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是时候忘掉工作中的级别了

Margaret Heffernan: Why it's time to forget the pecking order at work

普渡大学一位名叫威廉·谬尔的
An evolutionary biologist at Purdue University
生物进化学家研究了鸡
named William Muir studied chickens.
他对生产率很感兴趣
He was interested in productivity —
我觉得他的研究关系到我们每个人——
I think it’s something that concerns all of us —
但计算鸡的生产率很简单 只需要数数鸡蛋就行了
but it’s easy to measure in chickens because you just count the eggs.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
他想知道怎样才能让鸡的生产能力更高
He wanted to know what could make his chickens more productive,
所以他设计了一个巧妙的实验
so he devised a beautiful experiment.
鸡是群聚动物 所以一开始他只选了一群鸡来研究
Chickens live in groups, so first of all, he selected just an average flock,
然后他让这一群鸡独自生存繁衍直到第六代
and he let it alone for six generations.
然后他又用生产力最强的鸡
But then he created a second group
创建了第二个鸡群——
of the individually most productive chickens —
你可以称这群鸡为超级鸡群
you could call them superchickens —
然后他把这些超级鸡养在一起了
and he put them together in a superflock,
就这样 每繁殖一代 他都选取生产最优秀的鸡继续培养
and each generation, he selected only the most productive for breeding.
就在第五世代结束后
After six generations had passed,
他发现了什么呢
what did he find?
第一群普通的鸡 表现都不错
Well, the first group, the average group, was doing just fine.
他们都很圆胖 羽毛丰满
They were all plump and fully feathered
而且生产的蛋也有显著的增长
and egg production had increased dramatically.
那么 第二群鸡呢
What about the second group?
结果是 只有三只活下来了
Well, all but three were dead.
他们互相打架直到对方被啄死
They’d pecked the rest to death.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这些个个高产的鸡只是通过挤兑同伴
The individually productive chickens had only achieved their success
而让自己成为“霸主”
by suppressing the productivity of the rest.
如今 随着我奔赴世界各地来讲
Now, as I’ve gone around the world talking about this and telling this story
并且用各种各样的形式来组织这个故事
in all sorts of organizations and companies,
人们几乎立刻就看出了其中的关联
people have seen the relevance almost instantly,
然后都跑来对我说这样的话
and they come up and they say things to me like,
“我们的公司就是那个超级鸡群”
“That superflock, that’s my company.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
或者说“我们国家就是那样的”
Or, “That’s my country.”
还有的说:”那就是我的人生”
Or, “That’s my life.”
我的一生中都被告知要获得成功只有不断地竞争:
All my life I’ve been told that the way we have to get ahead is to compete:
进好的学校 找好的工作 要做人上人
get into the right school, get into the right job, get to the top,
但我从来没有觉得这很快乐
and I’ve really never found it very inspiring.
我开始为自己的事业奋斗 因为创造是快乐的
I’ve started and run businesses because invention is a joy,
也因为与许多优秀的 有创造力的人并肩奋斗
and because working alongside brilliant, creative people
本身就是一种回报
is its own reward.
我自己从来不会通过挤兑他人或被他人挤兑
And I’ve never really felt very motivated by pecking orders or by superchickens
而产生什么动机
or by superstars.
但是五十多年过去了
But for the past 50 years,
我们用超级鸡群的模式经营了
we’ve run most organizations and some societies
大多数组织和很多社会
along the superchicken model.
我们曾觉得成功靠的是挑选顶尖人才
We’ve thought that success is achieved by picking the superstars,
把那些最聪明的男人或者女人放在一起
the brightest men, or occasionally women, in the room,
然后给他们所有的资源和权利
and giving them all the resources and all the power.
结果也和威廉的实验如出一辙:
And the result has been just the same as in William Muir’s experiment:
挤兑 不协调 还有变得消瘦
aggression, dysfunction and waste.
