初期 它就将质子聚在一起
It’s so strong it holds our protons together, ever since Genesis, the beginning of time.
能量释放的公式 即爱因斯坦的方程式E=mc²
The equation which allows for the liberation of energy is Einstein’s famous equation E=mc².
爱因斯坦所说明的是 物体运动的越快 质量越大
What Einstein showed was that the faster you move, the heavier you get.
重量不是一个常量
So your weight is not a constant.
运动的很快时 就变重了
When you move very rapidly you get heavier,
今天我们还会在实验室进行测量
something which we measure every day in the laboratory.
因为变重 就是说运动中的能量变为了质量
Now, this means that the energy of motion transformed into mass, because you get heavier.
请仔细听好
Now, listen carefully.
运动的越快就越重
The faster you move, the heavier you get.
就是说等式中的“能量”转化为“重量”
Which means that the energy of motion, “E” turns into “m”, your mass.
能量与质量的关系很简单
And the relationship between E and m is very simple,
只需一秒钟就可写在纸上
it takes one second to write it down on a sheet of paper,
就是这个公式 E=mc²
it is exactly E=mc².
核力帮助解释太阳的秘密
So the nuclear force helped to explain the secret of the sun.
也创造了一个潘多拉魔盒
But it also created a Pandora’s box,
因为原子核内部是粒子
because inside the nucleus of the atom, are particles.
如果打碎粒子得到什么 更多粒子
And when you smash these particles, what do you get? More particles.
继续打碎粒子得到什么 更多粒子
And when you smash them, what do you get? More particles.
事实上 我们陷入了亚原子粒子中
In fact, we are drowning in subatomic particles.
每次我们砸碎原子 就有成百上千 成千上万的粒子
Hundreds, thousands of subatomic particles every time we smash atoms.
现在 我们用核粒子加速器粉碎原子
Now, we smash atoms using something called atom smashers, or particle accelerators.
在高中时 我建造了自己的核粒子加速器
I built my own particle accelerator when I was in high school.
高中时 有一天我对妈妈说
When I was in high school, I went to my mom one day and I said,
“妈妈 我能在车库建造一个230万电子伏的电子感应粒子加速器吗”
“Mom, can I have permission to build a 2.3 million electron volt betatron particle accelerator in the garage?”
妈妈说 “当然可以 为什么不呢
And my mom said, “Sure, why not?
别忘了把车库的垃圾扔了”
And don’t forget to take out the garbage!”
我去了西屋公司 作为一个高中生 我索要了400磅的再生铁
So I went into Westinghouse. And as a high school kid I asked for 400 pounds of transformer steel.
索要了长达22英里长的铜线
I asked for 22 miles of cooper wire.
因为我想制造一个六千瓦 一万高斯的磁场来充能粒子加速器
Because I wanted to create a six kilowatter, 10,000 gauss magnetic field, to energize my atom smasher.
22英里长的铜线 如何放置
With 22 miles of copper wire, how could you wind it?
我们在高中足球场盘线
We did it on the high school football field.
我将22英里长的铜线放在球门柱 然后将铜线一头给妈妈
I put 22 miles of copper wire on the goalpost, gave it to my mother,
她跑到50里开外 解开这团铜线
she ran to the 50 yard line unraveling the spool of wire,
然后交给爸爸再跑回球门柱
she gave it to my father who then ran to the goalpost
就这样 我们将22英里长的铜线盘放高中足球场
and we wound 22 miles of copper wire on the high school football field.
最终 我的粒子加速器准备就绪
Well, finally my atom smasher was ready.
它需要六千瓦电力 是我家一年的供电量
It consumed six kilowatts of power, that’s every single ounce of power my house could deliver.
我塞紧耳朵 闭上眼睛 打开了能量开关
I plugged my ears, I closed my eyes, I turned on the power,
我听到响亮的咔咔声
and I heard this huge crackling sound
六千瓦电力呼啸涌入电容器组
as six kilowatts of power surged through my capacitor bank
然后听到“啪 啪 啪”声音
and then I heard a “pop pop pop” sound
因为我摧毁了家里所有的电路
as I blew out every single circuit breaker in the house.
整个家陷入黑暗中
The whole house was plunged in darkness.
