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了解你身体里的微生物

Meet Your Microbiome!

可能你之前听到过:
Maybe you’ve heard this one before:
人体内的微生物细胞要超出人体内的细胞十倍
the human body has ten times more microbial cells than human cells.
如今 那个说法并不是完全的准确
Now, that claim isn’t totally accurate.
根据最近的估算
Based on recent estimates,
在你身体里微生物细胞可能像体内细胞一样多
there are probably about as many microbial cells as human cells in your body.
实际上我听到的最喜欢的事情就是
In fact my favorite thing that I heard was
一个是单独的排便就可以使体内细胞改变平衡
a single defecation event can swing the balance the other way.
但无论哪种说法
But either way,
都有数万亿的微生物生活在你体内
there are trillions and trillions of microbes living on and inside you,
那能让你有各种各样奇怪的想法
which is kind of weird to think about.
在过去的几十年里
And over the last several decades,
科学家们已开始研究你身体中的微生物
scientists have started to really dig into how your microbiome,
也就是你体内的微小生物群体
that is, your personal community of tiny critters,
是如何影响你的健康
affects your health.
事实证明微生物对人体有非常大的影响
And it turns out that it has a pretty big impact.
我们身体中的微生物成员包括
The microbial communities in our bodies include members
一系列具有非常大差异的物种
of a hugely diverse array of kingdoms and species:
有细菌、真菌、病毒、原核生物如变形虫
there are bacteria, fungi, viruses, protists like amoebas,
显微镜下才可看到的如螨虫
microscopic bugs like mites,
以及看起来非常像细菌的古生菌但在生物学上与细菌十分不同
and archaea, which look kind of like bacteria but are very different biologically.
我们和许多的微生物是共生的关系
We’re in symbiotic relationships with many of our microbes:
我们为它们提供居住地 他们的存在也对我们有益
we give them a home, and their presence benefits us.
但它们也可能造成一些问题
But they can create problems if the wrong kind of species
如果引进一类不合适的物种或是微环境被破坏
is introduced or if the balance between colonies gets thrown off.
不同人群体内的微生物常常做些相似的工作
Different people’s microbes generally do similar jobs.
但对你而言你的微生物种群是独一无二的
But your personal microbiome is unique to you:
在你肠道内消化碳水化合物的细菌种类
the species of bacteria that digest carbohydrates in your gut
与我的可能是不同的(菌)种
might not be the same as species that do it in mine.
人和人之间微生物种群的比例也可能是完全不同的
And the ratios between species can be totally different from person to person.
这种独一无二的性质使得对微生物组的研究更困难
That uniqueness can make microbiome research harder.
会很难找出正常微生物群落应该是怎样的
It can be tough to figure out what a normal microbial community should look like,
这意味着当出现问题时 会很难找出问题
which means it’s not easy to identify what happens when things go wrong.
即便如此 在过去的几十年里研究者已经了解到
That said, over the years researchers have learned a lot
微生物菌群是如何形成的 它们是如何影响健康的
about how the microbiome forms, how it can affect your health,
以及在一些情况下
and in some cases,
他们甚至找到当微生物紊乱时去修复的方法
they’ve even figured out how to fix it when it gets out of whack.
对微生物而言 你身体的不同部位基本上是完全不同的环境
For microbes, different areas of your body are basically totally different habitats.
像你的皮肤、嘴巴、内脏和阴道(如果你有的话)
Places like your skin, mouth, intestines, and vagina (if you have one)
每个都有独一无二的种群 并随时间而发生变化
each have their own unique communities that grow and change over time.
但在你出生前 你不一定有微生物菌群
But you don’t even really have a microbiome until you’re born.
子宫内几乎是无菌的
The uterus is almost totally sterile,
但只要你出生 就会暴露在无数的微生物中
but as soon as you’re born you’re exposed to millions of microbes
它们会迅速的开始向你身体中移居
that immediately begin to colonize your body.
