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这只机械狗Spot可以跑、可以跳、还可以开门

Meet Spot, the robot dog that can run, hop and open doors | Marc Raibert

(笑声)
(Laughter)
(笑声)
(Laughter)
那是机械狗
That’s SpotMini.
它稍后还会回来
He’ll be back in a little while.
我……
I —
(鼓掌声)
(Applause)
我喜欢制作机器人
I love building robots.
我的长期目标就是制作能做人类和动物能做的事的机器人
And my long-term goal is to build robots that can do what people and animals do.
有三件事情
And there’s three things in particular
我们非常感兴趣
that we’re interested in.
第一点就是平衡和灵活机动性
One is balance and dynamic mobility,
第二点就是可移动处理性能
the second one is mobile manipulation,
第三点就是移动感知能力
and the third one is mobile perception.
所以 关于动力移动和平衡能力
So, dynamic mobility and balance —
我接下来将会为你们演示
I’m going to do a demo for you.
我站在这里 处于平衡状态
I’m standing here, balancing.
看得出来你们感受并不是那么深刻 好 现在呢
I can see you’re not very impressed. OK, how about now?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
现在感觉怎么样呢
How about now?
(掌声)
(Applause)
那些简单的功能意味着人们几乎可以去到地球的任何一个角落
Those simple capabilities mean that people can go almost anywhere on earth,
或者任何地域
on any kind of terrain.
我们希望我们的机器人也能做到这样
We want to capture that for robots.
那么具体怎么操作呢
What about manipulation?
我手上握着这个遥控器
I’m holding this clicker in my hand;
我甚至不用看着它
I’m not even looking at it,
就能毫无问题的进行操作
and I can manipulate it without any problem.
但是更重要的是
But even more important,
当我拿着这遥控器时 我可以移动
I can move my body while I hold the manipulator, the clicker,
并保持身体协调稳定
and stabilize and coordinate my body,
而且我甚至可以四处走动
and I can even walk around.
这就意味着 我可以环游世界
And that means I can move around in the world
同时扩展我的手臂和手所能达到的范围
and expand the range of my arms and my hands
真正做到能够处理任何一件事
and really be able to handle almost anything.
这就是机动操作性
So that’s mobile manipulation.
你们大家都可以做到这样
And all of you can do this.
第三点是观察力
Third is perception.
我环视了这间超过1000人的房间
I’m looking at a room with over 1,000 people in it,
我超赞的视力系统可以看清你们每一个人
and my amazing visual system can see every one of you —
你们在这个房间里都没动
you’re all stable in space,
甚至当我晃动我的头时
even when I move my head,
或者在我走动时 我也照样能看清
even when I move around.
这种机动性察觉力对机器人来说真的很重要
That kind of mobile perception is really important for robots
因为这可以帮助实现它们在现实世界的走动和行动
that are going to move and act out in the world.
我将会给你们看一份数据报告
I’m going to give you a little status report
这份报告是关于我们如何把机器人制作好的过程
on where we are in developing robots toward these ends.
最初的三个机器人都是动态稳定的机器人
The first three robots are all dynamically stabilized robots.
而这个机器人是十几年前制作的
This one goes back a little over 10 years ago —
“大狗”
“BigDog.”
有一个陀螺仪会帮助它实现稳定
It’s got a gyroscope that helps stabilize it.
它有很多传感器和一个控制芯片
It’s got sensors and a control computer.
这是一个正在飞速前进的猎豹机器人
Here’s a Cheetah robot that’s running with a galloping gait,
它可以循环使用能量
where it recycles its energy,
它会回弹到地面上
it bounces on the ground,
并且它能全天候运作
and it’s computing all the time
以此来保证它的稳定性和正常前进
in order to keep itself stabilized and propelled.
这是更大一点的机器人
And here’s a bigger robot
它可以用腿保持更好的运动性能
that’s got such good locomotion using its legs,
这使得它可以行走在很深的积雪中
that it can go in deep snow.
积雪大约有10英寸深
This is about 10 inches deep,
而这个机器人行走其中毫无问题
and it doesn’t really have any trouble.
