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火星着陆器坠毁之谜揭秘 – 译学馆
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火星着陆器坠毁之谜揭秘

Mars Lander Crash Update: Mystery Solved!

当你的着路器在火星上留下一个弹坑 下一次到达火星时你需要
When your lander leaves a crater on Mars, you might need to change things the next time
改变一下方位
around.
10月 ExoMars项目的第一任务是抵达这颗红色星球
In October, the first mission of the ExoMars program arrived at the Red Planet, and things
但事情没有按计划正常进行
didn’t go exactly as planned.
这一任务是欧洲航天局和俄罗斯联邦航天局一起合办的项目
The mission is a joint project between the European Space Agency and Roscosmos, the Russian
它分为两个部分:人造卫星和着陆器
space agency, and it had two parts: an orbiter and a lander.
这个计划是针对示踪气体轨道器(TGO)的 去绕火星轨道而运行并且寻找沼气
The plan was for the Trace Gas Orbiter, or TGO, to orbit Mars and search for methane
一种生活所需的副产品 存在于火星的大气内
— a possible byproduct of life — in its atmosphere.
然后 TGO在轨道上运行 斯基亚帕雷利(Schiaparelli)着陆器会降落在这颗行星的表面
Then, while the TGO was in orbit, the Schiaparelli lander would land on the planet’s surface
去检验第二代ExoMars 着陆器的技术能力: 漫游者预计在2020年开始发射
to test out technology for the second ExoMars mission: a rover, which is set to launch in 2020.
好消息是TGO仍然绕着轨道运行 并一切运行良好
The good news is that the TGO is still orbiting Mars, and everything is going well!
不幸的是 着陆器遭遇到了事故
Unfortunately, the lander had a rougher time.
登陆仅50秒 我们就和它失去了联系 随后它坠落
With only 50 seconds until landing, we lost contact with it … and then it crashed into
到火星表面
the surface.
坠落后会慢慢地恢复正常 我们知道在推进器出现问题时降落伞会马上展开
Right after the crash, we knew the parachutes had deployed early and that there were issues
但我们不知道会是什么原因
with the thrusters, but we didn’t know what caused them.
刚刚 着陆器在下降的过程把数据传送给TGO
But now, thanks to data the lander sent to the TGO while it was descending, we think
我们也知道出了什么问题!
we know what went wrong!
尽管它仍处在地表上 可Schiaparelli似乎认为在地下
Even though it was still way above the surface, apparently Schiaparelli thought it was underground.
这个问题是由软件问题和来自不同感应器的数据融合出错 所造成的
The problem was caused by software issues and problems merging the data from different sensors.
首先 就在降落伞部署好了之后 用于测量探测器旋转速度的
First, just after the parachute was deployed, the Inertial Measurement Unit, which measures
惯性测量装置就被刷爆了
the rotation rates of the lander, maxed out.
它测量了它能达到的最高读数 然而它本不应该这样做
It measured the highest possible reading it could, which it shouldn’t have.
然后 航海系统收集这错误的数据导致电脑
Then, when that bad data was merged into the navigation system, it caused the computer
计算到着陆器呈负高度 换句话说 它在地下
to calculate that the lander had a negative altitude — in other words, that it was underground.
事实上 着陆器位于地表以上大约3.7公里处
In reality, the lander was about 3.7 kilometers above the surface.
想想它省略掉的一串登陆程序 电脑基本已经被 吓坏了
Thinking it had missed a bunch of landing procedures, the computer basically freaked out.
降落伞很早就被弹射出来了 然后是推进器发射
The parachute was ejected early, and then the thrusters — which were supposed to fire
本该用30秒使着陆器放慢速度 但只用了3秒就发射出去了
for 30 seconds to slow the lander down — only fired for three seconds.
Schiaparelli接通了仪器的电流 准备读取火星气候情况
Schiaparelli even switched on its instruments, all ready to take readings about Mars’ weather
以及这片有磁性的领域
and magnetic field!
不幸的是 我们反而找到了一个火山口
Unfortunately, we got a crater instead.
着陆器以超过300公里每小时的速度坠落地面
The lander crashed into the ground at over 300 kilometers an hour.
这仅仅是初步的分析 并且这份调查报告直到明年初
This is only a preliminary analysis, and the investigation won’t officially finish until
才会正式完成
early next year.
但它又似乎相当清楚发生了什么
But it seems pretty clear what happened.
2020年的ExoMars漫游者将使用和着陆器一样的软件
The 2020 ExoMars rover will use a lot of the same software as the lander, so it’s especially
所以确保Schiaparelli在准备发射前不会发生任何意外 这一点尤其重要
important to make sure whatever happened with Schiaparelli is fixed before launch.
谢天谢地 航天器的问题不算什么 而软件的问题更是小菜一碟
Thankfully, as far as spacecraft problems go, software issues are pretty easy to solve.