我可怜的妈妈 每次她回家看到灯光闪烁 熄灭
My poor mom, every time she’d come home she’d see the lights flicker and die.
她肯定想 “为什么我不能有个玩棒球的儿子
And she must’ve wondered “why couldn’t I have a son who plays baseball?”
为什么他不学篮球
Why can’t he learn basket ball?
上帝啊 她为什么不找个漂亮的日本姑娘”
And for god’s sake why can’t he find a nice Japanese girl?”
为什么他非要在车库里造这些机器
I mean, why does he have to build these machines in the garage?
我在车库中建造的机器引起了一位物理学家的注意
Well, these machines that I built in my garage earned the attention of a physicist
氢弹之父 爱德华·泰勒
Edward Teller, father of the hydrogen bomb.
他安排我进入哈佛大学 并得到一笔奖学金
And he arranged for me to get a scholarship to Harvard.
我的事业开始起步 他很清楚我在做什么
And my career got a head start! He knew exactly what I was doing.
我不用解释自己在试验反物质
I didn’t have to explain to him that I was experimenting with antimatter.
我在妈妈的车库制造反电子
I was creating anti-electrons in my mom’s garage,
使用粒子加速器 最终制造反物质光束
and using atom smashers to eventually create beams of antimatter.
【反物质】
[Antimatter?]
反物质是正常物质的反状态
Antimatter is the opposite of matter.
正反物质电量相等 但电性相反
It has an opposite charge.
一个电子含有负电荷
So an electron has negative charge.
正电子 即反粒子拥有正电荷
The positron, or anti-electron, has positive charge.
现在可以制造反分子和反原子
This means that you can now create anti-molecules and anti-atoms.
反氢原子实验室建在瑞士日内瓦外的欧洲核子研究中心
Anti-hydrogen was made at CERN, outside Geneva, Switzerland
以及芝加哥以外的费米实验室
And also at Fermilab outside Chicago
反电子围绕着反质子旋转
Where you have anti-electrons circulating around anti-protons.
最近 长岛的布鲁克海文国立实验室
And in Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island just recently
侦测到了反氦
they detected anti-helium!
两个反质子和两个反中子可制造出反氦
We have two anti-protons with two anti-neutrons to create anti-helium.
每种物质都存在对立的反物质
For every piece of matter there is a counterpart made out of anti-matter.
当正反物质碰撞 会释放出宇宙中最庞大的能量
And when the two collide, by the way, it releases the greatest energy source in the universe.
完全遵循爱因斯坦的E=mc²方程式来释放能量
It is 100 percent conversion of matter to energy by Einstein’s equations E=mc squared.
【标准模型】
[The Standard Model]
当我们粉碎原子核 其内部是一层层的粒子
Inside the nucleus of the atom we have particles upon particles when you smash them apart.
20世纪50年代 我们曾被淹没在次原子粒子中
In the 1950’s we were drowning in subatomic particles.
事实上 原子弹之父 尤利乌斯·罗伯特·奥本海默曾声明
In fact, J. Robert Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb, once made a statement.
他说 “今年的诺贝尔奖要颁给没有发现新粒子的物理学家”
He declared that “the Nobel Prize in physics should go to the physicist who does not discover a new particle this year.”
数不胜数的粒子被发现
That how many particles were being discovered.
我们来看看粒子家族
So, let’s talk about the Particle Zoo.
至今 物理学家已经发现成百上千 成千上万的次原子粒子
Right now, we physicists have unlocked hundreds, thousands of subatomic particles.
我们将它们放到一块拼图中
And we’ve been able to piece them together into a jigsaw puzzle.
这就是“标准模型”
It’s called the “standard model.”
有36个夸克 19个自由参数
It has 36 quarks, 19 free parameters,
3代夸克 无韵律 无原因
3 generations of quarks, no rhyme, no reason,
但这是物理学家能建造的最接近事实基础的模型
but this is the most fundamental basis of reality that we physicists have been able to construct.
花费数十亿美元 荣获20次诺贝尔奖
Billions of dollars. 20 Nobel prizes.
建造了这个标准模型
have gone into the creation of the standard model.