如果成功实现高生产率的唯一途径
If the only way the most productive can be successful
是通过挤兑其他生产力来实现的
is by suppressing the productivity of the rest,
那我们就更加迫切的需要另外一条路
then we badly need to find a better way to work
和更多样的方法去生存
and a richer way to live.
(鼓掌)
(Applause)
那么 到底是什么使得一些群体
So what is it that makes some groups
比其它人更加成功 更加高效
obviously more successful and more productive than others?
这也是麻省理工大学的一个研究团队提出的问题
Well, that’s the question a team at MIT took to research.
他们邀请了几百名志愿者
They brought in hundreds of volunteers,
把他们安排在一个团队中 让他们解决很难的问题
they put them into groups, and they gave them very hard problems to solve.
结果与你期望的一样
And what happened was exactly what you’d expect,
有些团队就比其他的团队出色很多
that some groups were very much more successful than others,
但真正有趣的是 表现优异的团队
but what was really interesting was that the high-achieving groups
并不是拥有一两个
were not those where they had one or two people
超高智商的人的团队
with spectacularly high I.Q.
也不是那些整体智商水平
Nor were the most successful groups the ones that had the highest
最高的团队
aggregate I.Q.
反之 那些成功的团队都有三个特点
Instead, they had three characteristics, the really successful teams.
第一 他们都有着较高的社交灵敏度
First of all, they showed high degrees of social sensitivity to each other.
这是由一种叫“由眼及心”的测试检测出来的
This is measured by something called the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test.
它被广泛的理解为同理心测试
It’s broadly considered a test for empathy,
在这个测试里面获得高分的团队
and the groups that scored highly on this
解决问题的表现更优异
did better.
第二 成功的团队给了每个人同样的时间
Secondly, the successful groups gave roughly equal time to each other,
这样就没有任何人会成为主导
so that no one voice dominated,
也没有任何人有机会搭便车
but neither were there any passengers.
第三 成功的团队里
And thirdly, the more successful groups
都有更多的女性员工
had more women in them.
(掌声)
(Applause)
是不是因为女性通常在“由眼及心”测试里
Now, was this because women typically score more highly on
得分更高
the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test,
所以你才会在同理心测试中更低呢
so you’re getting a doubling down on the empathy quotient?
或者说 这是因为他们具有远谋呢
Or was it because they brought a more diverse perspective?
这个问题我们无从知晓 然而重要的是
We don’t really know, but the striking thing about this experiment
这个实验证实了我们的理论
is that it showed what we know, which is some groups do better than others,
那些团队表现优异的关键
but what’s key to that
就是他们之间的高度契合
is their social connectedness to each other.
那么这个原理是怎样在现实生活中体现的
So how does this play out in the real world?
这意味着人与人之间的互动非常重要
Well, it means that what happens between people really counts,
因为在成员之间高度契合和反应灵敏的团队里
because in groups that are highly attuned and sensitive to each other,
想法会不断的掩盖和扩大
ideas can flow and grow.
人们不会挑刺 不会浪费精力在最终无用的结果上
People don’t get stuck. They don’t waste energy down dead ends.
举个例子:Arup是世界上最成功的工程公司之一
An example: Arup is one of the world’s most successful engineering firms,
它是北京奥运会建造马术中心的委任方
and it was commissioned to build the equestrian center for the Beijing Olympics.
现在 这个建筑必须容纳
Now, this building had to receive
两千五百只极好的搭乘
two and a half thousand really highly strung thoroughbred horses
长途航班而来的马匹
that were coming off long-haul flights,
这些马儿有很严重的时差 身体状况也并不算好
highly jet-lagged, not feeling their finest.
而工程师面临的问题是
And the problem the engineer confronted was,
要应付多少马粪
what quantity of waste to cater for?
这个问题在工程学院可没学过——(笑声)——
Now, you don’t get taught this in engineering school — (Laughter) —
而且你真不想因为这种事造成困扰
and it’s not really the kind of thing you want to get wrong,
所以他要花几个月的时间来请兽医调理马儿 做研究
so he could have spent months talking to vets, doing the research,
调整电子数据表
tweaking the spreadsheet.