出生的方式影响微生物种群
The birth itself affects the microbiome:
从阴道出生的宝宝
babies who are born vaginally are covered with the microbes
会带有他们母亲产道内的微生物
living in their mothers’ birth canals,
而剖腹产的宝宝会暴露在一系列不同的微生物中
while babies born by C-section are exposed to a different set of microbes
像皮肤表面的微生物
like ones that live on skin.
甚至一个孩子出生的地方 也会造成
Even where a baby is born can make a difference to the microbes
他们身体中微生物种群的不同
found in and on their bodies
出生在家的宝宝
the microbiomes of babies born at home
和出生在医院的宝宝的微生物是不同的
and babies born in the hospital look different.
当你长大后 你会随着环境变化 通过周边的人
As you grow up, you pick up new microbes from your environment
和微生物群落 接触到新的微生物
and the people around you, and the microbial communities
微生物群落由于你身体所处地区不同而变得更独特
in different areas of your body become more specialized.
在这种变化中 你吃的食物能影响
During this shift, the foods you eat can affect the structure
肠道中的微生物菌群
of your gut microbiome.
研究者已经发现
Researchers have found differences between
母乳喂养和配方奶粉喂养的宝宝 体内微生物菌群是不同的
the microbiomes of breastfed and formula-fed babies.
甚至作为成年人 许多的事情能够影响你的肠道微生物组
Even as an adult, tons of things can influence your intestinal microbiome
如你吃的所有食物 得的疾病
everything from the foods you eat, to the illnesses you get,
治疗时吃的药片
to the medications you’re prescribed.
在你年老之前 你的微生物种群一直在变化
Your microbiome doesn’t really stop changing until you reach old age.
微生物疾病整体具有多样性
That’s when the overall diversity of the microbiome decreases,
在个体之间也是少有变化
and there’s less variation between individual people.
这些疾病 共同改变了微生物组
These diverse, changing microbes collectively add up
并对你的健康造成潜在的影响
to a lot of potential impact on your health.
例如 你口腔中遍布微生物
Your mouth, for example, is full of microbes
你的牙齿上、舌头上、牙龈上以及扁桃体上都有
they’re all over your teeth, and tongue, and gums, and tonsils.
当你和别人接吻时 你就在和对方分享彼此的微生物
And when you kiss someone, you are sharing all those microbes with them!
十分浪漫吧!
It’s very romantic!
虽然 多数口腔细菌是无害的
Most of the oral microbiome is harmless, though,
还可能帮你吃掉其它来源的微生物
and might actually help you out by gobbling up all the resources
使许多致死性的细菌就无法存活
so other, more deadly species can’t set up shop.
但当口腔微生物种群的平衡打破时
But things can get ugly when there are shifts in the balance
事情会变得比较糟糕
of the microbial community in your mouth.
吸烟和饮食等因素 会影响口腔的环境
Environmental factors like smoking and diet can affect your mouth’s environment,
可能导致微生物的富集 这些通常是无害的
which can lead to an overabundance of microbes that are normally harmless,
但微生物太多时 也会导致蛀牙等问题
but can cause problems when there are too many of them, like cavities.
口腔卫生不良会造成各种各样的口腔健康问题
And poor oral hygiene can lead to all kinds of oral health issues,
例如齿龈炎 干槽症 甚至扁桃体炎
like gingivitis, dry sockets, and even tonsillitis.
然后来看肠道中的微生物组
Then there’s the microbiome in your gut.
现已证明 在胃和肠道中的微生物
It turns out that the microbes in your stomach and intestines
对你的饮食健康是十分重要的
are actually super important for your dietary health:
它们分解和消化食物
they help break down and digest food,
影响你从吃的食物中获取的营养
influencing the nutrition you get from what you eat.
因为微生物种群的多样性和相对新领域的研究
Because the microbiome is so diverse and it’s a relatively new field of study,
许多生物学家并不知道
there’s a lot biologists don’t know about how the microbes
肠道中的微生物是如何影响健康的
in your gut affect your health.
但他们正在研究
But they are learning.