这是科学界众所周知的最不简洁理论 但可行
and it is the ugliest theory known to science, but it works.
还有一环缺失 称为希格斯玻色子
There’s one piece missing, and that one piece missing is called the Higgs-Boson.
我们期待找到它 以便建造这个理论的更高版本模型
We expect to find it. We want to create a higher version of this theory
我们认为这个理论就是弦理论
and that theory, we think, is string theory.
【弦理论——一个包罗万象的理论?】
[String Theory–a theory of everything?]
弦理论建立在宇宙四力上
String theory is based on the simple idea that all the four forces of the universe.
万有引力 电磁力和两种核力可视作音乐
Gravity, electromagnetic force, and the two nuclear forces, can be viewed as music.
小小橡皮筋的音乐
Music of tiny little rubber bands.
如果我有超级显微镜
So if I had a super microscope,
可看到一个电子的正中
and I could look right into the heart of an electron,
我会看到什么
what would I see?
我会看到一个振动的橡皮筋
I would see a vibrating rubber band.
如果我“拨”一下它 就会变为一个中微子
And if I “twang” it, it turns into a neutrino.
我再“拨”一下 它就变为一个夸克
I “twang” it again and it turns into a quark.
我再“拨”一下 变为一个杨—米尔斯粒子
I “twang” it again and it turns into a Yang-Mills particle
事实上 如果我“拨”得次数足够多
In fact, if I “twang” it enough times,
就能得到被物理学家耐心归类的成千上万种次原子粒子
I get thousands of subatomic particles that have been cataloged patiently by physicists.
我们认为弦理论是一个包罗万象的理论
String theory, we think, is a theory of everything.
弦理论可以用1英寸长的公式总结出来
Now, string theory, in turn, can be summarized in an equation about an inch long
这是我的公式
That’s my equation!
被称为弦场理论 如何验证呢
This is called string field theory. And how will we test it?
我们正在建造一个机器
We are building a machine.
人类历史上建造的最大型科学机器
The biggest machine of science ever built in the history of the human race.
位于瑞士的日内外开外
Outside Geneva, Switzerland.
大型强子对撞机
It is the Large Hadron Collider.
我们认为希格斯玻色子可通过大型强子对撞机制造
So the Higgs-Boson, we think, will be created by the Large Hadron Collider.
周长17英里长的管子
A tube 17 miles in circumference
两束质子束呈相反方向循环
with two beams of protons circulating in opposite directions
然后猛地撞在一起 产生粒子束
Then slamming together creating a shower of particles,
我们希望不仅仅在粒子束中发现希格斯玻色子
and among these particles we hope to find the Higgs-Boson, but not only that.
更期待着发现希格斯玻色子以外的粒子
We hope to find particles even beyond the Higgs-Boson.
希格斯玻色子的下一层粒子是“超粒子”
The next set of particles beyond the Higgs-Boson are “sparticles”
拼图的下一层被称为超粒子——超对称性粒子
The next layer of the jigsaw puzzle are called sparticles—super particles
无非是振动更高的高等音符
Nothing but higher vibrations, higher musical notes of a vibrating string.
我们还能做什么
And what else can we do?
我们还可解开宇宙大爆炸的秘密
We can also unlock secrets of the big bang.
爱因斯坦的方程式解析了大爆炸的瞬间和黑洞内部
You see, Einstein’s equations break down and the instant of the big bang and the center of a black hole.
两个宇宙中最有趣的地方
The two most interesting places in the universe
虽然触及不到 但也遵循爱因斯坦的公式
are beyond our reach using Einstein’s equations.
我们需要更高阶层的理论
We need a higher theory,
引入了弦理论
and that’s where string theory comes in.
弦理论带你回到大爆炸前 回到创世纪前
String theory takes you before the Big Bang, before Genesis itself.
弦理论讲述什么
And what does string theory say?
宇宙是一个多重宇宙
It says that there is a multiverse of universes.
大爆炸来自哪里
Where did the Big Bang come from?
爱因斯坦的方程式给我们描绘一幅生动的画面
Well, Einstein’s equations give us this compelling picture
我们就像肥皂泡中的昆虫
that we are like insects on a soap bubble.