但实际上他通过四处寻求帮助
Instead, he asked for help
找到了一个曾经设计过纽约赛马场的人
and he found someone who had designed the Jockey Club in New York.
问题用了不到一天就解决了
The problem was solved in less than a day.
Arup 相信他们成功的精髓
Arup believes that the culture of helpfulness
是互帮互助的文化
is central to their success.
互帮互助听起来很没士气
Now, helpfulness sounds really anemic,
但这确实是团队成功的核心
but it’s absolutely core to successful teams,
其作用往往胜过个体的智慧
and it routinely outperforms individual intelligence.
互帮互助意味着我不需要了解所有事
Helpfulness means I don’t have to know everything,
我只需要在一群愿意寻求并给予帮助的人之间工作
I just have to work among people who are good at getting and giving help.
在SAP(德国软件公司) 他们算出一个人可以在17分钟之内回答任何问题
At SAP, they reckon that you can answer any question in 17 minutes.
但是 从没有一个和我合作过的高科技公司
But there isn’t a single high-tech company I’ve worked with
曾经觉得这是个技术问题
that imagines for a moment that this is a technology issue,
因为这种互帮互助的前提是他们要先互相认识了解
because what drives helpfulness is people getting to know each other.
现如今听起来很平淡无奇 因为我们觉得这很正常
Now that sounds so obvious, and we think it’ll just happen normally,
但其实不是的
but it doesn’t.
在我运营我的第一个软件公司时
When I was running my first software company,
我觉得我们停滞不前了
I realized that we were getting stuck.
有很多摩擦 但除此之外也没别的问题
There was a lot of friction, but not much else,
后来我渐渐认识到 我雇的那些聪明又有创造力的人
and I gradually realized the brilliant, creative people that I’d hired
根本不会互相认识了解
didn’t know each other.
他们太专注于他们自己的工作
They were so focused on their own individual work,
以至于根本不知道坐在旁边的人是谁
they didn’t even know who they were sitting next to,
于是我坚持让我们先停下手中的工作
and it was only when I insisted that we stop working
花点时间互相了解一下
and invest time in getting to know each other
我们才取得了一些突破性的进展
that we achieved real momentum.
那是20年以前的事儿了 如今我访问的公司
Now, that was 20 years ago, and now I visit companies
已经被禁止开个人咖啡会了
that have banned coffee cups at desks
因为他们希望人们都能围着咖啡器
because they want people to hang out around the coffee machines
谈天论地
and talk to each other.
在瑞士 甚至有个与之相关的专有名词
The Swedes even have a special term for this.
叫做fike 意思是“不仅仅是喝咖啡提神那么简单”
They call it fika, which means more than a coffee break.
它就意味着集体恢复
It means collective restoration.
在缅因州上面的一家公司——Idexx
At Idexx, a company up in Maine,
他们在大学建蔬菜花园 然后
they’ve created vegetable gardens on campus so that people
来自各个地方的人
from different parts of the business
都凑到一起干活儿 互相了解
can work together and get to know the whole business that way.
他们都疯了吗
Have they all gone mad?
相反 当事情进展不顺时他们会思考琢磨
Quite the opposite — they’ve figured out that when the going gets tough,
虽然总是不顺利
and it always will get tough
如果你在工作中遇到瓶颈
if you’re doing breakthrough work that really matters,
人们需要的是社交上的支持
what people need is social support,
也需要知道他们可以向谁求助
and they need to know who to ask for help.
公司造不出创意 只有人可以
Companies don’t have ideas; only people do.
真正激励人的
And what motivates people
是彼此间建立的联系 忠诚和信任
are the bonds and loyalty and trust they develop between each other.
困难是灰浆
What matters is the mortar,
而不仅仅是砖块
not just the bricks.