所以 很有希望的是 大约花4年的时间 ESA第一代漫游者就能登陆火星
So hopefully, in about four years, the ESA’s first rover will be on Mars!
在它降落期间 Schiaparelli会把一些反馈信息发送回来 比如减速过程数据
During its descent, Schiaparelli sent back information about processes like deceleration
降落伞配置对漫游者有帮助 TGO绕火星轨道运行
and parachute deployment that will help the rover, and TGO is still alive and well in
是否一切正常
orbit around Mars.
尽管发生了坠落 ExoMars任务的第一部分还是成功了
So despite the crash, the first part of the ExoMars mission was a success.
同时 当一个着陆器的任务开始 另一个就会结束
Meanwhile, while one mission is starting, another is ending.
差不多20年之后 卡西尼号(Cassini)探测器将准备完成它研究土星
After almost 20 years, the Cassini probe is getting ready to finish its mission to investigate
和人造卫星的任务
Saturn and its moons!
在1997年回来的路上 卡西尼号从佛罗里达州的卡纳维拉尔角启航 用了7年的时间到2004年才
Way back in 1997, Cassini launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, and it arrived at Saturn
登陆到土星
seven years later in 2004.
从那时 它记录了数成千上万的图像 下降的惠更斯号探测器(Huygens)到在土星上的
Since then, it’s returned thousands of images, dropped the Huygens probe onto Saturn’s
卫星泰坦号(Titan) 发现了恩格拉多斯(Enceladus)上有海洋的铁据
moon Titan, found evidence of an ocean on Enceladus, and more.
现在 探测器油量耗尽 也到了该说再见的时候
Now, the probe is running out of fuel, and it’s time to say goodbye.
周三 卡西尼号开始了它落幕的第一环节 美国宇航局称其为
On Wednesday, Cassini began the first part of its Grand Finale – what NASA is calling
“掠环轨道”
its “Ring-Grazing Orbits”.
至今到四月底 宇宙飞船将对土星环系进行20次俯冲
From now until the end of April, the spacecraft will dive through Saturn’s rings 20 times
去收集各种微粒和气体 去帮助我们了解更多关于
and collect particles and gases, which will help us learn more about what the rings are
环是怎样形成的
made of.
它将从掠过一些微弱的外圈开始 然后再靠近土星
It will start by skimming through some of the faint outer rings before moving closer
穿越中心环圈 离行星云层
to Saturn, passing through the main ring system and getting only 90,000 kilometers away from
只有9万公里
the planet’s cloud tops.
一路上 它将对环圈结构进行最全面、详细的扫描
Along the way, it will take the most comprehensive, detailed scans of the rings’ structure ever.
在探索环圈的过程中 卡西尼号也会让我们看到一些土星
And while it’s exploring the rings, Cassini will also get our best look at some of Saturn’s
比较小的人造地球卫星 比如地图集和潘多拉
smaller moons, like Atlas and Pandora.
平均半径大约只有15到40公里
They have average radii only of about 15 and 40 kilometers, respectively, so it’s almost
所以在地球上或地球附近使用望远镜去观察它们几乎是不可能
impossible to observe them using telescopes on or near Earth.
但之后任务的这一部分在4月完成 真正的大结局快要来了
But after this part of the mission ends in April, the real Grand Finale starts, and it’s
是时候对卡西尼号说再见了!
time to say goodbye to Cassini!
探测器将围着土星的泰坦号卫星环绕 在它的光环圈间展开22次俯冲
The probe will sling around Saturn’s moon Titan to start 22 more dives between Saturn
并离云层顶端有1628公里之遥
and its rings, getting as close as 1628 kilometers away from the cloud tops.
然后 9月15号 是它最后一次潜入土星的大气层
Then, on September 15th, it will make the final dive into Saturn’s atmosphere.
在坠落的途中 它将了解到这颗行星的大气、重力以及组成成分
On the way down, it will learn about the planet’s atmosphere, gravity, and composition, sending
在最终落下帷幕之前 还传送着剩余的科学证据
back the last bit of science before it finally falls silent.
直到最后 卡西尼号还给我们提供关于土星的
Right up until the very end, Cassini will be delivering our best information about Saturn
最新信息
yet.
我们会想你的 小航天器
We’ll miss you, little spacecraft!
感谢大家观看SciShow的太空新闻 同时也特别感谢我们的赞助商
Thank you for watching this episode of SciShow Space News, and thanks especially to our patrons
Patreon帮助本次节目成功录制
on Patreon who makes this show possible!
如果你乐意加入我们 可以进入patreon. com/ scishow上了解每周更多的太空新闻
If you’d like to help us keep making episodes like this, you can go to patreon.com/scishow,
当然你也可以到youtube.com/ scishowspace上点击订阅哟!
and for more space news every week, you can go to youtube.com/scishowspace and subscribe!

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这是一则关于太空的新闻节目,主要是关于火星着陆器坠毁之谜的揭秘过程,在这里可以了解更多天文的知识

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