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《忧郁症》:电影里的压抑感是如何营造的 – 译学馆
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《忧郁症》:电影里的压抑感是如何营造的

Melancholia: Depression on Film

临床抑郁症的常见症状之一是对时间的曲解
A commonly reported symptom of clinical depression is a warped sense of time.
一切似乎正在以极慢的动作行进着
Everything can feel like it’s moving in super slow motion
事实上 抑郁症能使人扭曲周遭的一切 就像星星能扭曲时空
In fact, depression warps everything around it, like a star warps space-time.
不仅是你的持续感 还包括你自身和他人的感觉
Not only your sense of duration, but also your sense of yourself and others.
你的精神生活也是完全失调的
Your mental life is thrown out of all proportion.
在拉斯·冯·提尔的电影《忧郁症》中 他使用了倾斜比例
In his film “Melancholia”, Lars Von Trier uses skewed proportions
来传达一种他非常熟悉的感觉
to communicate a feeling that he’s intimately familiar with.
“你知道当我写东西的时候 我只能写我自己
Lars von Trier: “You know when I write, I can only write about myself,”
这部电影或多或少是对我自己抑郁症的描述”
Lars von Trier: “and this is more or less a description of my own depression.”
提及扭曲的时间 一段慢动作的蒙太奇剪辑 首先展现了电影的尽头和世界的末日
The very first scene after the slow-motion montage
在此之后出现的第一个画面则是
that, speaking of warped time, shows both the end of the film and the end of the world,
贾斯汀和迈克尔这对新婚夫妇从婚礼现场前往结婚宴会的情景
is the newly-married Justine and Michael trying to get from the ceremony to the reception
相比这条狭窄的乡间小路 他们乘坐的这辆加长版豪华轿车实在是显得有些太大了 看起来有些滑稽
in a stretch limo that is almost comically too large for the country road that they’re driving on.
最终他们不得不从车上走下来开始步行
Eventually they have to abandon the car and walk
直到他们抵达举行婚宴的城堡 夜晚已经过去了一半
and by the time they get to the castle where the reception is, half of the night has already been wasted.
“迟到这么久 我都懒得说你了”
[I won’t even bother saying how late you are.]
有趣的是 观众并不能切实地感受到这种推迟—我们只在电影的开头
What’s interesting is that the viewer doesn’t really feel that lateness—we’re only at the beginning of the film.
我认为 这个反倒给了我们一种虽然古怪但又如梦一般的暗示
And this—I think– gives us a hint of the weird, almost dreamlike,
暗示着随之而来的婚宴带来的价值只是短暂的
temporal quality of the wedding reception to come.
当我回顾这部电影 使我越来越觉得奇怪的一样东西是
One thing that keeps getting stranger and stranger to me as I rewatch the film
贾斯汀和麦克之间的关系
is the relationship between Justine and Michael.
我的意思是 有时候看起来他们好像谁也不认识谁
I mean, at times it almost seems as if they don’t even know each other;
麦克似乎完全没有意识到贾斯汀抑郁症的严重程度
Michael seems to be completely unaware of the severity of Justine’s depression,
有几个画面中 麦克就像一个死去的僵尸一样眼神呆滞而又茫然
and there are a few shots where Micheal just stares off blankly like a kind of dead puppet.
影片放到这里 事物再一次开始扭曲——冯·提尔并没有告诉我们这对夫妇的过去
Here again, things are skewed—Von Trier doesn’t give us a sense of the couple’s past.
但是我的情绪早已失控
But I’m getting ahead of myself.
电影的前半部分是由婚宴构成
The first half of the film is made up of the wedding reception,
随着贾斯汀越陷越深 抑郁扑面而来
alternating between the party and Justine’s various exits
画面在聚会和贾斯汀不断变化的位置之间交替
as she falls deeper and deeper into an oncoming bout of depression.
冯·提尔运用婚宴搭建出对不断流动的时间的期望
Von Trier uses the reception itself to setup an expectation of continuous time,
但是贾斯汀的出现毁掉了这一切
but Justine’s exits make this problematic.