当你将两者放在一起
Now, when you put all of this together,
就是所谓的社会资本
what you get is something called social capital.
社会资本是建立在信任和互相依赖的基础上的
Social capital is the reliance and interdependency that builds trust.
这个词是由研究社区的社会学家提出的
The term comes from sociologists who were studying communities
社会在紧张时期具备更高的适应性
that proved particularly resilient in times of stress.
社会资本可以让公司稳固
Social capital is what gives companies momentum,
也可以使公司更有活力
and social capital is what makes companies robust.
那么这基于实际的团队上意味着什么呢
What does this mean in practical terms?
——时间就是一切
It means that time is everything,
社会资本会随着时间增加
because social capital compounds with time.
所以团队磨合得越久就工作得越好
So teams that work together longer get better, because it takes time
因为要让人真正坦诚和坦率 就需要时间来建立信任
to develop the trust you need for real candor and openness.
时间会造就价值
And time is what builds value.
当Alex Pentland在建议一家公司
When Alex Pentland suggested to one company
整合茶歇时间
that they synchronize coffee breaks
让人们有时间互相交流
so that people would have time to talk to each other,
公司的利润增加了1500万美元
profits went up 15 million dollars,
并且雇员满意度上升了10%
and employee satisfaction went up 10 percent.
这份混合着你所花费的代价的社会资本
Not a bad return on social capital,
还不赖
which compounds even as you spend it.
这里不涉及裙带关系 也没有懒人的位置
Now, this isn’t about chumminess, and it’s no charter for slackers,
因为这种工作方式最终会导致人们变得草率
because people who work this way tend to be kind of scratchy,
失去耐心 思考显而易见的决定
impatient, absolutely determined to think for themselves
因为这就是他们所做的贡献
because that’s what their contribution is.
因为直率的表达而使矛盾更加频繁
Conflict is frequent because candor is safe.
这就是一个尚可的点子变成杰作的过程
And that’s how good ideas turn into great ideas,
因为没有哪个点子生来就完美
because no idea is born fully formed.
有点像是小孩子的成长
It emerges a little bit as a child is born,
有点乱 有点迷惑 但充满了责任
kind of messy and confused, but full of possibilities.
在接受外界慷慨的帮助 有了信念 战胜挑战之后
And it’s only through the generous contribution, faith and challenge
他们激发了潜能
that they achieve their potential.
这就是社会资本所支持的
And that’s what social capital supports.
但我们很少谈论这个话题
Now, we aren’t really used to talking about this,
很少用这种方式谈论智慧和创造力
about talent, about creativity, in this way.
我们习惯谈论明星员工
We’re used to talking about stars.
所以我开始想 如果我们开始以这种方式培养人才
So I started to wonder, well, if we start working this way,
是不是就不会再有明星员工了呢
does that mean no more stars?
于是我去了伦敦的皇家艺术戏剧院
So I went and I sat in on the auditions
我去试听了
at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London.
然后我被在那里的所见惊呆了
And what I saw there really surprised me,
因为教授们并不看重个人的表演能力
because the teachers weren’t looking for individual pyrotechnics.
他们看重的是学生之间那种互动
They were looking for what happened between the students,
因为戏剧就是这样产生的
because that’s where the drama is.
而当我与一些畅销专辑的制作人交谈时
And when I talked to producers of hit albums,
他们通常说“当然了我们有很多音乐巨星
they said, “Oh sure, we have lots of superstars in music.
只不过他们的名气并没有持续很久
It’s just, they don’t last very long.
合作性非常强的人 在事业上往往可以做得更久
It’s the outstanding collaborators who enjoy the long careers,
因为他们所认为的最好就是
because bringing out the best in others is how they found the best
能使别人最好
in themselves.”
当我访问那些以独特性
And when I went to visit companies that are renowned
和创造性闻名的公司
for their ingenuity and creativity,
我甚至并没有看到什么明星员工
I couldn’t even see any superstars,
因为每个人都很重要
because everybody there really mattered.