这是Spot 新一代机器人
This is Spot, a new generation of robot —
只比刚刚在舞台上的那个机器人早一点点出现
just slightly older than the one that came out onstage.
我们一直在思考这个问题——
And we’ve been asking the question —
你们都听过无人机送货:
you’ve all heard about drone delivery:
我们可以使用无人机将包裹送至你的家中吗
Can we deliver packages to your houses with drones?
好 那么朴实成熟有腿的机器人送货呢
Well, what about plain old legged-robot delivery?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
因此我们带着这个机器人去职员的家中
So we’ve been taking our robot to our employees’ homes
去验证一下我们是否可以实现——
to see whether we could get in —
(笑声)
(Laughter)
各种前行方式
the various access ways.
相信我 在波士顿这个地区
And believe me, in the Boston area,
阶梯纵横交错 曲折无比
there’s every manner of stairway twists and turns.
所以这真的是个挑战
So it’s a real challenge.
但我们表现很好 百分之七十都成功了
But we’re doing very well, about 70 percent of the way.
这是机动操控性能
And here’s mobile manipulation,
我们为这个机器人装上了手臂
where we’ve put an arm on the robot,
它可以自己找到通过这扇门的方式
and it’s finding its way through the door.
现在 关于自主性机器人的最重要的一点
Now, one of the important things about making autonomous robots
就是让他们不仅仅只是听令行事
is to make them not do just exactly what you say,
而是让它们去处理在现实中发生的不确定事件
but make them deal with the uncertainty of what happens in the real world.
这是Steve 我们的一位程序员
So we have Steve there, one of the engineers,
他在机器人领域解决过许多困难
giving the robot a hard time.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
实际上 程序仍然默许所有的干扰——
And the fact that the programming still tolerates all that disturbance —
它本就该如此
it does what it’s supposed to.
这里有另一个例子 机器人上楼时
Here’s another example, where Eric is tugging on the robot
Eric牵引着它
as it goes up the stairs.
相信我
And believe me,
让它们在这些情况下做出相应的反应
getting it to do what it’s supposed to do in those circumstances
才是个真正的大挑战
is a real challenge,
但结果是去总结概括一些事情
but the result is something that’s going to generalize
让我们的机器人变得比之前更自动化
and make robots much more autonomous than they would be otherwise.
这是Atlas 一个类人机器人
This is Atlas, a humanoid robot.
它是我们制作的第三代类人机器人
It’s a third-generation humanoid that we’ve been building.
稍后我会和大家讲讲硬件设计方面
I’ll tell you a little bit about the hardware design later.
我们说过:
And we’ve been saying:
我们在一个普通任务中 比如 在传送带上移动盒子
How close to human levels of performance and speed could we get
能够在多大程度上
in an ordinary task,
接近人类性能和速度水平呢?
like moving boxes around on a conveyor?
我们达到了人类操作速度约为三分之二的速度
We’re getting up to about two-thirds of the speed that a human operates
平均来说
on average.
这个机器人正在用它的双手 它在用整个躯体
And this robot is using both hands, it’s using its body,
它是有步骤的
it’s stepping,
所以它是一个动态稳定
so it’s really an example of dynamic stability,
可移动操作性
mobile manipulation
和机动察觉力的实例
and mobile perception.
这里——
Here —
(笑声)
(Laughter)
实际上我们有两个Atlas
We actually have two Atlases.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
现在 不是一切都像预期的那样
Now, everything doesn’t go exactly the way it’s supposed to.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
(笑声)
(Laughter)
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这是我们最新款机器人 名为“Handle”
And here’s our latest robot, called “Handle.”
它非常有趣 因为它一半像动物
Handle is interesting, because it’s sort of half like an animal,
另一半像人类
and it’s half something else
因为它有这些像腿的东西和轮子
with these leg-like things and wheels.
它可以用有趣的方式实现手臂的功能
It’s got its arms on in kind of a funny way,
但它确实可以做一些非凡的事情
but it really does some remarkable things.
它能承重一百磅
It can carry 100 pounds.
还可能举起更重的东西
It’s probably going to lift more than that,
但我们目前只测试到100磅
but so far we’ve done 100.
