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大脑中药物成瘾机制的动画演示 – 译学馆
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大脑中药物成瘾机制的动画演示

Mechanism of Drug Addiction in the Brain, Animation.

上瘾指影响脑中奖励系统的神经障碍
Addiction is a neurological disorder that affects the reward system in the brain.
在一个健康人的身体里
In a healthy person,
奖励机制会强化生存所必须的行为
the reward system reinforces important behaviors
比如 吃 喝 做爱 以及社会交流
that are essential for survival such as eating, drinking, sex, and social interaction.
例如
For example,
奖励系统确保你在饿的时候找到食物
the reward system ensures that you reach for food when you are hungry,
因为你知道 吃东西后 你会感觉良好
because you know that after eating you will feel good.
换句话说 这会使吃变得愉悦和难忘
In other words, it makes the activity of eating pleasurable and memorable,
所以 你会想在每次感觉饥饿时吃东西
so you would want to do it again and again whenever you feel hungry.
滥用药物会破坏这个系统
Drugs of abuse hijack this system,
把人的正常需要变成药物需要
turning the person’s natural needs into drug needs.
人脑包括成千上万的神经元 或神经细胞
The brain consists of billions of neurons, or nerve cells,
(它们)通过化学信息或神经递质彼此交流
which communicate via chemical messages, or neurotransmitters.
神经元经充分刺激后
When a neuron is sufficiently stimulated,
一个叫做动作电位的电冲击就会产生
an electrical impulse called an action potential is generated
并向下输送轴突至神经末端
and travels down the axon to the nerve terminal.
这里 电冲击会触发神经递质的释放进入突触裂
Here, it triggers the release of a neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft –
——神经元间的空隙
a space between neurons.
然后神经递质与感觉器官在相邻神经元上结合
The neurotransmitter then binds to a receptor on a neighboring neuron,
并在其中产生一个信号
generating a signal in it,
这样信息被传递至临近的神经元
thereby transmitting the informationto that neuron.
主要的奖励方式包括从中脑腹侧的被盖区
the major reward pathways involve transmission of the neurotransmitter dopamine
到大脑边缘系统和额皮质神经递质多巴胺的传递
from the ventral tegmental area-the VTA of the midbrain to the limbic system and the frontal cortex.
参与喜欢的活动可在腹侧背盖区
Engaging in enjoyable activities generates action potentials
即生成多巴胺的神经元生成动作电位
in dopamine-producing neurons of the VTA.
这就导致多巴胺从神经元释放进入突触裂
This causes dopamine release fromthe neurons into the synaptic space.
然后多巴胺与其受体在接受神经元上相结合并刺激
Dopamine then binds to and stimulates dopamine-receptor on the receiving neuron.
这种在多巴胺作用下的刺激 据说能产生愉悦的感情和奖赏效应
This stimulation by dopamine is believed to produce the pleasurable feelings or rewarding effects.
然后 多巴胺分子被称作多巴胺输送者的特殊蛋白质
Dopamine molecules are then removed from the synaptic space
从突触裂挪开 再被传递至神经元
and transported back in to the transmitting neuron by a special protein called dopamine-transporter.
大多数药物滥用增加了多巴胺在奖励方式上的份额
Most drugs of abuse increase the level of dopamine in the reward pathway.
一些药物 比如 酒精 海洛因 尼古丁
Some drugs such as alcohol, heroin, and nicotine
间接刺激了腹侧被盖区生产多巴胺的神经元
indirectly excite the dopamine-producing neurons in the VTA
这样它们就生成更多的动作电位
so that they generate more action potentials.
可卡因作用于神经末端
Cocaine acts at the nerve terminal.
它把多巴胺输送者结合在一起 使多巴胺再吸收成块
It binds to dopamine-transporter and blocks the re-uptake of dopamine.
甲基苯丙胺 一种精神兴奋剂
Methamphetamine – a psychostimulant –
和可卡因相似地 作用于成块的多巴胺移动
acts similarly to cocaine in blocking dopamine removal.
另外 它可以进入神经元
In addition, it can enter the neuron,
进入包含多巴胺的囊泡
into the dopamine-containing vesicles
在没有动作电位的情况下 也能触发多巴胺释放
where it triggers dopamine release even in the absence of action potentials.
不同的药物有不同的作用
Different drugs act different way
但是共同的结果是 多巴胺的生成
but the common outcome is that dopamine builds-up
在突触中 要比正常数量多
in the synapse to a much greater amount than normal.
这就导致持续刺激
This causes a continuous stimulation,
也许接受神经元的过多刺激
maybe over-stimulation of receiving neurons
会导致药物使用者感受到超长且超强的精神愉悦
and is responsible for prolonged and intense euphoria experienced by drug users.
药物引起的多巴胺浪潮的重复侵袭
Repeated exposure to dopamine surges caused by drugs
最终麻痹奖励系统
eventually de-sensitizes the reward system.
对于日常刺激 系统将不再有任何反应
The system is no longer responsive to everyday stimuli
唯一受奖励的是药物
the only thing that is rewardingis the drug.
这就是药物改变 一个人生命优先权的方式
That is how drugs change the person’s life priority.
一段时间后 药物也会失去奖赏能力
After some time, even the drug loses its ability to reward
只有大剂量才能实现奖赏效应
and higher doses are required to achieve the rewarding effect.
这最终会导致用药过量
This ultimately leads to drug overdose.

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视频概述

大脑神经组织的结构 及上瘾药物的关系

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NxHNxmJv2bQ

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