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地图提供的新认知 – 译学馆
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地图提供的新认知

Maps that show us who we are (not just where we are) | Danny Dorling

希望大家能重新认识这个世界
I’d like you to imagine the world anew.
我想给大家展示一些
I’d like to show you some maps,
由本•亨尼希
which have been drawn by Ben Hennig,
以你们大多数人都未见过的方式
of the planet in a way
描绘的 关于我们星球的地图
that most of you will never have seen the planet depicted before.
这是一张大家都很熟悉的图片
Here’s an image that you’re very familiar with.
事实上 我出生在这张照片面世之前
I’m old enough that I was actually born before we saw this image.
很显然 我最初学会的词便是 “月儿 月儿”
Apparently some of my first words were “moona, moona,”
但我想 那是我母亲的 一个美好的愿望
but I think that’s my mom having a particular fantasy
即憧憬着她的孩子可以理解
about what her baby boy could see
黑白电视屏幕上闪烁的画面
on the flickering black and white TV screen.
从我们大多数人
It’s only been a few centuries
意识到地球是圆的开始至今 仅几个世纪的时间
since we’ve actually, most of us, thought of our planet as spherical.
当我们在20世纪60年代第一次看到这些照片时
When we first saw these images in the 1960s,
我们的世界就发生着日新月异的变化
the world was changing at an incredible rate.
在我有限的人文地理认知中
In my own little discipline of human geography,
一位名叫沃尔多•托布勒的地图绘制员
a cartographer called Waldo Tobler
给这个星球绘制了新型的地图
was drawing new maps of the planet,
而且这些地图现在已传播开来
and these maps have now spread,
我现在就来展示其中一幅
and I’m going to show you one of them now.
这是一幅世界地图
This map is a map of the world,
不过却是一幅对你来说
but it’s a map which looks to you
有点奇怪的地图
a little bit strange.
我们对这张地图的各处进行了伸缩
It’s a map in which we stretched places,
所以那些人口众多的地区面积更大些
so that those areas which contain many people are drawn larger,
而像撒哈拉和喜马拉雅 这些人烟稀少的地方
and those areas, like the Sahara and the Himalayas,
尺寸被相应地缩小了
in which there are few people, have been shrunk away.
地球上的每个人都被赋予等量的空间
Everybody on the planet is given an equal amount of space.
城市显得熠熠生辉
The cities are shown shining bright.
那些密集的线条代表海底电缆及贸易航线
The lines are showing you submarine cables and trade routes.
有一条始于中国大连港的特殊的航线
And there’s one particular line that goes from the Chinese port of Dalian
它穿过新加坡
through past Singapore,
沿苏伊士运河
through the Suez Canal,
经地中海 最终绕到荷兰的鹿特丹港
through the Mediterranean and round to Rotterdam.
它展示的是
And it’s showing you the route
世界上最大船只一年前所航行的路线
of what was the world’s largest ship just a year ago,
这艘船满载货物
a ship which was taking so many containers of goods
当货物卸下时
that when they were unloaded,
若所有运货的卡车列队行进 长度将达100千米
if the lorries had all gone in convoy, they would have been 100 kilometers long.
这就是当今世界的连接方式
This is how our world is now connected.
这就是当今环球货运的规模
This is the quantity of stuff we are now moving around the world,
只需一艘船 一次航行 以及短短五周(时间)
just on one ship, on one voyage, in five weeks.
我们已经在城市里生活了很久
We’ve lived in cities for a very long time,
但我们大多数人 过去并非生活在城里
but most of us didn’t live in cities.
这是恰塔霍裕克 世界上最早的城市之一
This is Çatalhöyük, one of the world’s first cities.
大约在九千年前达到了它的鼎盛时期
At its peak 9,000 years ago,
人们需要踩过别人的屋顶 才能回到自己的家中
people had to walk over the roofs of others’ houses to get to their home.
如果你仔细观察这城市的地图
If you look carefully at the map of the city,
就会发现 它并没有街道
you’ll see it has no streets,
因为街道是后人发明的
because streets are something we invented.
世界在不断改变
The world changes.
通过尝试和犯错而不断改变
It changes by trial and error.
关于如何更好地生活
We work out slowly and gradually
我们缓慢而渐进的摸索着
how to live in better ways.
尤其近年来 世界以令人难以置信的速度发展着
And the world has changed incredibly quickly most recently.
仅仅在最近的六 七或是八代以内
It’s only within the last six, seven, or eight generations
我们才真正意识到自己是一个物种
that we have actually realized that we are a species.