它有非常不错的适应崎岖地形的能力
It’s got some pretty good rough-terrain capability,
即使它有轮子
even though it has wheels.
它也喜欢上电视表现自己
And Handle loves to put on a show.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
(掌声)
(Applause)
接下来我给你讲一下机器人的信仰
I’m going to give you a little bit of robot religion.
很多人认为机器人只是一台计算机告诉它
A lot of people think that a robot is a machine where there’s a computer
要做什么
that’s telling it what to do,
并且计算机通过传感器感知外部的机器
and the computer is listening through its sensors.
但是这只是故事的一半
But that’s really only half of the story.
真正的故事其实是计算机在一边
The real story is that the computer is on one side,
对机器人提出建议
making suggestions to the robot,
另一边是关于世界的物理现象
and on the other side are the physics of the world.
这些物理现象包括重力 摩擦力和弹力
And that physics involves gravity, friction, bouncing into things.
为了成功制造出机器人
In order to have a successful robot,
我认为你必须做一个整体设计
my religion is that you have to do a holistic design,
即 一次性设计出软件 硬件和
where you’re designing the software, the hardware and the behavior
行为流程
all at one time,
这些部分是相互结合 彼此配合的
and all these parts really intermesh and cooperate with each other.
当你使用最完美的设计时 你就可以完美地
And when you get the perfect design, you get a real harmony
使这些部分彼此契合在一起
between all those parts interacting with each other.
所以 一半的软件 一半的硬件
So it’s half software and half hardware,
再加上行为流程 才有了机器人
plus the behavior.
我们已经在硬件上做了很多功课
We’ve done some work lately on the hardware, where we tried to go —
左边的照片是常规设计的照片
the picture on the left is a conventional design,
显示的所有可以拼装在一起的零件
where you have parts that are all bolted together,
导体 导管 连接器
conductors, tubes, connectors.
右边是一个所有零件拼好之后的成品
And on the right is a more integrated thing;
它看起来像一幅解剖素描
it’s supposed to look like an anatomy drawing.
利用神奇的3D印刷
Using the miracle of 3-D printing,
我们开始打印机器人的零部件
we’re starting to build parts of robots
这个部件看起来更像一只动物的剖面图
that look a lot more like the anatomy of an animal.
这是一个大腿部分 它由液压器
So that’s an upper-leg part that has hydraulic pathways —
制动器 滤波器组成
actuators, filters —
并且都已嵌入 印刷成一整块
all embedded, all printed as one piece,
整个结构是使用
and the whole structure is developed
路径和行为是什么知识开发出来的
with a knowledge of what the loads and behavior are going to be,
其中 也用到了从机器人和仿真那里
which is available from data recorded from robots
及其他类似的地方得到的数据
and simulations and things like that.
所以说 这是一个数据驱动硬件设计
So it’s a data-driven hardware design.
使用像那样的过程
And using processes like that,
不仅仅适用于大腿部分 也适用于其他部分
not only the upper leg but some other things,
我们已经使得我们的机器人 从巨大庞大笨重缓慢又糟糕的机器人–
we’ve gotten our robots to go from big, behemoth, bulky, slow, bad robots —
就是在右边的那个 它几乎重达400磅–
that one on the right, weighing almost 400 pounds —
优化到刚才的视频中显示的中间的那个机器人
down to the one in the middle which was just in the video,
它大约190磅重
weighs about 190 pounds,
只比我重一点点
just a little bit more than me,
并且我们有一款新的机器人
and we have a new one,
它正在工作 所以我没办法展现给大家看
which is working but I’m not going to show it to you yet,
就是在左边的这个
on the left,
它只有165磅重
which weighs just 165 pounds,
但却拥有相同的力量和能力
with all the same strength and capabilities.
所以事情正在变得越来越好了
So these things are really getting better very quickly.
所以Spot是时候回来了
So it’s time for Spot to come back out,
我们将展示给大家机器人的机动性
and we’re going to demonstrate a little bit of mobility,
灵活性和感知能力
dexterity and perception.