后来的两部分看起来并不衔接
The two parts of the sequence don’t seem to fit together.
贾斯汀一会开着高尔夫球车在地面上四处游荡 一会在浴室自我折磨
Justine rides off in a golf cart all the way across the grounds, she languishes in the bath,
当她怀着正趋近于分崩离析的情绪回到原处
but the party is always there, always still happening
婚宴仍旧一直在那里 在那里发生
when she returns to it in moods that are increasingly detached.
在冯·提尔令人迷惑的影片编排下 婚宴度过的时间甚至也在不断跳跃
Even within the party time jumps forward at the whim of von Trier’s disorienting editing.
影评人引起了我对一个画面的注意——比如——
The film critic Marta Figlerowicz drew my attention to the fact that — for example —
新婚夫妇跳的第一支舞实际上就是运用蒙太奇处理贾斯汀和许多人一起跳的舞的画面
the newlyweds first dance is actually a montage of Justine dancing with a number of people,
然而背景音乐——La Bamba(墨西哥民歌)不断地播放着
While the song underneath it – La Bamba, plays continuously.
它所呈现出来的是惴惴不安的主观感觉
What it all adds up to is unsettling feeling of subjectivity,
感觉你在贾斯汀的掌控之中 乃至是冯提尔
A feeling that you’re in the head of Justine, and by extension, von Trier
他也企图控制一切
whose attempts to get a handle on things,
企图锁定一切在运行的事物 而这样的尝试是失望的 然后最终分裂
to lock everything in place, are upset and then finally dashed.
电影中似乎没有一个人能够正确预测事物
No one in the film seems capable of measuring things correctly,
无论是对瓶罐中的豆子数量
whether it’s the number of beans in a jar,
“200,000,006颗豆子”
[Two million and six beans]
还是星际行星的正确轨迹
or the correct trajectory of a rogue planet.
一切掌控之物开始燃烧、折损或是粉碎
Everything that’s handled, burns, creases or shatters
我们应当提及拉斯·冯·提尔在电影中的几个艺术引用
And we ought to mention the several artistic references von Trier makes in the film,
很多都在第一幕
many of which are in the very first sequence.
最明显的是这个画面 引用 约翰·埃弗雷特·米莱斯创作的油画《奥菲利娅》 这个人物是以莎士比亚的《哈姆雷特》中的人物为原型
The most obvious is this shot which cites John Everett Millais “Ophelia” after the character in Shakespeare’s Hamlet,
他也许是所有文学家中最具抑郁特质的人物
who is perhaps the most famous depressive in all of literature.
我们还有一个实际拍摄 是勃鲁盖尔的《雪中猎人》
Then we have an actual shot Bruegel’s ‘Hunters in the Snow’,
这是一幅描绘两手空空的猎人回到村庄的画作
a painting of hunters coming back to their village empty handed.
这让人想起另外一部直指人灵魂深处的科幻电影——
Which calls to mind another science fiction film concerned with the depths of the soul:
安德烈·塔科夫斯基的《索拉里斯星》
Andrei Tarkovsky’s “Solaris”.
是塔可夫斯基的铁粉 在这部电影中还有很多相似之处
Von Trier is a massive fan of Tarkovsky and there are other similarities here, too.
比如 《索拉里斯星》将巴赫的”F小调小前奏曲”重复贯穿于影片中
Solaris, for example, makes great use of Bach’s “Choral Prelude in F Minor” repeating it throughout the film
正如冯·提尔所写:塔可夫斯基喜欢重复使用音乐
and as he’s written, Tarkovsky likes to use music as a refrain.
这样的重复带领我们回到首次进入诗的世界的那段经历
“The refrain brings us back to our first experience of entering that poetic world,
这段经历虽然很短暂 但同时也带来了新的感受
making it immediate and at the same time renewing it.”
拉斯·冯·提尔在电影《抑郁症》中 使用了和瓦格纳《特里斯坦与伊索尔德》前奏曲的相同技术
Von Trier uses the same technique in Melancholia with Wagner’s “Prelude to Tristan and Isolde”,
这是一首浪漫的歌曲 讲述的是如何将冥想用于抑郁症和美
a romantic song that speaks to how the filmmaker mixes his meditation on depression with beauty,
就像一个发光的蓝色星球 带给人憧憬
like a glowing blue planet, and desire.