例如 最近研究者找到一些证据
Recently, for example, researchers have found some evidence
身体状况类似患有肠道易激综合症的人
that in people with conditions like irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS,
他们摄入的不同种类的食物可能与微生物相互作用
the kinds of foods they eat could be interacting with their microbiomes,
引起病症的发生
leading to their symptoms.
这种观点认为 饮食中某类糖含量高时
The idea is that diets high in certain kinds of sugars
即低聚糖 二糖 单糖 和多元醇
oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols,
简称FODMAPS
or FODMAPs for short
会在部分人的肠道内进行发酵
can cause fermentation in some people’s guts
由于他们体内微生物种群的作用
because of the makeup of their microbiome.
研究者认为这种发酵导致了病症
This fermentation is thought to lead to the symptoms
即肠道易激综合症:腹部绞痛 便秘 腹泻 排气
of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: cramps, constipation, diarrhea, and gas.
部分临床诊断支持这一理论
Small clinical trials have found some support for this theory:
占所研究的病人的一小部分(约百分之三十)
in small groups of patients (around 30 per study)
饮食中这类糖摄入低的受试者
subjects who ate diets that were low in FODMAP sugars
报告显示病症较轻
reported that their symptoms were less severe,
特别是当他们感到疼痛和不舒服的时候
especially when it came to pain and discomfort.
一项研究发现 这种对病症的改善作用
One study found that this improvement in symptoms corresponded
与肠道细菌的多样性是相符合的
to more diversity in some kinds of gut bacteria.
这项研究十分新 此外 样本规模很小
This research is still pretty new, and again, the sample sizes were small,
因此低糖饮食对肠道易激综合症如何起作用 还不是很清楚
so it’s not clear how effective a low FODMAP diet might be for IBS,
是否真的有效也不清楚
or if it even really works.
但目前为止 还是很有前景的
But so far, it seems promising.
因此期望能随时看到“低糖食物”的标签
So expect to see “low FODMAP food” on labels any minute now!
在肠道问题更严重的情况下
In more severe intestinal conditions,
像炎症性肠病和克罗恩病
like inflammatory bowel disease and Crohn’s disease,
科学家们已发现 微生物组多样性少
scientists have found connections between less diversity in the microbiome
和疾病活跃度水平之间的联系
and the level of disease activity.
基本上 你感觉到的难受
Basically, how bad you’re feeling.
似乎不仅仅是细菌的作用
And it’s not just the bacteria that seem to be playing a role.
一项研究表明 属于真菌一类的热带假丝酵母
One study found that a particular type of fungus, called Candida tropicalis,
在克罗恩病人的肠道内数量更多
is more abundant in the intestines of people with Crohn’s disease
与其健康的家庭成员相比时
than those of their non-affected family members.
虽然现在还不是十分清楚 是微生物组的改变导致了疾病
Right now, though, it’s not clear if the changes in the microbiome
还是疾病的发生使微生物组改变
lead to the disease, or if the disease lead to the changes.
我们知道 肠炎和微生物组之间有很密切的联系
All we know is that there’s a strong connection between bowel inflammation
这一关联似乎有很大的影响
and the microbiome, and that the connection seems to have big effects.
在其它条件下 肠道微生物组也影响消化吸收
Gut microbiome seems to play a role in other conditions that affect digestion, too.
艰难梭状芽孢杆菌 简称为C.diff 是一种典型细菌
Clostridium difficile, or C. diff for short, is a type of bacteria
它的毒素引起腹泻和发烧 还可能导致结肠炎
whose toxins cause diarrhea and fevers and can lead to colitis,
结肠炎是种炎症性的肠道疾病 会引起腹部绞痛
an inflammatory bowel disease that causes cramps,
持续腹泻 以及其它痛苦的症状
ongoing diarrhea, among other painful symptoms.
医院里经常发生艰难梭菌传染病
C. diff infections are often picked up in hospitals,
病人已缺乏抵抗力
where patients’ health is already compromised.
