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什么是麻疹——到底要不要接种疫苗?

Measles Explained — Vaccinate or Not?

近期麻疹被人议论纷纷
Recently there has been a lot of talk about measles.
麻疹究竟是什么,你应该注射疫苗来抵抗它吗?
What does measles actually do, and should you vaccinate against it?
或者这仅仅是种癔症?
Or is this just hysteria?
麻疹是一种由麻疹病毒引起的疾病
Measles is a virus:
是一种包有蛋白质外壳的RNA病毒
a hull of proteins, RNA,
通过获得更多的蛋白质来繁殖
plus some more proteins for reproduction.
它们不能够自我繁殖,需要借助宿主细胞进行繁殖
It cannot reproduce by itself; it needs a host cell to do so.
为了深究麻疹,我们必须要了解免疫系统
To understand measles, we have to understand the immune system.
你可能已经看到
You might already have seen
我们为了帮助理解而制作的这幅系统图
the visual system we developed to help here.
现在,让我们把注意力集中到免疫系统里跟麻疹有关的部分吧。
Now, let’s focus on the parts of the immune system relevant to measles.
麻疹病毒通过鼻子,嘴巴,抑或眼睛进入人体。
The measles virus enters humans through the nose, mouth, or eyes.
麻疹感染是从肺部开始的
The measles infection starts in the lungs.
麻疹病毒尤其擅长攻击人体的第一道防线;
Measles is especially good at infecting the body’s first line of defence:
吞噬细胞,一种有力的保卫细胞保护了肺部不受闯入者的伤害。
macrophages, powerful guard cells that protect the lungs from intruders.
它们进入了一个细胞,并接管了它。
They enter a cell and take it over.
病毒重调了细胞并且
The virus reprograms the cell and
把细胞改变成了一个危险的病毒生产中心。
transforms it into a dangerous virus production center.
一旦一个细胞充满了病毒,
Once a cell is filled with viruses,
他们就会离开这个残破不堪的细胞,然后重复这样的行为。
they leave the crippled cell and begin the cycle over again.
但是免疫系统拥有有力的武器来反抗病毒的入侵:
But the immune system has powerful weapons against virus infections:
自然杀伤细胞
natural killer cells.
这些细胞巡视机体,检查其它细胞是否感染
These cells basically patrol the body and check other cells for infections.
如果它们发现细胞感染,会命令其自溶
If they find an infected cell, they order it to commit suicide.
这在前10天左右非常有效
This is so effective that for the first 10 days or so,
你甚至不会注意到你感染了麻疹
you will not even notice that you’re infected with measles.
麻疹为什么这么强大的原因
And now, the reason why measles is so powerful.
在一系列的斗争和消亡之后
After a period of fighting and dying,
巨噬细胞向大脑的免疫系统发出警报
macrophages alert the brain of the immune system:
树突细胞
the dendritic cells.
而树突细胞的职责就是采集侵入者的样本
The job of the dendritic cells is to collect samples of intruders,
到达淋巴结
travel to the lymph nodes,
然后激活重型武器
and then activate the heavy weapons
在一个团队的工作下感染很快被清除
that eradicate the infection very fast in a team effort.
但是麻疹病毒使用一种可怕的战略
But the measles virus uses a dreadful tactic.
它感染树突细胞
It infects the dendritic cells
利用被感染的树突细胞作为特洛伊木马进去人体深部
and uses them as a Trojan horse to enter deeper into the body.
被感染的细胞到达下一个淋巴结
The infected cells travel to the next lymph node
去向其他免疫细胞发出警报
to alert other immune cells.
一旦被感染的细胞到达下一个淋巴结
Once it arrives,
麻疹病毒在T细胞和B细胞中传播扩散
the measles virus spreads around the virgin T and B cells
然后感染它们
and infects them.
它攻击每个参与抵抗它的系统
It attacks the very system that evolved to fight it.
到这个阶段,病情会快速进展
Now, things happen very fast.
淋巴系统会将病毒传播至人体各处
The lymph system spreads the virus everywhere
直至病毒进入血液循环
and it enters the bloodstream,
感染所到之处的细胞
infecting cells while traveling.
麻疹侵犯脾脏
Measles infects organs like
肝脏、肠道等器官,影响最大的是肺
the spleen, the liver, the intestines, and, most importantly, the lungs.
临床表现为
The symptoms range from
高烧、头痛、呕吐、支气管炎和其最具代表性的皮疹
a very high fever, headache, sickness, bronchitis, and, of course, a rash.
在肺部,免疫系统做的非常好
In the lungs, the immune system was doing pretty okay.
但是现在,数以百万计的病毒再一次攻击
But now, millions of viruses attack a second time
并杀死无数免疫细胞,彻底摧毁防御系统。
and kill countless cells, wiping out the defense systems.
