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来认识下全世界最糟糕的食肉动物 – 蜜熊 – 译学馆
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来认识下全世界最糟糕的食肉动物 - 蜜熊

Meet the World's Worst Carnivore, the Kinkajou

如果我要求你在脑海中想像食肉动物
If I asked you to picture of a carnivore in your head,
你可能会联想到一只强大的狮子或一头孤狼
you might conjure up an image of a powerful lion or a lone wolf.
所有食肉动物都属于哺乳类 按顺序的话 它们在某些方面是有共同之处的
All carnivores that is mammals in the order carnivora have some things in common.
你一般知道 它们狩猎 而且用锋利的爪子
You know mostly that they hunt and eat meat
和专门的牙齿吃肉
using their sharp claws and specialized teeth.
但有一种食肉动物 它打破了所有生物学规则
But there’s one carnivore that breaks all the biological rules.
蜜熊
The kinkajou.
人们在墨西哥南部的热带雨林和南美洲
Kinkajous are found in the tropical rain forests of
发现了蜜熊
of southern Mexico and south America.
他们整日待在高高的树上
They spend their days high in trees and
它们已经逐步进化以适应这种树栖生活方式
they’ve evolved some pretty nifty adaptations to this arboreal lifestyle.
关于这些毛茸茸树栖动物的一切
Almost everything about these furry tree dwellers
会让你觉得它们是灵长类动物
would make you think they’re a primate.
但实际上它们属于浣熊科
But they’re actually carnivores in the family procyonidae
因此浣熊 长鼻浣熊 犬浣熊和圈尾猫是它们的近亲
which makes things like raccoons, coatis, lingos and ringtails, their closest relatives.
科学家们认为
Scientists think that
早在2260万年前 蜜熊已经成为这个群体的早期分支了
kinkajous evolved as an early offshoot of this group about 22.6 million years ago.
而且它们还保留了一些自身的食肉特性
And they’ve kept some of their carnivorous traits.
但有关它们的一切 几乎都不是你所期待的
But pretty much, everything else about them isn’t what you’d expect.
它们不用锋利的爪子捕食 而是像熊和猫那样
Instead of using their sharp claws to hunt down prey, like bears or cats do,
用爪子抓树枝
they use them for gripping tree branches.
蜜熊有一块肌肉 叫做趾短屈肌
Kinkajous also have a muscle called the flexor brevis digitorum manus
用于协调小拇指到腕关节的运动
that runs from the pinky finger to the wrist,
意思是它们能翻转足趾 并能更好地抓住树枝
meaning they can sort of pseudo-oppose their digits and get an even better grip.
但自蜜熊最爱的消遣变为吃东西以后
But since the kinkajous’s favorite pastime is snacking,
大多时候 它们需要用手摘成熟的水果
most of the time, they need their hands for picking ripe fruit.
因此 它们进化出了适合紧紧抓握的尾巴
That’s where their prehensile or grasping tails come in.
只有一种食肉动物有卷尾
There’s only one other carnivore with a prehensile tail,
这的确让蜜熊变得很特别
making the kinkajou pretty special indeed.
但蜜熊的诡异的适应变异可能是
Maybe the creepiest adaptation they have though
它们转动后脚来向后看的能力
is their ability to rotate their hind feet to face backwards
这能让它们面朝前地倒挂起来
that allows them to hang upside down with their heads facing forward.
不要尝试立体方格铁架
Don’t try that on the jungle gym.
所有的这些能力让蜜熊能爬到树顶寻找食物
All these abilities give kinkajous access to the treetops for food,
让它们比其不太灵活的朋友更具有优势
giving them an advantage over their less flexible friends.
当提到食物 蜜熊是不怎么吃肉的
And when it comes to food, kinkajous don’t actually eat very much meat.
对于食肉动物来说 难道不奇怪吗?
Pretty strange for a carnivore, right?
它们的饮食是90%的水果和10%的树叶 花和蜂蜜
Their diet is about 90 percent fruit and 10 percent leaves, flowers and honey
也许还有一点点的白蚁
with a few answer termites thrown in for good measure.
还记得我们是怎样说蜜熊仍保留了一些食肉特性的?
And remember how we said kinkajou still have some of their carnivorous features?
其中之一便是它们的犬齿
One of those is their canine teeth,
与吃水果相比 犬齿更擅长撕肉
which are much better at tearing meat than eating fruit.
这让蜜熊变成了一个饕餮一般的食者