当我反思自己的事业
And when I reflected on my own career,
以及我有幸合作的出色的同事时
and the extraordinary people I’ve had the privilege to work with,
我意识到如果我们放弃做“超级鸡“的话
I realized how much more we could give each other
我们就会互相帮助而成就更多
if we just stopped trying to be superchickens.
(鼓掌)
(Applause)
一旦你们真正理解人与人之间的互动
Once you appreciate truly how social work is,
很多事情必须要去改变
a lot of things have to change.
人才竞赛类型的管理哲学总是鼓励
Management by talent contest has routinely pitted
员工们互相竞争
employees against each other.
现在 竞争必须被社会资本取代
Now, rivalry has to be replaced by social capital.
几十年来 我们试过用金钱去激励人们
For decades, we’ve tried to motivate people with money,
尽管已有大量的研究表明
even though we’ve got a vast amount of research that shows
金钱将破坏人与人之间的社会连接
that money erodes social connectedness.
现在 我们应该让人们互相激励
Now, we need to let people motivate each other.
多年来 我们认为领导者应该像救世主那样
And for years, we’ve thought that leaders were heroic soloists who were expected,
所有问题都只能让他们自己完美的解决
all by themselves, to solve complex problems.
如今 我们应该重新定义领导力
Now, we need to redefine leadership
领导力就是有能力去创造一种环境
as an activity in which conditions are created
让其中的每个人都能集思广益
in which everyone can do their most courageous thinking together.
我们知道这有效果
We know that this works.
当蒙特利尔议定书提倡逐步禁用氯氟烃时
When the Montreal Protocol called for the phasing out of CFCs,
因为氯氟烃会导致臭氧空洞
the chlorofluorocarbons implicated in the hole in the ozone layer,
这样的风险是极大的
the risks were immense.
到处都有氯氟烃
CFCs were everywhere,
没人知道是否能找出替代品
and nobody knew if a substitute could be found.
但是有个团队迎接了挑战 并采用了三个关键原则
But one team that rose to the challenge adopted three key principles.
工程学院的院长Frank Maslen这样说:
The first was the head of engineering, Frank Maslen, said,
在这个团队里没有主角
there will be no stars in this team.
我们需要每个人
We need everybody.
每个人都有独到的见解
Everybody has a valid perspective.
第二 我们做事只遵循一个标准:
Second, we work to one standard only:
没有最好 只有更好
the best imaginable.
第三 他告诉他的老板Geoff Tudhope
And third, he told his boss, Geoff Tudhope,
他没有必要多管闲事
that he had to butt out,
因为Frank明白干涉别人的破坏力不容忽视
because he knew how disruptive power can be.
当然 这并不意味着Tudhope只能毫无作为
Now, this didn’t mean Tudhope did nothing.
他要保证团队的正常运作
He gave the team air cover,
也会倾听团队的意见 并确保他们遵守原则
and he listened to ensure that they honored their principles.
就是这样:他们超越于其他的团队解决了这个艰难的问题
And it worked: Ahead of all the other companies tackling this hard problem,
而首先获得了成功
this group cracked it first.
到目前为止 蒙特利尔协定书
And to date, the Montreal Protocol
是执行的最成功的
is the most successful international environmental agreement
国际环境合约
ever implemented.
那时还有好多亟待处理的事情
There was a lot at stake then,
现在也一样
and there’s a lot at stake now,
如果我们仅仅寄希望于一两个超人
and we won’t solve our problems if we expect it to be solved
那么肯定不能解决问题
by a few supermen or superwomen.
现在我们需要每一个人
Now we need everybody,
因为只有我们承认每个人都有价值
because it is only when we accept that everybody has value
才能充分释放我们需要的能量 想象力和动力
that we will liberate the energy and imagination and momentum we need
创造出一片新天地
to create the best beyond measure.
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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个人工作能力再强,也及不过互帮互助的团体

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

red

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vyn_xLrtZaY

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