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马斯洛理论其实并不完整,这里有个完整版 – 译学馆
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马斯洛理论其实并不完整,这里有个完整版

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Is Incomplete — There’s a Final, Forgotten Stage | Best of '16

我们很多人都以为 马斯洛需求层次理论止步于自我实现
Many people think that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs stopped with self-actualization.
事实上这并非正确
And that’s not actually true.
他还提出了 在自我实现之上还有自我超越
He had another piece that was on top of self-actualization and that was self-transcendence.
只不过在他逝世之前没有广泛宣传
He just didn’t publish it widely before he passed away.
这是他临近逝世才开始着手研究的
It was something he started working on towards the end and so he published the hierarchy
他在完成对自我超越的研究之前就公布了需求层次理论
of needs before he finished his work on self-transcendence.
他是首批开始真正研究心流和研究
He was one of the first people really to track flow and to track some of the more interesting
人类能达到的更有趣更高境界的人之一
and advanced altered states that human beingscan get to.
你会发现这个术语
Things that you would find the terminology
和资深冥想者所描述的很接近
really similar to things that you’ve heard advanced meditators describe.
所以他确实在研究自我超越
And so he was working on self-transcendence.
他只是没有公布而已
And he just didn’t publish it.
因此实际上在需求层次理论上还有另外一层
So there’s actually another level on top of that hierarchy of needs.
当提到人类心理学时 我会把它想象成一个光谱
And so when I think of human psychology I really think of human psychology as a spectrum
它不是一群岛屿 也不是独立的地方
and it’s not a series of islands or unique locations.
它的确是一种光谱
It’s really sort of a spectrum.
在光谱的一端你会看到我称之为需要他人支持的区域
And on one end you have what I call areas that require human support.
这是人们在面对严峻的压力 焦虑和抑郁时的状态
So this is when people are facing severe stress, severe anxiety and depression.
然后中间部分是我称之为人类状态
And then in the middle is what I call the human condition.
也就是孤独 幸福 联结 共情
And so that is loneliness, happiness, connection, empathy.
人类状态是我们学习如何处理第一次心痛和
The human condition is where we learn how to deal with our first heartbreak and the
第一次坠入爱河的状态
first time that we fall in love.
人类状态是我们处理悲伤 背叛和失去的状态
The human condition is where we deal with sadness and betrayal and loss.
基本上包括了所有你生命成长中要面对的事
Basically all the things that happen to you as you grow up through life.
人类情感的整个光谱
The full spectrum of human emotion.
这就是人类状态
That is the human condition.
无数的电台歌曲 诗歌和艺术所描述的
And there’s an infinite number of songs on the radio and poems and art that’s about
都和人类状态有关
the human condition.
就是这样
So that’s there.
然后另一边是我认为非常符合自我超越和马斯洛
And then on this other side which I think really maps to self-transcendence and Maslow’s
后面的工作是这个世上一些人致力于推动的人类心理学
later work is the part of the people in the world who are really pushing on human psychology
它的局限在哪?
and what are the limits?
我们的界线是什么?
Where are our boundaries?
人类心理学的边界又是什么?
What is the frontier of human psychology?
我觉得很多方向都来源于世界各地的冥想团体
And I think a lot of direction that we get is from the contemplative communities around
他们确实在探索和推进人类心理学
the world who really have been exploring and pushing on human psychology for as long as
从人类有组织活动时就开始了
humans have been organized.
他们探索人类是什么 成为人意味着什么
And pushing on what it is, what does it mean to be human.
某一天我和一个人交谈 他现在已经在耐力运动获得三项吉尼斯世界纪录
The other day I talked to a guy who now has three Guinness Book records on endurance sports.
他一生都在冥想
And he meditates the entire time.
他就穿着一件泳衣就游过了英吉利海峡 他一直在冥想
And he just swam the English Channel in a Speedo and he meditated the whole time.
所以 人们正在使用思维训练 冥想或是其他能够提升我们能力的方式
So, you know, people are using mind training, meditation and other things to push into abilities
目前 我们可能会说自己还有一些局限
that right now, today, one could say are limited to the few.
但是当自我超越技术来到后 我们就有能力 有可能
But with the advent of things like transformative technology there’s the ability, the possibility,
有潜力去达到非一般的境界 能力和状态
the potentiality of these extraordinary states, abilities and conditions to be available to
这对很多人来说都有可能
a much wider group of people.
我之所以认为它是相关的 有意义的和可行的
And the reason why I think it’s relevant is what would make it significant, relevant
是因为对于今日的世界和人类所面临的危机
and actionable is that when I think about the world today and the challenges facing
我不认为是技术上的问题
mankind I don’t think the problems are technical.
