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迈克尔·贝——什么是贝炸流 – 译学馆
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迈克尔·贝——什么是贝炸流

Michael Bay - What is Bayhem?

嗨 我是托尼 这里是《一帧一画》
Hi. My name is Tony and this is Every Frame a Painting.
我完全知道你们在想什么
And I know exactly what you’re thinking:
干嘛要讨论这家伙
Why am I talking about this guy
天哪 你就是迈克尔·贝!
— Oh my god, you’re Michael Bay!
天呐 我就是迈克尔·贝
Oh my god, I am Michael Bay.
因为虽然我不爱他的电影
Because I don’t like his films and
但仍认为很有必要研究一下
yet I think it’s crucial to study them.
为何呢?
Why?
保罗 我认为你开始看电视节目《摔角狂热》了
— …and Paul, I think you have started to watch WrestleMania on television…
是的……
— Well, I…
因为你绝对不能忽视:这是无法逆转的潮流
— Because you must not avert your eyes: this is what is coming at us.
这正是相当多的
this is what what television, what a collective
大部分观众想要在电视上看到的
anonymous body of majority wants to see on television.
就像《摔角狂热》 就像“安娜•妮可真人秀”
Like WrestleMania, like Anna Nicole Smith,
就像《搞怪蠢蛋秀》 迈克尔·贝创造了某种东西……
like Jackass, Michael Bay has created something.
—大场面
— Spectacle!
这就是观众想要的 罗马人 路易十四 沃尔夫威茨他们都知道
It’s what people want. The Romans knew it, Louis Quatorze knew it, Wolfowitz knows it.
—一 二 三……
— One, two, three…
轰 这就是“贝炸流”
Boom! Bayhem!!
这主题可能有点粗俗 但是如果我们想要制作更精良的电影
We may find it crass and vulgar, but if we’re going to make better movies,
就必须要理解我们看到的画面
we have to understand the images that are coming at us.
—嘿
— Hey, hey!!
所以我们来聊聊“贝炸流”吧 这是一种独特的电影技法吗?
So let’s talk about Bayhem. Is it a unique use of film form?
如果你想了解迈克尔·贝 最好的方法就是看他的山寨电影
If you want to understand Michael Bay, one of the best ways is to watch his copycats.
来看《超级战舰》的这个镜头
Consider this shot from ‘Battleship’, which tries
尝试拍出有名的主角环绕镜头
which tries to do that circular camera move he’s famous for.
这里却行不通了 为什么呢?
Doesn’t work here. Why?
这很简单 第一 除了蓝天以外没有别的背景
It’s actually really simple. First, there’s no background, except for blue sky.
没有背景 就没有移动视差 所以镜头好像没有动一样
Without a background, we don’t get parallax, so the shot doesn’t feel like it’s moving.
看出差别了?
See the difference?
另外 镜头也用错了 迈克尔·贝大量使用长焦镜头
On top of that, the lens is wrong. Bay frequently shoots these shots with a telephoto lens,
来压缩空间 有助于让背景呼啸而过
which compresses the space. This makes the background whizz by.
第三 演员只是凝视着转动头部
Third, the actor’s just staring and turning his head,
但是迈克尔·贝版本的关键是演员有垂直的动作
but the key to the Bay version is that the actors move vertically.
就像这里
Like here.
和这里
And here.
最后 低角度拍摄制造放大感 慢动作加强效果
And last, the low angle is there to give us the scale and slow motion is there to sell it.
所以迈克尔·贝镜头是多重移动的结合
So what we have here in the Bay’s shot is multiple types of movement, integrated:
镜头的移动 背景的移动
movement of the camera, movement of the background,
演员的移动 时间的扩张感
movement of the actors, expansion of time.
他们站直看着镜头外 制造寂静感
Then they stand still and look off-screen, creating stillness.
不管你停在哪一帧 画面看起来都很壮观
Even though you’re looking at a stationary point in the frame, this shot feels huge.
“—出事了!”
“— Shit just got real.”
解析任何一个迈克尔·贝镜头 你都可以发现
Breakdown any Michael Bay’s shot and that is basically what you will see:
层层的视差 角色的移动 环境的围绕
layers of depth, parallax, movement, character and environment
建构出史诗感
to give this sense of epicness.
没有一个技巧是他独有的
None of these techniques is particularly unique.
事实上 摄影师大多会主动创造画面景深
In fact, most cinematographers will naturally create depth in their images
以及视差 无论镜头在哪
and parallax, whenever the camera moves.
然后就是用烂了的英雄镜头
And the Hero Shot is everywhere.
贝氏独特之处在层次之多和移动之复杂
What makes Bay unique is how many layers and how complex the movement is.
这不保证画面更好 只是
That doesn’t make his shots better, it just makes
让他们比同侪更复杂
them more complicated than the competition.
这就是为什么他的画面里好像许多事情在同时发生
That’s why his frames seem to have a lot of stuff going on.
