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超级海啸:世界上最大的海浪之一 – 译学馆
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超级海啸:世界上最大的海浪之一

Megatsunamis: World's Biggest Wave

On June 17, 2017, a bizarre event happened in Greenland.
2017年6月17日 格陵兰岛发生了一件离奇的事
Nuugaatsiaq, a remote fishing village,
努加特西亚克 一个偏远的小渔村
was devastated by one of the tallest tsunamis in recorded history,
被有史以来最高的海啸之一摧毁了
a huge, one hundred meter monster of a wave.
这是高达100米的巨浪
The wave, about as tall the Statue of Liberty,
这股巨浪和自由女神像一般高
washed away eleven houses and killed four people.
冲走了11座房子 造成4人死亡
It was so big that its impact
这次海啸威力如此巨大
registered as a 4.1 magnitude earthquake on nearby seismometers.
以至于附近的地震仪记录到的震级为4.1级
Now, that confused geologists a bit —
这让地质学家们感到有些困惑——
because tsunamis are usually caused by earthquakes out at sea.
因为海啸通常是由海上的地震引起的
But when they looked into it further,
但当他们深入研究时
they found no actual earthquakes had been recorded
发现在产生巨浪的那个时间段
in the right time frame to cause the wave.
并没有实际的地震记录
Meaning this Greenland tsunami wasn’t a conventional tsunami.
也就是说 格陵兰海啸不是传统的海啸
Instead, scientists determined that this event was something called a megatsunami.
取而代之的是 科学家们确定这是一种叫做“超级海啸”的现象
So what makes a tsunami mega?
那么 是什么使海啸成为超级海啸的呢?
It tends to be bigger than an ordinary tsunami,
它往往比普通的海啸更大
but that’s not how you tell the difference.
但这不是用大小来区分的
Instead, what distinguishes them from ordinary waves is not their size,
相反 它们与普通海啸的不同之处不是它们的大小
but their formation.
而是它们的形成
What you need for a megatsunami is a huge amount of material plunging into a body of water,
超级海啸的形成需要大量的物质冲入水体
like an ocean or a lake.
比如大海或湖泊
It’s a little like the splash caused when someone does a cannonball into a swimming pool.
它有点像某人如炮弹一般跳进游泳池时溅起的水花
But you need more than just your body’s jumping into the ocean.
但你需要的不仅仅是你的身体跳入大海
You need like a — you need a lot a boddies.
你需要许多个你一起跳入水中
Or like an asteroid —
或是像一颗小行星——
or, as was the case for Greenland, a landslide.
抑或像格陵兰情况一样 是一次山体滑坡
The Greenland event happened
格陵兰岛事件发生时
when a huge landslide hit a fjord one kilometer up,
一场巨大的山体滑坡撞击了一公里高的峡湾
displacing a massive area of rock.
使大片岩石移位
All that earth tumbled down into the fjord.
所有的泥土都滚落到峡湾里
The resulting wave dissipated quickly,
由此产生的海浪迅速消散
but it was still enough to raise the water level on shorelines about 30 kilometers away.
但仍足以提高约30公里外海岸线的水位
But this isn’t the first megatsunami we know of.
但这并不是我们所知的第一个超级海啸
In recent history, we know of very few
在近代 除了格陵兰岛事件
besides the Greenland event.
我们对此类事件知之甚少
On July 9, 1958, a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck Alaska’s Lituya Bay.
1958年7月9日 阿拉斯加利图亚湾发生了7.8级地震
The earthquake caused a rockslide
此次地震造成的岩石滑坡
that dumped 82 million metric tonnes of material into the narrow bay.
将8200万公吨的物质倾倒进狭窄的海湾
The resulting megatsunami was 524 meters high.
由此引发的超级海啸有524米高
That’s just recorded history, though.
不过这只是记录下来的大海啸
These things are more than big enough to leave their mark for thousands of years.
这些海啸大到足以将它们的印记留下数千年之久
And we’ve been able to document a few
我们记录下了很久以前
that may have happened long before anyone was around to see it.
人类尚未诞生就已经发生的几次超级海啸
One of the largest megatsunamis that we know of happened sometime
据我们所知 其中最大的一次超级海啸
around 73,000 years ago, off the coast of West Africa.
发生在约73000年前的西非海岸附近
A huge chunk of the eastern flank of the Fogo volcano fell off at once,
福戈火山东侧的一大块突然脱落
striking the surface of the sea.
撞击了海面
This produced a wave roughly 170 meters tall,
引发了约170米高的海浪
almost twice the size of the Greenland wave.
几乎是格陵兰岛海浪的两倍高
But even bigger waves might have struck the Hawai’ian archipelago,
但更大的海浪可能在10多万年前
more than 100,000 years ago.
袭击了夏威夷群岛
The clue lies in limestone-bearing gravel on the coastal slopes of the island Lanai.
线索就在拉奈岛海岸斜坡上含石灰岩的砾石中
Now, limestone normally forms underwater,
我们知道 石灰岩通常在水下形成
but these rocks are found 326 meters above sea level.
但这些石灰岩是在海拔326米的地方发现的
In a 1984 study, researchers proposed that these rocks
1984年的一项研究中 研究人员提出