一个不断膨胀的巨大肥皂泡
A gigantic soap bubble which is expanding.
我们像捕蝇纸上的苍蝇 无法逃离肥皂泡
and we are trapped like flies on fly paper, we can’t escape the soap bubble
这被称为大爆炸理论
and that’s called the Big Bang Theory.
弦理论说在多重宇宙里 有很多类似泡泡的宇宙
String theory says there should be other bubbles out there in a multiverse of bubbles.
当两个宇宙碰撞 就形成另一个宇宙
When two universes collide it can form another universe.
当一个宇宙分裂 就制造出两个宇宙
When a universe splits in half it can create two universes,
我们认为那就是大爆炸
and that, we think, is the Big Bang.
大爆炸或由不同宇宙碰撞引起
The Big Bang is caused by either the collision of universes
或由宇宙的分裂引起
or by the fissioning of universes.
【多重宇宙】
[The Multiverse]
如果存在其他维度和其他宇宙
If there are other dimensions, if there are other universes,
我们能穿梭于不同宇宙间吗
can we go between universes?
当然 那太难了
Well that, of course, is very hard,
但是 爱丽丝漫游仙境的故事给了我们一种可能
however, Alice in Wonderland gives us a possibility
也许有一天 我们能制造不同宇宙间的虫洞
that maybe one day we might create a wormhole between universes.
这是一个虫洞
This is a wormhole.
试想拿一张纸 画上两个点
Think of taking a sheet of paper and putting two dots on it.
两点之间 直线距离最近
The shortest distance between two points is a straight line.
如果我折叠这张纸
But if I can fold, if I can fold that sheet of paper
或许可以创造一个捷径
Then perhaps I can create a shortcut.
虫洞就是穿梭于空间和时间的捷径
A shortcut through space and time, called a wormhole.
这是解决爱因斯坦方程式的真正方法
This is a genuine solution of Einstein’s equations.
我们能在弦理论中看到
We can actually see this in string theory.
问题是 穿越虫洞的实际可能性为多少
The question is: how practical is it to go through one of these things?
我们不知道 事实上 现今的物理学家之间有个辩论
We don’t know. In fact there’s a debate among physicists today,
众多物理学家 例如史蒂芬·霍金参与进来 试着寻找
Stephen Hawking, many physicists are jumping into the game of trying to figure out
穿越虫洞 是否在身体上可行
whether it’s physically possible to go all the way through a wormhole.
如果身体可以承受 这就是时间旅行机器
Because if you could, then you might be able to use this as a time machine.
弦理论包罗万象 也是时间的理论
Since string theory is a theory of everything, it’s also a theory of time.
爱因斯坦的方程式允许时间机器存在
And time machines are allowed in Einstein’s equations,
但是建造起来极其困难
but to build one is extremely difficult.
不仅是简单含有钚的德洛雷安时间机器 还需要大量能量
Far more energy is required than a simple Delorean with plutonium.
【为什么不去探索其他宇宙】
[Why seek other universes?]
你知道 上万亿年后 宇宙将变得极其冷
You know, trillions of years from now the universe is going to get awfully cold.
我们认为宇宙将接近大冰冻时期
We think the universe is headed for a big freeze.
所有星星将一闪一闪地消失
All the stars will blink out.
星星将停止闪烁
Stars will cease to twinkle,
宇宙如此之大
Universe will be so big,
寒冷至极
it’ll be very cold.
在那时 宇宙中所有的智慧生物都会消亡
At that point all intelligent life in the universe must die.
物理学定律对所有智慧生物发出死亡警告
The laws of physics are a death warrant for all intelligent life.
只有一个方法逃脱宇宙的死亡
There is only one way to escape the death of the universe,
那就是离开这个宇宙
and that is leave the universe.
我们现在正进入科幻世界
We are now, of course, entering the realm of science fiction,
至少现在 我们已有方程式
but at least now we have equations,
通过弦理论公式 可以计算出
equations of string theory which will now allow us to calculate
穿越虫洞的可能性
if it is possible to go through a wormhole,
去往一个温暖些的宇宙
to go to another universe where it’s warmer,
或许我们可以重头来过
and perhaps we can start all over again.