很多灰尘、泥巴、 烟雾 、层次间的爆炸
Lots of dust, dirt, smoke or explosions between the layers.
还有 灯柱
Also, lamp-posts.
大量的灯柱
Lots of lamp-posts.
如果回头来看《绝地战警》第一季 从开头演职员表的这个镜头
If you go back to the first Bad Boys, you can watch this from the opening credits.
这里 车子朝一个方向 飞机向另一个方向
Here, the car moves one way, the plane another,
灯柱用来凸显规模 摄影使用长焦镜头
the lamp-posts are in frame for scale and the camera is on a telephoto lens.
电影后面也有同样的构图安排
Later in the film, you can see the same compositional techinique.
当爆炸时
And when the explosions happen…
你了解这些后 分解他的布景就容易多了
Once you see this, it’s much easier to deconstruct his imagery
也看出其中的不足
and to see its limits.
1、比如 迈克尔·贝不知道在何时使用这种镜头
For instance, Bay doesn’t distinguish between when to do a shot
何时不用 他总是用相同的拍摄手法
and when not to do it. He’ll use the same camera movement,
不管演员是否在说关键台词
whether the charachter’s saying something important…
“你在美国有很多钱吗?”
— You have any money here in the States?
或者是胡言乱语
… or total gibberish…
“我刚刚说了什么 你有在听吗?”
— What did I say?! Did you hear what I said?
“我可是听到了 因为说的时候 我就站在那”
I heard what I said ’cause I was standing there when I said it.
2、每一个镜头的设计都力求带来最大的运动感 而不考虑是否合适
Every shot is designed for maximum visual impact, regardless of whether it fits.
贝氏风格也衍生出许多炫目的视觉技巧
But the Bay style also leads to some fascinating visual ideas.
要怎么让东西看起来很大?
How can you make something feel big?
你可以把很多不同大小的东西都放进画面
Well, you put lots of things of varying size in the same shot
然后移动摄像机来进行强调
and then you move the camera to emphasize.
这招《侏罗纪公园》就玩的很厉害
This is something “Jurassic Park” also did very well.
“— 哈! — 这……这是只恐龙”
— Ah! — It’s… It’s a dinosaur.
画面外的空间应用也很重要
Just as important is off-screen space.
看这里 演员看着的飞机不是背景的那些
Notice here, this actor isn’t looking at the planes we see in the background.
这表明还有更多我们看不到的飞机
That means there’s even more planes we can’t see.
所以即便镜头里已经很大了 暗中场面其实更大
So while the shot feels huge, it implies even more scale.
导演们怎么想出这类镜头的
How does a filmmaker come up with images like this?
以迈克尔·贝为例 我们来看他最爱的电影之一
In the case of Michael Bay, let’s look at one of his favorite films.
“当你成为喷射机的一员 你永远都是
“When you’re a Jet, you’re a Jet all the way
从你的第一支烟起 到你死的那天止”
From your first cigarette to your last dying day”
一篇纽约时报访谈中 他在看《西区故事》时
There’s a great New York Times interview where he watches “West Side Story”
认为这个镜头很棒
and talks about how this is a great shot
这里剪切的很棒
and this is a great cut.
除了“很动感”之外说不出这些镜头哪里好
He can’t articulate why they’re great, other than “they’re dynamic”.
但是我认为是这样的:当你用《西区故事》的镜头
But I think that’s it: when you put shots from West Side Story
和迈克尔·贝的进行对比时你就可以感受到许多雷同之处
back to back with his work, you can feel the similarities.
迈克尔·贝的目标是创造出他想要的镜头
I think Bay’s goal is to create what he thinks are good shots
然后用他觉得很棒的剪辑方式衔接
and connect them with what he thinks are good cuts.
套用霍华德对好电影的定义 三个好场景 没有坏场景
If Howard Hawks defined a good movie as three good scenes and no bad ones,
迈克尔·贝似乎认为 一个好电影
Michael Bay seems to think a good film
3000个动感画面 没有静止画面
is three thousand dynamic shots and no static ones.
除了《西区故事》以外 迈克尔·贝最大的影响 还包括其他的卖座片
Apart from West Side Story, Bay’s biggest influence is actually other blockbusters.
他常常借用他们的视觉动作或者是动作顺序
He frequently borrows the same basic vocabularies and other sequence.
或者是这样的画面
So something like this…
变成这样
… becomes this.
你会注意到特写镜头更特写
You’ll notice the tight shots of the character become tighter.
广角镜头更广角
And the wide shots become wider.
画面的叠加和移动都更复杂 但基本内涵相同
Everything gets more layers of motion, but the basic vocabulary’s the same.
“— 打中了! — 干得好 孩子 别太得意”
– I got him! – Great, kid! Don’t get cocky.
他不止跟别人借东西
And it’s not just other people he borrows from.
还时常回收再利用自己的东西
Bay cannibalizes himself just as much.
就像这样
So this…
变成了这样的镜头
… becomes this.
你会注意到原始镜头里的移动