And that makes the kinkajou a pretty messy eater.
但那并不坏 因为那意味着它不知不觉地扮演了一名播种者
But that’s not so bad because that means unknowingly acting as a seed disperser.
它们主要是吃东西效率非常低
They basically eat with the efficiency of a toddler
并将种子播撒到森林地被层的各个角落
spreading seeds all over the forest floor.
蜜熊也可以扮演传粉者的角色
Kinkajous can also act as pollinators,
随着它们撒上花粉 伸出脑袋
as they get dusted with pollen, as they stick their heads
长长的具有粘性的舌头便伸进花里吸干花蜜
and long sticky tongues into flowers to sip up nectar.
在科学家们所知的几十万传粉者中
Of the hundreds of thousands of species of pollinators known by scientists,
只有约十分之一是哺乳动物 大部分都是蝙蝠
only about a tenth of a percent are mammals and most of those are bats.
极少数不能飞的哺乳动物和较少数食肉动物帮助植物传粉
Very few non-flying mammals and even fewer carnivores help plants swap pollen.
与昆虫或其它哺乳动物相比
Although scientists aren’t sure how much kinkajous help
虽然科学家们不确定蜜熊对授粉的帮助有多少
with pollinating compared to insects or other mammals.
但他们知道蜜熊的确帮助一些植物摆脱了困难
They do know that they help out with some plants,
比如 肉豆蔻 像槌柱兰或紫色金星果
such as the Nutmeg, like Malleola or the purple Star Apple.
而且它们的牙齿不是仅有的进化遗留下来的
And their teeth aren’t the only evolutionary hang over kinkajous have.
它们也有类似于食肉动物的内脏
They also have carnivore-like guts that
这让它们能够适应吃多种不同的食物
gives them the flexibility to eat a range of different foods.
那意味着 只需要大约2个半小时 就能让那些
And it means that it only takes them around two and a half hours
汁多丰满的水果变成一小堆蜜熊的便便
to turn that juicy, plump fruit into a little pile of kinkajou poop.
当你将它和其他食草动物 比如奶牛 相比时
Pretty darn fast when you compare it to other animals
它的织补速度相当快
that eat a lot of plants, like cows.
他们需要将其食物发酵来得到营养素
They need to ferment their food to get the nutrients out.
一个过程就会耗费1到3天
A process that can take one to three days.
因为蜜熊能迅速排空它们的胃
Because the kinkajous are so quick to evacuate their stomachs.
但从食物中摄取营养素就没这么迅速了
They aren’t that efficient at taking in nutrients from their food.
虽然它们在弥补 但其新陈代谢很慢
They make up for it, though, by having a slow metabolism.
因此它们不需要类似食肉动物所需的那些燃料
So they don’t need as much fuel as similarly sized carnivores.
现在你可能会觉得无聊 但这些吃水果的毛球球真的很可爱呢
Now, you might be thinking dull, these fruit eating fluff balls are so cute.
你可能曾在90年代见过帕丽斯·希尔顿
You may have even seen Paris Hilton in the 90s,
她肩膀上总有一只小型狗
slinking around with one around her shoulders.
但把这些小型狗当宠物养并不是个好主意
But it’s not a great idea to have these little guys as pets.
它们需要更大的运动空间 而且当你想睡觉时
They need a large area to exercise and are awake and
它们却精神百倍 还总想玩耍
want to play when you’re trying to sleep.
蜜熊不仅有极其专门的饮食 还能传播恶心的传染病
They have a super specialized diet and can transmit some pretty nasty infections,
就更别提那些锋利的爪子和牙齿了
not to mention those sharp claws and teeth.
即使它们通常扯破水果 但也能撕碎肉
They can still shred flesh, even if they’re usually used to rip apart fruit.
那就让我们把这些古怪的蜜熊留在雨林中好吗?
So, let’s just leave these curious carnivores in the rainforests, shall we?
那太好了
That would be great.
感谢观看本集科普秀
Thanks for watching this episode of Scishow.
如果你喜欢怪异的动物 可能会喜欢我们那集
If you like weird animals, you might like our episode on
针鼹为什么进化失调
why echidnas are evolutionary misfits.
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视频概述

全世界最糟糕的食肉动物是谁?蜜熊?还不知道的你,快来让我给你科普一下吧!

听录译者

徘徊的小孩

翻译译者

Amy

审核员

审核员YX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ArmLtonJrzE

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