而是人类自身的问题
I think they’re human.
所以去年夏天我去了奇点大学
So last summer I went to Singularity University.
我花时间尝试了他们研究生项目的每样东西
I took time out of everything that I’m doing to go into their graduate studies program
那是个精彩的项目
and it was a fantastic program.
我喜欢奇点大学
I love Singularity University.
以及它这个为期十个星期的项目
And the way that the program is set up is that it’s this ten-week program and you’re
早上九点到晚上十点上课 有一次参观了
in class from 9:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. every night and there’s just a parade really of
这个星球上一些最非凡的人正致力于”指数型技术”
some of the most extraordinary people on the planet working either in exponential technologies.
如人工智能 机器人 3D打印 生物信息学 你能想到的各种各样
So AI, robotics, 3D printing, bioinformatics, everything you could imagine.
还有那些奋斗在危机前线的人
And people who are on the frontlines of the challenges facing mankind.
比如那些努力解决水资源问题的人
Like the people who are working on the water problems.
那些在难民避难处教书的人
The people who are teaching in the refugee camps.
那些光明正大地尝试和努力的人 正捋起袖子苦干
The people who are trying and working legitimately, sleeves rolled up on the ground.
奇点大学是一个应用”指数型技术”的地方
The thinking around SU is it’s the place where exponential technologies are applied
应用到人类面临的全球危机中
to the grand global challenges that are facing mankind and that
这成为使用这些技术的目的
being the purpose and the use for them.
当我在那儿的时候 我所问的一直围绕着:你最大的挑战是什么?
So for me when I was there my questions always centered on what is your biggest challenge
以及你想要试图实现什么?
to what you’re trying to accomplish.
两者的答案并非和技术有关
And the answers were not technical.
而是和人类自身有关
The answers were human.
这是关于恐惧 你自己的或是身边人的
It was about fear, one’s own or the people around you.
它们都是人的问题 这值得你花费整个暑假去学习
They were all human problems and it was interesting to spend the entire summer there because you
因为当你离开时 不会再觉得是技术上的问题
definitely walk away with the feeling that the problems aren’t technical.
我们总是可以解决技术问题
We always figure it out.
我们把人送上了月球 我们拥有可替代能源和好多其它东西
We got a man on the moon and we have alternative energy and there’s so many other things
它们发生得很快
that are happening so fast.
改变一年比一年来得更有力和迅速 如果你见识过
Changes coming hard and fast just from year to year if you see the difference in the quality
机器人竞赛的质量的话
of the robots at the robotic competitions.
一年一年又一年 变化实在太快了
It’s dramatic year after year after year.
所以真的 人类面临的挑战只是自己
And so really the challenge facing mankind is human.
我们能否克服恐惧 挑衅 焦虑和压力
It’s can we get past the fear, aggression, anxiety, stress.
我们能否克服内心的挣扎
Can we get past that inner dialogue that
它使我们飘飘然 它使我们错过比赛机会 无法发挥
takes us off track, either makes us miss out on game day, not perform,
它使我们无法和别人沟通和合作
makes us unable to create collaborations and cooperate with other people.
因为作为一个物种我们确实有很多挑战
Because we do have very real challenges as a species and
唯一的解决方法就是团结起来
the only way that we’re going to solve them is together.
我和他们深入交流了一些必须讨论的话题
We have some very serious conversations that we have to have about everything from
从基因工程到如何应用这么多种
genetic engineering to what do we do with a lot of the technologies
网络上的技术 包括算法问责制和各种话题
that are coming online whether it’s algorithmic accountability or a variety of things.
因此我看到了我的方向和超越技术是指
And so the way that I see my work and the way that I see transformative technology is
我们能否应用技术去更好地理解自己 如果我们应用技术
that if we could use the technology to understand ourselves better, if we can use the technology
去开始传播和帮助人们模仿冥想体验 这样的话
to start to deliver and help people mimic the experiences of meditation so that people
人们可以更沉静 更快乐 更了解自己
can be calmer, happier, understand themselves better
排除内心那个挑剔的带来麻烦的声音
silence the critical voices inside themselves that stir up a lot of trouble.
如果他们还能跟其他人更好地联结 我们有信心投入这项工作
And if they can also connect to other people better then we can get busy doing the work
去创造我们更喜欢的未来
that needs to be done to create the future that we’d like to have for ourselves and
也为了我们的孩子和这个地球上的人们
for our children and our communities on the planet.
这就是我现在所做的原因
So that’s why I’m doing what I’m doing.

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视频概述

根据马斯洛未完成的研究,在自我实现的需求层次之上还有自我超越。我们可以探索如何将技术应用于人类的潜能和心理健康。“冥想”为例

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GGtiXdRd9CY

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