通常 病人感染是因为使用抗生素
And often, they get the infection because they took prescription antibiotics.
多数抗生素是广谱的
See, most antibiotics are broad-spectrum,
意味着它们能杀死大量不同种类的细菌 不仅仅是有害的
meaning that they kill lots of different kinds of bacteria, not just the bad ones.
因此正常生活在你肠道中的有益细菌
So the helpful bacteria that normally live in your gut become collateral damage
在对抗感染中成为附属损害 当他们被抗生素杀死时
in the fight against infections, and when they’re killed off by antibiotics,
艰难梭菌会移入肠道占领地盘
C. diff can move in and fill up the space.
对免疫系统衰弱的病人来说 是个很严重的问题
In a sick patient with a weakened immune system, that can be a serious issue.
当有些人长期与艰难梭菌传染病斗争时
And when someone’s struggling with chronic C. diff infection
普通的抗生素已经没有作用了
that doesn’t respond to normal antibiotics,
修复他们微生物种群最好的方法是
a great way to fix their microbiome is to
给他们一个新的微生物组
just … give them a new one.
具体实施就是粪便移植
That’s done with a fecal transplant,
顾名思义 就是
which is pretty much exactly what it sounds like:
医生们把捐赠者的粪便移入病人的结肠
doctors take fecal matter from a donor and transplant it into a patient’s colon.
基本上 他们把其他人的粪便移到那
Basically, they put someone else’s poop up in there.
移植之后 病人的微生物谱
After the transplant, patients end up with microbial profiles
最终和捐赠者很相似
that look a lot like the donor’s,
通常移入更多有益细菌 更少有害细菌
which usually translates to more good bacteria and less bad bacteria.
这些新加入的有益细菌能胜过艰难梭菌
Those new good bacteria are able to out-compete the C. diff,
摆脱传染病
fighting off the infection.
研究人员得到了相似的结果 那就是从捐赠者的排泄物样本中培养微生物
Researchers have gotten similar results when they culture the microbes
并放入受感染的病人体内时
from a donor’s fecal sample and insert it into the affected patient,
让医生们不必进行完全的粪便移植
allowing doctors to skip the full-on fecal transplant and giving them
就可以更好地控制给病人的确切用量
more control over what, exactly, they’re giving their patients.
这些方法看起来有点倒胃口 但却是有效的
These techniques might seem kind of unappetizing, but they often work.
在其他方面 使用抗生素可能对微生物种群造成很大影响
Using antibiotics can have a big influence on your microbiome in other ways.
抗生素杀死各类细菌
Antibiotics that kill off all kinds of bacteria can contribute
会导致微生物菌群失调
to a dysbiotic microbiome,
微生物的种类和比例发生改变
one that doesn’t have the right kinds of species in the right proportions.
微生物失调与相当广泛的健康问题有关
A dysbiotic microbiome is linked to pretty broad health issues,
例如得不到适当的营养 抵御危险病原体的防护减少
like not getting proper nutrition and less protection against dangerous pathogens.
研究表明高剂量 长期的使用抗生素
Studies have found that the high, extended doses of antibiotics
保护的早产婴儿 可能引起
used to protect premature infants could be causing
各种各样的微生物问题 包括
all kinds of microbiome issues, including higher rates of mortality
由于抗药感染造成的高致死率
due to drug-resistant infections.
同时 当严重营养不良的孩子们
At the same time, when severely malnourished children
使用抗生素作为康复治疗的一部分
are treated with antibiotics as part of their recovery,
似乎可以帮助他们恢复更快 并降低致死率
it seems to help them recover faster and reduces mortality.
儿童营养不良可能造成他们体内微生物终身的改变
Malnutrition in children might lead to lifelong changes in their microbiomes,
对这些儿童使用抗生素
and it’s possible that giving those kids antibiotics
可能有助于修正这些改变
helps correct some of those changes.
科学家们还研究其它问题
Scientists are working on other questions, too,
如抗生素和微生物群怎样的相互作用
like how interaction between antibiotics and the microbiomes
能影响肥胖和糖尿病
might affect obesity and diabetes.