在这个阶段,你的每次咳嗽都将携带数以百万计的麻疹病毒。
In this phase, you start coughing out millions of measles viruses.
麻疹的传染性在此阶段出现。
Measles is so contagious at this stage,
如果此时你遇到某个未接种麻疹疫苗的人
that if you meet someone who isn’t vaccinated,
有90%的概率他会感染麻疹病毒
there’s about a 90% chance you’ll infect them.
肺部没有了保护性机制,其它的平时找不到机会的
Without the protective army in the lungs, other bacteria or viruses that
细菌和病毒这时候就能进入肺部并发展成
would usually not stand a chance can now enter the lungs and develop into
能导致肺炎的并发感染
harmful parallel infections that can cause pneumonia,
这也是麻疹最常见的死亡原因
the most common way to die from measles.
你机体的免疫系统正严重受损
Your body’s immune system is now seriously wounded.
各个防御系统被破坏
Various protective systems are hurt and disrupted.
病毒扩散到各个地方,感染全身的皮肤
The virus spreads everywhere, infecting the skin all over the body.
麻疹典型的疹子开始变得明显可见
The typical measles rash now becomes visible.
而且在一些情况下,麻疹病毒
And in some cases, the measles virus
会扩散到大脑导致脑部感染
reaches the brain and causes a brain infection.
如果这真的发生了,那死亡的几率会在20%~40%间
If it does so, the chances of dying are between 20 to 40 percent,
而且还可能发生长期的损伤
and there may be long-term damage.
但是你的机体在这个阶段远不会放弃
But your body is far from giving up at this stage,
它会狠狠地回击
and it fights back agressively.
一些存活得足够久的树突细胞会激活
Some dendritic cells survive long enough to activate
机体的抗病毒能力
the anti-virus forces of the body.
淋巴结中的浆细胞合成数以亿计的抗体,
Plasma cells in the lymph nodes start producing billions of antibodies,
它们是一些微小的蛋白质,能够标记感染细胞,以待杀灭,
tiny proteins that mark infected cells for destruction
或者把病毒粘成一团。
or clump the virus together.
T细胞涌入机体 杀死被感染的细胞
Killer T cells flood the body and kill infected cells left and right.
在2-3周后,机体通常
After 2 to 3 weeks, the body usually gets
占据上风,压制住了感染
the upper hand and overwhelms the infection.
但是此时 免疫系统非常虚弱
But the immune system is now seriously weakened,
以至于需要几周甚至数月才能恢复
and may take weeks or months to recover,
这段时间人体容易收到其他疾病的伤害
leaving the body vulnerable to other diseases.
但是,如果你已治愈,那么现在你已经获得免疫力
But, if you make it, you are now immune:
免疫系统会永远记住麻疹病毒
the immune system remembers the virus forever.
得麻疹不是开玩笑
Measles is no joke.
虽然84%的人接种了麻疹疫苗
Although 84% of all humans are vaccinated against measles,
2014年 仍有122,000人死于麻疹
122,000 people died because of the infection in 2014.
一些人不能接种疫苗
Some people cannot get vaccinations,
不仅因为他们太年轻,正在接受化疗或者HIV感染也是不能接种麻疹疫苗的原因
either because they’re too young, because of chemotherapy or HIV,
或者他们对疫苗过敏
or because they’re allergic to the vaccine.
他们需要我们为他们阻止麻疹的伤害
They need the rest of us to stop the disease for them.
麻疹疫苗是安全便宜且有效的
The measles vaccination is safe, cheap, and available.
得麻疹是没有好处的
There are no benifits from having measles at all.
你的免疫系统不是天生具有对麻疹的免疫力,如果你不强化它的话
You don’t strengthen your immune system and it’s not more natural.
大部分群众不给他们的孩子接种疫苗只是为了给自己孩子最好的,
Most people who don’t vaccinate only want the best for their children,
这是值得敬重的
which is honorable.
但是 扪心自问
But if you ask yourself,
我是否使孩子们暴露在
“Am I putting the life of my child and other children at risk by
不接种麻疹疫苗的危险之下
not vaccinating against measles?”
让人难过的回答是 是的 你是
The sad answer is yes. Yes, you are.
让我们不要逃避责任
Let’s not play the blame game, though.
一起努力来消灭麻疹病毒
Let’s work together and eradicate this virus.
我们可以一起来赶走这些可怕的怪物
Together, we can get rid of these dreadful monsters and
让它们到它们该去的地方 历史书
consign them to their rightful place: the history books.
字幕由Amara.org团队提供
Subtitles by the Amara.org community

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y0opgc1WoS4

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