当然还有很多其他的引用 比如
And there are plenty of other references too. Like those to
阿伦·雷乃的《去年在马里昂巴德》 这是另外一部运用朦胧叙述手法的电影
Alain Resnais’ “Last Year at Marienbad” – another film with a dreamlike narrative structure.
当然只是引用了这些早期的经典场景 而不是完全复制
And of course these early shots jump forward to reference, but not exactly replicate,
在影片的后面部分
later moments in the film.
《忧郁症》无疑成了立体电影
Melancholia is no doubt a polarizing film.
我们不可否认影片的美 但是我相信会有很多人认为它缺乏连贯性和中心
Its beauty is undeniable, but I’m sure many will argue that it lacks coherence or focus
确实 在电影的第二部分有很多问题
Indeed, I have my own problems with the second part of the film,
但是对我来说 这是最引人注目的叙述方式之一
but this is one of the most striking portrayals—to me—
抑郁症影响了那么多的人却很少有人理解
of a disease that affects so many but which is still so little understood.
在我看来 抑郁症发生在当你意识到
In my view, depression is what happens when your identity
你和周遭世界的联系
—that sense of the relationship you have with the world around you—
变得天马行空 毫无重点
becomes untethered, unfocused.
在这个进程中 一切开始扭曲 刹那间 时间开始停滞不前
In this process everything starts to skew. Time slows to a standstill.
你那曾经轻易就可移动的身躯 感觉好像有一吨重
Your body once so easy to move feels like it weighs a ton.
一个人的记忆开始变得紊乱
For a person memories start to become disorganized.
另一方面 一部电影的记忆则是了解甚至超越电影自身的艺术作品
The memories of a film, on the other hand are all those works of arts that inform and precede it.
也许这就是为什么拉斯·冯·提尔围绕他的角色有那么多
Perhaps this is why von Trier surrounds his characters with so many.
直到我们看到电影的后半段
By the time we get to the second half of the film
呈现出一个精美绝伦的场景——名为”忧郁症”的星际行星接近
an extraordinary situation—the approach of the rogue planet Melancholia,
扭曲 甚至是人物的性情——贾斯汀从她的疾病深渊慢慢挣扎出来
warps even the character’s dispositions: Justine emerging slowly from the depths of her illness
表现出对生存状况的平静和理性
reacts to the existential situation with calm.
“地球是邪恶的”
[the Earth is evil]
“我们不需要为他悲伤”
[We don’t need to grieve for it]
另一方面 她理智的姐姐克莱尔也开始恐慌
Claire on the other hand—her sane other half—begins to panic
影片末尾 向我们展示了主要人物的病症
The film, in the end, takes on the disease of its main character.
就我而言 我非常高兴看到这部电影如此认真地解释了悲伤
I, for one, am happy to see a film so earnest about sadness
因为它表明科学和医学在对精神疾病的担忧中却无计可施
As it stands, science and medicine have come up short in their apprehension of mental illness.
所以我们也许应该团结起来 通过艺术去洞悉
So maybe we ought to look to art for insights and solidarity about what it’s like,
失调的生活究竟是何种模样
living a life out of proportion.
谢谢大家的观看
Hey everybody, thanks for watching
很抱歉这个视频更得有点晚 因为昨晚我得了肠胃炎 它几乎要毁了我
Sorry this video is a little bit late, I had a horrible stomach flu yesterday that was just destroying me.
但我现在感觉好多了 我很喜欢这部电影
I feel much better now and I love this film.
你们都知道 我对这部电影还有很多不满 但是我认为其中还是有很多价值
You know, i have certain problems with it, but I think there’s so much of value here
我喜欢像这样能够通过电影的镜头 有机会来和大家谈谈抑郁症和心理疾病
and I love the opportunity to talk about depression and mental illness through the lens of a film like this.
我希望大家能喜欢它
Ah,so I hope you guys liked it.

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