were deposited not by simple changes in sea level
这些岩石不是由简单的海平面变化沉积的
but by an enormous megatsunami,
而是由相当大的超级海啸造成的
caused by landslides on the island’s steep slopes.
该海啸是岛上陡峭斜坡上的山体滑坡引起的
To produce this, the wave that
要产生这么大的海啸
struck the island of Lanai would have had to be at least 300 meters high,
袭击拉奈岛的海浪必须至少有300米高
again twice as large as the Fogo wave.
是福戈海浪的两倍
Witnessing that wave would have been
看到这样的海浪
like watching a wall of water almost as tall
就相当于看到不知从哪里冒出来的
as the Eiffel Tower coming towards you — out of nowhere.
和埃菲尔铁塔一样高的水墙向你涌来
Further back from that,
要探寻更久之前
it becomes a little more difficult to directly attribute events
与超级海啸直接相关的事件就有些困难了
to megatsunamis, but we do have a few likely candidates.
但确实有几次事件可能与之有关
For example, we know the impact that ended the age of dinosaurs
例如 我们知道大约6600万年前那次撞击
about 66 million years ago splashed down
小行星从今天的尤卡坦半岛海岸飞溅而下
off the coast of the present day Yucatan peninsula
终结了恐龙时代
— so it’s very likely to have caused a megatsunami.
所以它很可能引起了一场大海啸
That impact sent shockwaves throughout the entire global ocean system,
那次撞击产生的冲击波从附近的墨西哥湾开始
starting with the nearby Gulf of Mexico.
影响到了全球的海洋系统
In a 2018 presentation, researchers suggested that
在2018年的一次报告中 研究人员提出
the asteroid would have caused a wave 1500 meters high.
小行星撞击可能会引起1500米高的海浪
It’s hard to imagine how much water that is,
难以想象那会有多大的水量
but if you took Mount Kilimanjaro and put it right in the path of that wave,
但如果你把乞拉马扎罗山放在海浪的路径上
the water would have gotten a quarter of the way up to the summit.
水会达到山顶的四分之一
Yeah, most of the dinosaurs worldwide were done for anyway
是的 世界上大多数恐龙都灭绝了
— but the ones in the path of that wave did not last a day.
但在那次海浪路径上的恐龙也活不过一天
If there’s an upside to megatsunamis,
如果超级海啸有什么优点的话
it’s that they don’t last as long as
那就是它们不会像地震那样
their seismically-created counterparts.
造成持久的影响
Megatsunamis tend to have a stronger local impact.
超级海啸往往会对当地产生更大的影响
So their impact is limited compared to regular tsunamis,
所以和常规海啸相比 它们的影响有限
which can still be destructive after traveling thousands of kilometers.
不会在行进几千公里后仍具有破坏性
But in their local areas, they can be incredibly destructive.
但在超级海啸发生当地 它们具有非常大的破坏性
Now, here’s the bad news: megatsunamis are really rare,
我们有一个坏消息:超级海啸非常罕见
but scientists think that
但是科学家认为
climate change might make them more common in our near future.
气候变化可能会使它们在不久的将来变得更常见
Regions like Greenland and Alaska have permanently frozen soil
格陵兰岛和阿拉斯加等地区有永久冻结的土壤
known as permafrost.
叫做永冻土层
Permafrost never thaws — not even in the summer.
永冻土层永远不会融化 即使在夏天也不会
Effectively, these places are built on a layer of solid icy ground.
实际上 这些地区都建在一层坚硬的冰层上
But as global temperatures warm, that permafrost does melt.
但由于全球气温变暖 永冻土层融化了
This makes the ground suddenly unstable,
这使地面突然变得不稳定
which could trigger more landslides.
可能引发更多山体滑坡
And when landslides happen in coastal areas,
那么当山体滑坡发生在沿海地区的时候
well, they could cause more megatsunamis.
可能会引发更多的超级海啸
In theory, early warning systems could help
从理论上讲 早期预警系统
protect the four million or so people who live in the Arctic.
可以保护生活在北极的大约400万人
Which they’re going to need, if more megatsunamis
如果更多的超级海啸威胁他们生活的地方
threaten their communities.
他们会需要这个系统的
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow.
感谢观看本期《科学秀》
Today’s the last day of April,
今天是四月的最后一天
and that means it’s the last day you can order the Space Pin of the Month
也就是订购本月太空胸针的最后一天–
— which is this cute little Vostok 1 satellite.
这就是可爱的小沃斯托克1号卫星了
It can be yours, but only if you order it right now.
只要你现在订购 它就是你的了
Tomorrow we will have a new pin,
明天我们会有一个新的太空胸针
and there won’t be any more of this one
但不会再有本月的了
— but there will be other very good ones.
我们还会有其他很好的太空胸针
Check it out at the link in the description!
详情请看视频中的链接!

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视频概述

本视频讲述了什么是超级海啸以及它的形成原因。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Spencer

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-KIm0RBevNw

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