既然微生物组对健康等有如此大的影响
Since your microbiome has such a huge effect on the rest of your health,
你可能想知道要如何处理它
you might be wondering how you can take care of it.
那么 除了把便便放进你的屁屁
So, can you do anything good for your microbiome,
你还能做什么对微生物菌群有益的事呢?
aside from putting poop up your butt?
研究员们正努力发展新的治疗方式
Well, researchers are working on developing new therapies
来帮助你保护有益微生物 保持健康
to help protect your good microbes and keep you healthy.
例如 他们尝试开发可替代的方法
For example, they’re trying to develop alternative approaches
治疗细菌感染 不仅仅依赖广谱抗生素
to treating bacterial infections that don’t just rely on broad-spectrum antibiotics
例如阻止细菌毒素的释放
like treatments that block the toxins released by bacteria
代替杀死所有细菌的治疗方案
instead of just killing all the bacteria.
并帮助平衡微生物失调
And to help balance out dysbiotic microbiomes,
研究者们致力于了解益生菌
researchers are working on understanding how probiotics,
当他们充满时 一类对健康有益的微生物
microorganisms that have health benefits when they’re consumed,
如何帮助肠道有益细菌恢复正常水平
might help restore proper levels of good bacteria in your gut.
他们也在尝试开发细菌的基因工程菌株
They’re also trying to develop genetically engineered strains of bacteria
生产化合物以抵抗有害微生物
that can produce compounds to fight the bad microbes,
就像是肠道的复仇者
like the Avengers for your intestines.
他们也仍在研究粪便移植是如何恢复
And, they’re still studying how fecal transplants restore order
病人微生物群的秩序
in the microbiomes of sick patients,
包括捐赠者粪便的菌群如何能恰好治疗感染
including how exactly microbes from donors are able to fight off infection.
当研究人员们设法弄清微生物组的难题时
While they’re still trying to piece together the microbiome puzzle,
你可以做这些事 保持微生物组的健康
there are some things you can do to keep your microbiome healthy.
不同的食物影响不同种类微生物的生长和数量
Different foods influence which kinds of microbes can grow, and how much.
特别是当你摄入各种蔬菜时 更加准确
That’s especially true when it comes to the kinds of vegetables you eat,
因为肠道内的细菌依赖于各种纤维
because the bacteria in your guts rely on all that fiber.
大量不同种类的蔬菜 表示有大量不同类型的纤维
Lots of different kinds of vegetables means lots of different kinds of fiber,
这意味着在你的肠道中微生物种群有很大差异
which means lots of diversity in the microbes in your gut.
但是我们可以确定一件事
But if there’s one thing we know for sure,
即微生物种群是十分复杂的
it’s that microbiomes are really complicated.
每个人的微生物组都不相同 因此每个人所需的物质是不同的
And everyone’s microbiome is different, so every person’s needs are different.
并没有通用的方法
There’s probably no one-size-fits-all trick for growing
形成或是维护你体内微生物种群的健康
or maintaining a healthy population of microbes inside you.
科学家要把这些搞清楚还需要一段时间
It’ll be a while before scientists have it all figured out.
还要进行大量的基因测序 将大量不同的相互作用 分开进行研究
There are a lot of genes to sequence, and a lot of interactions to pick apart.
但清楚的一点是 生活在你身体上的微生物
What is clear, though, is that the microbes living in and on you
对你健康的重要性几乎和细胞差不多
are just as much a part of your health as your own cells.
这些微小的生物体 对你的健康起着至关重要的作用
And these tiny organisms play dramatic and important roles in your health.
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你知道你身体中有大量的微生物,那你知道它们和细胞对你而言同样重要吗?你知道你体内的微生物多种多样,那你知道你体内的微生物组和其他人的都不相同吗?来了解你身体中的微生物,让自己拥有健康的身体吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Ljimnn

审核员

瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ybk7E7SLbWw

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