You’ll notice every motion in the original shot.
比如镜头是逆时针旋转
For instance, the camera turning counter-clockwise,
炸弹是瞬时针旋转
while the bomb turns clockwise —
在这版本只是速度变快而已
it’s just cranked up in this version.
博派们 由我来对付
— Autobots, I’m in pursuit.
所以什么才是“贝炸流”
So what is Bayhem?
利用镜头移动、构图、快速衔接
It’s the use of movement, composition and fast editing
创造出巨大感
to create a sense of epic scale.
每一个画面都很壮观 暗示画面外更宏伟
Each individual shot feels huge, but also implies bigger things outside the frame.
多层堆叠 超长焦 超广角拍摄
It stacks multiple layers of movement shot either on a very long lens or a very wide one.
在瞬间展现很多东西 稍纵即逝
It shows you a lot for just a moment and then takes it away.
你能感觉所有的移动 又抓不住重点
You feel the overall motion, but no grasp of anything concrete.
而且需要大量的人力和资源整合来拍摄
And yet, it requires a lot of people and integration to do this.
但是基本都是换汤不换药
But it’s basically a variation on the existing vocabulary of the action scene.
单独的镜头会比较混乱 晃动 复杂 多层次
Individual shots are a little dirtier, a little shakier, more complex, few more layers.
再用大脑来不及适应
Then you cut it together faster than the brain can register,
但眼睛跟得上的方式接在一起
but not faster than the eye can move.
这不是革命性的做法 只是新瓶装旧酒
It’s not revolutionary, just the past with a bit of stank on it.
如果你想看类似却更极端的作品
If you want to see a more etxreme version of similiar ideas,
可以参考托尼•斯科特晚期作品
you can look at late-era Tony Scott.
如果想看没那么乱的版本 可以考虑动画
And if you wanna see a less cluttered version, you can look at animation.
比如葛连•基恩的作品
Someone like Glen Keane.
这比麦克贝的清晰许多 但是基本都是一样的
This is way more legible than what Bay does, but the basic idea is the same:
人物、环境、多层堆叠以及一个史诗场景
character, environment, many layers, one epic sweep.
画面世界宏伟
The world feels huge.
我最喜欢的贝氏用镜之一其实是小规模的
One of my favorite adaptations of the Michael Bay style is actually shrinking it down.
稍加讽刺地说 贝炸流似乎是由小朋友们炸开模型火车组发展起来的
Ironically, Bayhem – which seems to have developed from a kid blowing up his train set –
在小规模场面里 看起来非常迷人
is actually kind of charming when it’s tiny.
与其炸了地球 炸掉一个英伦小镇如何?
Instead of blowing up the world, how about a small English town?
天鹅!
— Swan!
倒头来 这种风格的广受欢迎是很重要的
But in the end, I think the popularity of this style is hugely important.
不管我们喜不喜欢 有趣的是
Whether we like it or not, the interesting thing here
我们能够忍受视觉冲击
is that we are really visually sophisticated
同时又是完全的视觉文盲
and totally visually illiterate.
我们可以高速处理视觉信息
We can process visual information at a speed that wasn’t common before,
但是仔细想想这些画面是否有实际意义……
but thinking through what an image means…
没必要搞成这样吧!
— This is not necessary!
……确实如此
… not so much.
就如维纳•禾素所说的
And as Wernor Herzog put it:
你无法回避 这已经成为潮流了
— You do not avert your eyes. That’s what’s coming at us.
这听起来有点奇怪 这趋势下的最大输家
This might sound a little weird, but the person who loses the most here
可能就是迈克尔·贝 他是自己视觉的奴隶
is actually Michael Bay. He is a slave to his own eye.
他急于让每一帧都富有动感
He has a need to make every image dynamic, even
甚至于与电影的主题相悖
when it runs contrary to the theme of his movie.
有些人就是不知道美好的事物近在眼前
— Some people just don’t know a good thing when it’s staring them in the face.
真的就是生活中见到的小事物
— It really is the simple things in life…
是啊 小事物 比如一栋大房子
Yeah, the little things, like a big house,
坐拥港口 海景和游艇
a dock, a view of the water and a speed boat.
两个会讲故事的人讲述相同情景又会如何呢?
What happens when two great storytellers tackle this exact same theme?
管他呢 诺姆 我们过的也还不错
— Heck, Norm, you know, we’re doing pretty good.
我爱你 玛姬
— I love you, Margie.
我爱你 诺姆
— I love you, Norm.
两个月之后
— Two more months.
两个月之后……
— Two more months…
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视频概述

贝氏爆米花风格电影风靡电影界,但什么样的才算真正的好电影呢,这篇视频会给你答案。

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视频来源

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