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寂静的艺术 – 译学馆
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寂静的艺术

Martin Scorsese - The Art of Silence

嗨 我是托尼 欢迎观看《一帧一画》
Hi, my name is Tony, and this is Every Frame A Painting.
让我带你开车带你飞
Let’s take a drive.
今天的主题是马丁·斯科塞斯和寂静的艺术
Today’s subject is Martin Scorsese and the art of silence.
虽然斯科塞斯以妙用音乐闻名
Even though Scorsese is famous for his use of music,
但其实他最出众的特征是别出心裁地运用寂静来营造震撼的效果
one of his best traits is actually his deliberate and powerful use of silence.
不过他在采访里说 这一切都多亏了弗兰克·华纳在《愤怒的公牛》里的协助
In interviews he’s credited Frank Warner for helping him do this in Raging Bull.
“随着电影的发展 音效变得如此之多
”After a while we had so many sound effects that
我们就一直在考虑去除所有音效
after a while we always talked about pulling them out of the track
让一切都归于静寂”
and letting things go silent.”
就像耳朵被猛打了很多很多次以后变得麻痹
Again, like a numbing effect, as if you were hit in the ear too many times.
这个镜头很有名杰克·拉莫塔绷紧神经 准备迎接一场血战
Here’s a famous moment where Jake Lamotta sets himself up for almost a religious slaughter.
把斯科塞斯的所有电影都看一遍
If you go through Scorsese’s filmography,
我们能从中找到很多其他有趣的寂静方式
there’re lots of interesting variations on this concept.
我们来把他和其他导演进行对比
and you can actually compare him directly to others.
比如 在原版《无间道》中
For instance, in the original Infernal Affairs,
这个关键情节是有配乐的
this crucial story moment plays with music.
但在翻版中……
But for the remake…
哪个更合你口味不重要
Regardless of which film you prefer,
重要的是通过观看和比对这两部电影你能学到很多
there’s a full-course worth of study material if you watch and compare these two films.
有时候斯科塞斯会用声音达到整部电影的高潮
Sometimes Scorsese builds the entire film to a climax of sound.
然后静寂无声
And then silence.
这个例子比较极端
This example is actually kind of extreme
整部电影最吵的瞬间过后 立马就是最静的瞬间
because the loudest moment in the entire movie is immediately followed by the quietest.
在其他情况下寂静是一幕戏中推动剧情发展最核心的节奏
Other times the silence is the central dramatic beat of the scene.
这一幕很有名
Quite famously,
我特么怎么好笑了我特么的什么事情让你觉得我好笑
How the fuck am I funny? What is the fuck is so funny about me?
说啊 告诉我哪里好笑
Tell me. Tell me what’s funny.
别特么的想什么好不好笑的了 托米
Get the fuck out of here, Tommy.
回顾他50年的导演生涯
If you go back through all 50 years of his career,
会发现他用寂静达到了很多精妙绝伦的效果
you’ll actually find a lot of fascinating ways of using silence
比如放大一个镜头的主观性
to highten the subjectivity of a moment,
让毛骨悚然的戏更加毛骨悚然
make a creepy scene even creepier,
渲染一见钟情
to show us love at first sight,
让快乐戛然而止
and to bring our happiness to a screeching halt.
呃 也可能不是完全无声
Well, maybe not a total halt.
我特么的不走了
I’m not fucking leaving.
我觉得最好的一点是这些寂静的选择都特别来自于人物
I think, best of all, all of these sound design choices derive specifically from character.
寂静时人物做出的选择都对后续情节发展起了重要作用
Characters here are all making important choices that will have consequences:
选择拿钱 选择忍耐
choosing to take the money, choosing not to fight back,
选择隐藏情绪 选择怀疑某人
choosing to hide their emotions, choosing not to trust someone,
选择熬到尴尬结束
choosing to wait out the discomfort,
选择回归战局 选择假装不知道自己不受欢迎
choosing to get back in the game, choosing to ignore that they aren’t wanted.
由于每部电影中都用得节俭而到位
And because these moments are repeated sparingly and deliberately in each movie,
每一次的寂静都不一样 也表达了不同的主题
the silence feels different and it’s tied to a different theme.
同时也让导演围绕声音构建了一种电影结构
It also lets the director build a full cinematic structure around the use of sound.
例如 在《愤怒的公牛》中
For instance, in Raging Bull,
几乎每次打架前都有一个拍摄安静的家庭氛围的镜头
almost every fight scene is actually preceded by a quieter, domestic moment.