直到几十年前
It’s only within the last few decades
我们才能绘制出这样的地图
that a map like this could be drawn.
此外 这张地图本质上也是一张世界人口分布图
Again, the underlying map is the map of world population,
但通过它 你看到箭头指示人类是如何从非洲迁徙到全球各地的
but over it, you’re seeing arrows showing how we spread out of Africa
标注的日期提示你
with dates showing you where we think we arrived
在特殊的日子里我们到了哪里
at particular times.
每隔几个月我都要重新绘制这张地图
I have to redraw this map every few months,
因为地图上某个特定的日期 可能被指出有误
because somebody makes a discovery that a particular date was wrong.
我们以不可思议的速度 不断地了解自己
We are learning about ourselves at an incredible speed.
并且我们(自身)也在改变
And we’re changing.
很多改变是循序渐进的 逐层累积
A lot of change is gradual. It’s accretion.
我们难以察觉到这些改变
We don’t notice the change
是因为我们的寿命十分短暂
because we only have short lives,
只有七八十年 长的也不过九十年
70, 80, if you’re lucky 90 years.
这幅图向我们展示了
This graph is showing you
世界人口的年增长率
the annual rate of population growth in the world.
在1850年前一直十分低缓
It was very low until around about 1850,
自那之后 人口增长率便开始增长
and then the rate of population growth began to rise
到我出生的时候
so that around the time I was born,
即人类第一次看到从月球传来的地球图像时
when we first saw those images from the moon of our planet,
全球人口开始以每年2%的速率增长
our global population was growing at two percent a year.
如果人口增长保持2%的年增长率
If it had carried on growing at two percent a year
持续几个世纪的话
for just another couple of centuries,
那么地球上每一个角落
the entire planet would be covered
都将人满为患 摩肩接踵
with a seething mass of human bodies all touching each other.
人们开始担心
And people were scared.
到1968年 他们开始担心
They were scared of population growth
被称为“人口爆炸”的这么一个 人口增长的速度
and what they called “the population bomb” in 1968.
不过 如果观察图像的末端
But then, if you look at the end of the graph,
(你会发现)增长率已开始放缓
the growth began to slow.
那些年代—— 70年代 80年代 90年代 00年代
The decade — the ’70s, the ’80s, the ’90s, the noughties,
以及我们现在这个十年 降幅更快——
and in this decade, even faster —
人口增长正在减缓
our population growth is slowing.
我们的地球正趋于稳定
Our planet is stabilizing.
到本世纪末
We are heading towards nine, 10, or 11 billion people
我们的人口会达到90亿 100亿 110亿
by the end of the century.
变革中 你会看到混乱不堪的景象
Within that change, you can see tumult.
会看到第二次世界大战
You can see the Second World War.
会看到1918年的大流感
You can see the pandemic in 1918 from influenza.
会看到中国的三年大饥荒
You can see the great Chinese famine.
这些都是我们关注的大事件
These are the events we tend to concentrate on.
我们更倾向于关注新闻中这些可怕的事件
We tend to concentrate on the terrible events in the news.
而非那些循序渐进的变化
We don’t tend to concentrate on the gradual change
以及那些好的消息
and the good news stories.
我们担心人口
We worry about people.
担心这儿到底有多少人
We worry about how many people there are.
担心如何才能远离人群
We worry about how you can get away from people.
但这是一幅 面积又被增大了的世界地图
But this is the map of the world changed again to make area large,
人们离彼此更远了
the further away people are from each area.
所以 如果你想知道去什么地方可以远离人群
So if you want to know where to go to get away from everybody,
这些是最佳去处
here’s the best places to go.
每一年 这些区域都不断扩大
And every year, these areas get bigger,
因为每一年 在全球范围内 我们都远离这片土地
because every year, we are coming off the land globally.
我们动身前往城市
We are moving into the cities.
挤入人口更加密集的城市
We are packing in more densely.
欧洲再次出现狼
There are wolves again in Europe,
它们穿过欧洲大陆并向西迁徙
and the wolves are moving west across the continent.
我们的世界正在改变 你心存忧虑
Our world is changing. You have worries.
这张地图展示了世界各地的降水情况
This is a map showing where the water falls on our planet.
我们现在有所了解了
We now know that.
你可以看到恰塔霍裕克的位置
And you can look at where Çatalhöyük was,
处于非洲 亚洲 欧洲的交界处
where three continents meet, Africa, Asia, and Europe,
你会看到有很多人
and you can see there are a large number of people living there
住在缺水的地区
in areas with very little water.