这是Seth Davis 是我们今天的机器人牧马人
This is Seth Davis, who’s my robot wrangler today,
他通过在周围指导
and he’s giving Spot some general direction
给Spot一个大致的行走方向
by steering it around,
但是这所有的腿和传感器的协调
but all the coordination of the legs and the sensors
是由机器人的计算机在外部进行控制的
is done by the robot’s computers on board.
机器人可以用很多不同的步法进行行走
The robot can walk with a number of different gaits;
它体内有一个陀螺仪
it’s got a gyro,
或者是一个固态陀螺仪
or a solid-state gyro,
这是一个惯性测量装置
an IMU on board.
显然 它有一个电池之类的东西
Obviously, it’s got a battery, and things like that.
有腿机器人最酷的一点就是
One of the cool things about a legged robot is,
它是全方位的
it’s omnidirectional.
除了可以向前走 它还可以向侧边走
In addition to going forward, it can go sideways,
在适当的地方还可以转弯
it can turn in place.
这台机器人有点喜欢耍帅
And this robot is a little bit of a show-off.
它喜欢用它的动态步伐
It loves to use its dynamic gaits,
比如跑步–
like running —
(笑声)
(Laughter)
而且它还不止一种呢
And it’s got one more.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
现在 如果它真的是在炫耀 它会跳起一只脚
Now if it were really a show-off, it would be hopping on one foot,
但是 你知道的
but, you know.
现在 在这里Spot有一系列的照相机 立体照相机
Now, Spot has a set of cameras here, stereo cameras,
我们在其中心放置了一个进光装置
and we have a feed up in the center.
观众感觉有点黑
It’s kind of dark out in the audience,
但是它将会用这些摄像头 来看看
but it’s going to use those cameras in order to look at the terrain
在它右前方的地形
right in front of it,
同时它会越过这些障碍回到这里
while it goes over these obstacles back here.
在这个演示中 Seth正在转向
For this demo, Seth is steering,
但是机器人正在做所有的地形规划
but the robot’s doing all its own terrain planning.
这是一张地形图
This is a terrain map,
摄像机的数据是实时更新的
where the data from the cameras is being developed in real time,
显示的红点 是它不想走的地方
showing the red spots, which are where it doesn’t want to step,
绿点是比较合理的位置
and the green spots are the good places.
在这里 它把它们当作垫脚石
And here it’s treating them like stepping-stones.
所以它试图在这些街区上停留
So it’s trying to stay up on the blocks,
它调整了它的步幅
and it adjusts its stride,
它有很多计划
and there’s a ton of planning
必须要进行这样的行动
that has to go into an operation like that,
它会实时地进行所有的计划
and it does all that planning in real time,
它会调整步伐变长一点点
where it adjusts the steps a little bit longer
或者变短一点点
or a little bit shorter.
现在我们要把它改成不同的模式
Now we’re going to change it into a different mode,
在此模式下 它只处理像地形的块
where it’s just going to treat the blocks like terrain
并决定向上还是向下走
and decide whether to step up or down
以此配合其行动
as it goes.
因此这正在使用动态平衡
So this is using dynamic balance
和移动感知能力
and mobile perception,
因为它必须将其看到的和其行动协调起来
because it has to coordinate what it sees along with how it’s moving.
Spot 拥有的另一件东西就是机械臂
The other thing Spot has is a robot arm.
你或许会把这看作是一个头或者是脖子
Some of you may see that as a head and a neck,
但是 相信我 它其实是一个手臂
but believe me, it’s an arm.
Seth正在操作它
Seth is driving it around.
他实际上是在操作机器人的手 其身体跟着动
He’s actually driving the hand and the body is following.
所以这两者是我之前说过的协调方式
So the two are coordinated in the way I was talking about before —
这种方式人类可以完成
in the way people can do that.
实际上 我们将Spot能够做的比较酷的一件事称为 “鸡头模式”
In fact, one of the cool things Spot can do we call, “chicken-head mode,”
它保持其头在空间的一个特定的点
and it keeps its head in one place in space,
只绕着这个特定的点移动其身体
and it moves its body all around.