这更突出了拳击场上一次次重击的残酷无情
This lets him do certain things like harsh cuts in the punches.
但也更突出了电影的主题
But it also underscores the theme of the film,
拳击场上的暴力不过是家庭暴力的延伸
which is that the violence in the ring is just an extension of the violence at home.
当他打自己的亲手足时 你听到了这样一个声音
By the time he’s attacking his own brother, you actually hear the same sounds
其实就是拳击场上的声音
that you heard in the ring.
运用这种方式构建电影结构的不止斯科塞斯一人
And it’s not just Scorsese who does the kind of cinematic structure.
比如 《拯救大兵瑞恩》的开篇和结局都是两场很长的战斗
For instance, Saving Private Ryan is bookended by two long battles.
每场战斗中都有这样一个镜头
And in each battle, we get a moment like this.
在影片开头 这些人我们一个都不认识
At the beginning of the movie, we don’t know any of these people;
但在结尾 我们记住了每一个人
and at the end, we know all of them.
可能你不同意我的解读
Now you might disagree with my interpretation here,
不过我确信这个人知道自己要死了
but I’m convinced this character knows he’s going to die,
但两次他都接受了死亡 却没有放弃战斗
and in both of these moments, he’s accepting that and continuing to fight.
这很好地体现了如何运用声音来构建全篇电影的结构
And I think this is a great example of using sound as an overall cinematic structure for the whole film.
必须指出
I do wanna point out
光混音好是达不到这样的效果的
this stuff isn’t just a matter of good sound mixing,
虽然这混音确实不错
though there is that.
如果全篇电影都是大段大段的音效混音师是做不出这个效果的
The sound mixers can’t do this stuff if you design the movie with wall-to-wall-dialogue effects in music.
“我一点都不反对
”I don’t have anything against
短暂地使用嘈杂大声的音效
a film being loud for a moment or two or a short period of time.
这没有任何问题
I think that’s completely appropriate.
不过要是连续吵上二三十分钟
But if you have a sequence that’s loud for 20 or 30 minutes,
你就不知道什么是安静了
you’ve forgotten what’s like to be quiet,
就什么都不吵了 因为什么都很吵”
and so nothing really seems loud because everything is loud.”
在爆款电影中 编剧和导演都避免寂静
In popular cinema, writers and directors have moved away from having any silence at all
有时候就算用了 也用错了
or misusing the silence that they do have.
这种情况每年都变得更糟
And this is something that gets appreciably worse each year.
看看1978年的《超人》
Consider, 1978.
[尖叫]
[Screaming]
可能你会觉得有点俗
You might find that a little bit cheesy
但至少这部电影愿意用寂静来强调人物的自我迷失
but at least this movie is willing to use silence to make us feel the character’s loss.
也愿意陪他度过这刻的寂静
And it’s willing to stay with him through that entire silence.
再看2013年版的《超人》
Meanwhile, in 2013.
[尖叫]
[Screaming]
看起来是寂静的 但其实还埋伏着配乐
This might seem silent, but there’s always music underneath.
更重要的是这似是而非的寂静是用来奖励人物的
More importantly, the not-quite silence is used to reward the character.
他杀了人 却得到了一个拥抱
He murdered someone and gets a hug for it.
要是你看这部电影就会发现每次寂静的时候他都得到了一个拥抱
But if you watch the whole movie, literally every time there’s silence he gets a hug.
所以认真考虑寂静并恰到好处地运用它
So consider your silences and deploy them deliberately.
别一遇到情绪爆发的戏就用滥用会使它掉价
Don’t cheapen them by overusing them for any dramatic scene.
如果你能塑造电影 一定要构建结构
If you can build the film, structure it,
用寂静来表达人物和他们的内心情绪
so that the silence derives from your characters and what they’re feeling,
这样寂静就不再仅仅是寂静
then you get something better than just silence
更是一种情绪反应
—an emotional reaction.
哪个更糟
Which would be worse,
是活着 却像个怪兽
to live as a monster,
还是死了 但是个好人
or to die as a good man?
泰迪
Teddy.

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译制信息
视频概述

有时候最震撼的效果并非来自于惊天动地的巨响,而来自于寂静

听录译者

Philovist

翻译译者

Philovist

审核员

L

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NUrTRjEXjSM

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