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动画演示吞咽机制

Mechanism of Swallowing, Animation in Baby model

吞咽是这样一个过程
swallowing or deglutition is the process
食物从口进入
by which food passes from the mouth
经过咽部
through the pharynx and
进入食管 它看上去可能很简单
into the esophagus as simple as it might seem to
健康人的吞咽动作确实一个
healthy people swallowing is actually a
非常复杂的动作 它要求一个
very complex action that requires an
极度精确的同呼吸的协作 因为这两个过程
extremely precise coordination withbreathing since both of these processes
都经过同一个入口咽部
share the same entrance the pharynx
合作失败可能导致
failure to coordinate would result in
窒息或肺部吸入 吞咽需要20多条肌肉的参与
choking or pulmonary aspirationswallowing involves over 20 muscles of
包括口腔 咽喉和食管的肌肉
the mouth throat and esophagus
它们由很多个皮层区域和在脑干中的吞咽中心控制
which are controlled by several cortical areas and by the swallowing centers in the brainstem
大脑通过几个脑神经与肌肉交流
the brain communicates with the muscles through several cranialnerves
吞咽由三个口腔阶段构成 口腔阶段:
swallowing consists of three phases. oral or buccal phase this
这是吞咽的随意运动部分 食物
is the voluntary part of swallowing. the food is
被唾液润并且被咀嚼
moistened with saliva and chewed
产生了食糜
a food bolus is formed
舌头将它推到了嗓子 咽部
and the tongue pushes it to the back of the throat the pharynx.
这个过程在大脑皮层的几个区域的神经控制之下
this process is under neural control of several areas of cerebral cortex
包括运动皮层
including the motor cortex
咽部阶段由触觉感受器的刺激开始
pharyngeal phase starts with the stimulation of tactile receptors
这些感受器在口咽部
in the oral pharynx by
由食糜刺激 吞咽反射
the food bolus. the swallow reflex
开始并且在非随意神经肌肉的调控下
is initiated and is under involuntary neuromuscular control.
下列的行为是为了确保
the followingactions are taken to ensure
食物和饮料通过食管
the passage of food or drink into the esophagus.
舌头堵住口咽部为了防止食物逆行如口腔
the tongue blocks the oral cavity to prevent food from going back to the mouth.
软腭堵住鼻咽腔的入口
the soft palate blocks entry to the nasal cavity.
声门裂关闭为了保护肺的气道
the vocal folds closed to protect the airway to the lungs.
喉头被拉起同时会厌翻盖在气管的入口处
the larynx is pulled up with the epiglottis flipping over covering the entry to the trachea
这是最重要的步骤
this is the most important step
因为食物中毒和饮料进入肺中
since entry of food or drink into the lungs
可能导致潜在的生命威胁
may potentially be life-threatening.
上部食管括约肌打开可以开放食管通道
the upper esophageal sphincter opens to allow passage to the esophagus.
食管阶段:食糜被
esophageal phase the food bolus is
推入食道以蠕动的方式
propelled down the esophagus byperistalsis
蠕动是一种肌肉收缩波可以推动在它之前的食糜
a wave of muscluar contraction that pushes the bolus ahead of it.
咽部重新下降到开始的部位
the larynx moves down back to the original position

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译制信息
视频概述

讲述了吞咽机制的三个阶段

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

浅叶飞月

审核员

审核员GL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mcmp9s2ra2c

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