【第五种力】
[A Fifth Force]
如果总结过去一万年间物理学的发展
If you were to summarize the march of physics over the last 10,000 years,
就是将自然法则浓缩为四种基本力
it would be the distillation of the laws of nature into four fundamental forces.
万有引力 电磁力 两种核力
Gravity, electricity and magnetism, and the two nuclear forces.
问题来了 是否有第五种力
But then the question is “is there a fifth force?”
四种力以外的力 能在实验室测量的力
A force beyond the forces that we can measure in the laboratory.
相信与否 已有物理学家在仔细寻找第五种力
And believe it or not there are physicists who have actually looked very carefully for a fifth force.
有人认为是超自然现象 可能是心灵感应
Some people think maybe it’s psychic phenomena. Maybe it’s telepathy.
也许是心灵力量
Maybe it’s something called psi power.
也许是意念的力量 也许就是意识
Maybe it’s the power of the mind. Maybe consciousness!
好吧 我是个物理学者
Well, I’m a physicist.
我们测试理论 确保其经得住检验且可复制
We believe in testing theories to make sure they are falsifiable and reproducible.
我们想确保每一次 理论都靠得住 没有例外
We want to make sure that on demand your theory works every single time without exception.
如果理论失败一次 就说明是错的
And if your theory fails one time, it’s wrong.
换句话说 爱因斯坦的理论每次都证明无误
In other words, Einstein’s theory has to work every single time without exception.
爱因斯坦的理论只要被证明错误一次
One time Einstein’s theory is proven to be wrong,
整个理论就是错的
the whole theory is wrong.
至今 我们能复制这四种物理学理论
Well, so far we can reproduce these four physical theories,
但第五种力的理论还不能被复制
but a fifth theory cannot be reproduced.
我们期待着突破 有些人认为或许第五种力近在咫尺
We’ve looked for it. Some people think that maybe a fifth force may be short range.
不像原子核那么难发现 而是就在身边
Like, not over the nucleus of an atom, but ranging over several feet.
只是我们无法找到
And we can’t find any.
【暗能量】
[Dark Energy]
过去十年 物理学家发现了一种新能量
We physicists in the last ten years have discovered a new energy source
比银河自身还大
larger than the galaxy itself.
暗能量
Dark energy.
存在于当今宇宙中 占宇宙的73%
Realized in our universe today, 73 percent of our universe,
暗物质和暗能量中 73%是以暗能量形式出现
the matter and energy, 73 percent is in the form of dark energy.
就是虚无能量
The energy of nothing!
将银河越推越远
That’s what’s blowing the galaxies farther and farther apart.
是大爆炸自身的能量
That’s the energy of the Big Bang itself.
孩子们会问 “是什么让宇宙爆炸”
Kids ask the question, “If the universe banged, what made it bang?”
答案就是暗能量
And the answer is dark energy.
宇宙中73%的能量是暗能量
73 percent of the universe’s energy is dark energy.
23%是暗物质
23 percent is dark matter.
暗物质不可见
Dark matter is invisible matter.
如果握住暗物质 它会直接穿过手
If I held it in my hand it would go right through my hand.
暗物质将银河合在一起
It holds the galaxy together.
宇宙中暗物质占23%
23 percent of the universe is dark matter.
恒星由氢和氦组成
Stars made out of hydrogen and helium
只占宇宙的4%
make up four percent of the universe.
那么 我们人类呢
And then what about us?
我们由高等元素组成
We, the higher elements.
由氧 碳 氮 钨 铁组成
We made out of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, tungsten, iron.
我们仅占宇宙比例的0.03%
We make up .03 percent of the universe.
换句话说 我们是例外
In other words, we are the exception.
宇宙主要由暗能量组成
The universe is mainly made out of dark energy.
宇宙主要由暗物质组成
The universe is mainly made out of dark matter.
事实上 恒星和银河才是沧海一粟
Overwhelming the stars, overwhelming the galaxies in fact.
什么是组成宇宙23%的暗物质
Now what is dark matter, which makes up 23 percent of the universe?
没人知道
No one knows.
弦理论给我们一个线索
String theory gives us a clue,
但是没有确切的答案
but there’s no definitive answer.