这里有一个叫做”电臀舞” 的变体
There’s a variation of this that’s called “twerking” —
(笑声)
(Laughter)
但是我们今天不会使用这个
but we’re not going to use that today.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
所以 Spot 我感觉有点渴,你能给我一杯苏打水吗?
So, Spot: I’m feeling a little thirsty. Could you get me a soda?
对于这个演示 Seth并没有做任何动作
For this demo, Seth is not doing any driving.
我们在机器人背后放置了一台激光雷达
We have a LIDAR on the back of the robot,
它会利用我们放置在舞台上的道具
and it’s using these props we’ve put on the stage
来自行定位
to localize itself.
它已经到那个位置了
It’s gone over to that location.
现在 它正在利用它手中的摄像头
Now it’s using a camera that’s in its hand
来寻找杯子
to find the cup,
抓起来–
picks it up —
又试了一次 Seth没有进行操作
and again, Seth’s not driving.
我们已经给它规划出了一条路径–
We’ve planned out a path for it to go —
它看起来好像是偏离了道路
it looked like it was going off the path —
现在 Seth将会再一次控制它
and now Seth’s going to take over control again,
因为对于让它自己运行 我还是有点担心
because I’m a little bit chicken about having it do this by itself.
谢谢你 Spot
Thank you, Spot.
(掌声)
(Applause)
所以 Spot
So, Spot:
你感觉你刚刚完成的TED表演怎么样
How do you feel about having just finished your TED performance?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我也是
Me, too!
(笑声)
(Laughter)
谢谢大家
Thank you all,
同时也谢谢波士顿的动力学团队
and thanks to the team at Boston Dynamics,
他们在幕后做了所有这些困难的工作
who did all the hard work behind this.
(掌声)
(Applause)
海伦•沃尔特斯: 马克 请留步
Helen Walters: Marc, come back in the middle.
非常感谢你
Thank you so much.
请过来一下 我还有些问题
Come over here, I have questions.
你刚提到不间断电源和包裹递送
So, you mentioned the UPS and the package delivery.
对于你的机器人 你还看到有其它应用吗
What are the other applications that you see for your robots?
马克•拉伯特: 你知道 我认为
Marc Raibert: You know, I think that robots
机器人拥有我之前一直谈论的
that have the capabilities I’ve been talking about
非常有用的能力
are going to be incredibly useful.
在一年前 我到过福岛
About a year ago, I went to Fukushima
去看看那里的情况
to see what the situation was there,
那里对机器有巨大的需求
and there’s just a huge need
它们能够到非常脏的地方
for machines that can go into some of the dirty places
帮助修复一些东西
and help remediate that.
我认为 不久之后 在我们的家里就会有很多机器人
I think it won’t be too long until we have robots like this in our homes,
这对于照顾老人和残疾人
and one of the big needs is to take care of the aging
有很大的需求
and invalids.
我认为 不久之后 我们就会用机器人来
I think that it won’t be too long till we’re using robots
帮忙照顾我们的父母
to help take care of our parents,
或者 我们的孩子用机器人来照顾我们更有可能
or probably more likely, have our children help take care of us.
还有很多其他的东西
And there’s a bunch of other things.
我认为 创意无止境
I think the sky’s the limit.
很多创意我们都还没想到
Many of the ideas we haven’t thought of yet,
像你们这样的人 会对我们发明新应用有很大帮助
and people like you will help us think of new applications.
海伦:那么其黑暗面呢
HW: So what about the dark side?
军方呢
What about the military?
他们对这感兴趣吗
Are they interested?
马克:当然 军方是机器人领域的大投资者
MR: Sure, the military has been a big funder of robotics.
并且我并不觉得军方是黑暗面
I don’t think the military is the dark side myself,
但是我想 随着所有先进技术的发展
but I think, as with all advanced technology,
机器人会帮助我们做任何种类的事
it can be used for all kinds of things.
海伦:太棒了 非常感谢
HW: Awesome. Thank you so much.
马克:不客气
MR: OK, you’re welcome.
谢谢你
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

本视频介绍了机器人Spot,展示了它能够实现的功能。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AO4In7d6X-c

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