【宇宙的未来】
[The Future of Universe]
换句话说 对于观看视频的年轻且有抱负的物理学者
So in other words, for you young aspiring physicists out there in the audience,
此时此刻 你可能对自己说
You may be saying to yourself right now,
为什么我要进入物理世界
“Why should I go into physics?
你们都有了研究统一场论的候选人了 不是吗”
Because you guys already have a candidate for the unified field theory, right?”
请注意 每本物理学教科书都是错的
Just realize that every single physics textbook is WRONG.
每本地球上的物理学教科书都写着
Every single physics textbook on the Earth says
宇宙由原子构成
that the universe is mainly made out of atoms.
对吧 这就是问题点
Right? There it is!
宇宙主要由原子构成 这个说法错了
The universe is mainly made out of atoms. Wrong!
过去十年 我们开始认识到
In the past ten years we have come to the realization
宇宙大部分是黑暗的
that most of the universe is dark.
有一整墙诺贝尔奖杯等着去领
And there’s a whole shelf full of Nobel Prizes for the young people
给那些能解开暗物质和暗能量奥秘的年轻人
who can figure out the secret of dark matter and dark energy.
如果你是个年轻的物理学者 请听我一言
Let me give some advice to you if you are a young physicist,
你可能刚从高中毕业
perhaps just getting out of high school,
你有成为下一个爱因斯坦的梦想
You have dreams of being Einstein,
你希望研究弦理论和类似的领域
you have dreams of working on string theory and stuff like that
然后你进入物理学系 成为大一新生
and then you hit freshman physics.
我直截了当地说
Let me be blunt:
在学习基础物理时 大多数学生被淘汰
We physicists flunk most student taking elementary physics.
在工程部门 淘汰率更高
And we’re more or less encouraged to do so by the engineering department.
我们不希望培养出将桥造塌的工程师
We don’t want to train engineers who make bridges that fall down.
也不希望培养建造倒塌摩天楼的工程师
We don’t want to create engineers that create skyscrapers that fall over.
底线是 你必须懂机械定律
There’s a bottom line: you have to know the laws of mechanics.
在学习爱因斯坦定律前
So before you can work with the laws of Einstein,
你要先学习摩擦定律 杠杆 滑轮和齿轮
you have to work with the laws of friction, levers, pulleys and gears.
因此 基础物理学阶段 我们有很高的淘汰率
As a consequence we have a very high flunk-out rate in elementary physics.
如果你 年轻的物理学者刚从高中毕业 对未来充满憧憬
So if you’re a young physicist graduating from high school with stars in your eyes,
如果你初次接触大学物理 请注意
and you encounter freshman physics for the first time, watch out!
如果你学习得很辛苦 那就对了
If you have a rough time, that’s the way it is.
我从一名实验物理学者起步 然后去了哈佛
I started out my life as an experimental physicist. Then I went to Harvard
我曾与导师交谈 他是世界最伟大的实验物理学家庞德教授
and then I talked to my adviser, one of the world’s greatest experiment physicists, Professor Pound.
他说 也许我该停下歇歇
And he told me maybe it’s time to give it a rest. He said to me,
他说 “你应将技能放在喜欢的事物上 对你来说就是理论”
“Your skills are much better suited to what you love the most, which is theory.”
“数学 更高维度的理论”
“Mathematics. The world of higher dimensions.”
他是对的
And I realized that he was probably right.
物理学或科学方面 真正吸引我的
The thing about physics, or science that really intrigues me the most
是寻找出万物基础
is to find the most fundamental basis for everything.
而不是继续揣摩或完善一个理论
Rather than trying to massage a theory, or make a theory prettier.
为什么不找出万物运作的原因
Why not find out why it works? What makes it tick?
这就是我的研究所在 我是一名理论物理学者
And that’s what I do for a living. I’m a theoretical physicist.
非常感谢
Thank you very much!
【移动大学】
[The Floating University]

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视频概述

我们身边的一切都与物理学有关,一切科技进步和工业发展也与物理学紧密相连。本视频从物理学起源谈起,娓娓道来物理学在过去、现在以致未来对我们的影响

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

kelsey

审核员

审核员W

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0NbBjNiw4tk

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