你也可以看到降水充沛的地区
And you can see areas in which there is a great deal of rainfall as well.
而且 我们对地图的探索还可以再深入一点
And we can get a bit more sophisticated.
除了以人口分布来绘制地图
Instead of making the map be shaped by people,
我们还可以根据降水量绘制
we can shape the map by water,
之后 我们可以(通过)每月改变地图
and then we can change it every month
来显示世界上每一个小角落
to show the amount of water
降水的总量
falling on every small part of the globe.
你看到全球范围内的季风移动
And you see the monsoons moving around the planet,
我们的星球似乎呈现出心跳般的感觉
and the planet almost appears to have a heartbeat.
所有这些 在我的有生之年 成为可能
And all of this only became possible within my lifetime
看看这就是我们生活的地方
to see this is where we are living.
我们有足够的水资源
We have enough water.
这是一幅我们在世界上种植食物的地图
This is a map of where we grow our food in the world.
这是我们主要依赖的水稻 玉米 谷物等作物的种植区域
This is the areas that we will rely on most for rice and maize and corn.
人们担心食物会出现短缺 但我们清楚
People worry that there won’t be enough food, but we know,
只要我们少吃点肉 少给牲畜喂点庄稼
if we just ate less meat and fed less of the crops to animals,
只要我们把所有人视为同胞
there is enough food for everybody
我们的粮食将绰绰有余
as long as we think of ourselves as one group of people.
我们也清楚自己现在的所作所为
And we also know about what we do
有多么糟糕
so terribly badly nowadays.
你们可能曾见过这张世界地图
You will have seen this map of the world before.
这张图片 是由拍照卫星拍到的
This is the map produced by taking satellite images,
如果你还记得我在一开始放的幻灯片中
if you remember those satellites around the planet
那些绕着地球的人造卫星的话
in the very first slide I showed,
这些人造卫星拍下了地球晚间的图像
and producing an image of what the Earth looks like at night.
当你像平常那样看那张地图时
When you normally see that map,
在平常的地图上 你们大多数会习惯这种地图的
on a normal map, the kind of map that most of you will be used to,
你认为自己在看一张表示人们居住地的地图
you think you are seeing a map of where people live.
灯光明亮的地方便是人们生活的地方
Where the lights are shining up is where people live.
但这儿 在这张世界图像中
But here, on this image of the world,
要明白我们又一次延伸了地图
remember we’ve stretched the map again.
这张地图上 人口密度均匀
Everywhere has the same density of people on this map.
如果一片区域荒无人烟
If an area doesn’t have people,
我们便把它缩小 直至消失
we’ve shrunk it away to make it disappear.
所以我们给每个人平等待遇
So we’re showing everybody with equal prominence.
现在 光亮不再显示人们住哪儿
Now, the lights no longer show you where people are,
因为哪儿哪儿都是人
because people are everywhere.
现在 地图上的灯光
Now the lights on the map,
伦敦的灯光 开罗的灯光 东京的灯光
the lights in London, the lights in Cairo, the lights in Tokyo,
美国东海岸的灯光
the lights on the Eastern Seaboard of the United States,
所有这些灯光 说明生活在那里的人们
the lights show you where people live
恣意挥霍他们所能负担的能源
who are so profligate with energy that they can afford
花钱就仅仅是为了
to spend money
照亮整个夜空
powering lights to shine up into the sky,
如此 卫星才能绘制出这样的图像
so satellites can draw an image like this.
地图上那些黑暗的区域
And the areas that are dark on the map
是那里的人们没有那么多能源
are either areas where people do not have access to that much energy,
抑或是有这样的能力
or areas where people do,
但明白不应把能源用于照亮夜空
but they have learned to stop shining the light up into the sky.
如果我能随着时间的推移 同步展示这张地图
And if I could show you this map animated over time,
你会看到 实际上东京变得更暗了
you would see that Tokyo has actually become darker,
因为自日本海啸至今
because ever since the tsunami in Japan,
日本的电力供应便少了四分之一
Japan has had to rely on a quarter less electricity
因为日本关闭了核电站
because it turned the nuclear power stations off.
而且世界并没走向末日
And the world didn’t end.
只是用于照亮夜空的灯光
You just shone less light
减少了而已
up into the sky.
世界上还有无数
There are a huge number
振奋人心的好消息
of good news stories in the world.
婴儿死亡率正在下降
Infant mortality is falling
而且是以不可思议的速度在下降
and has been falling at an incredible rate.
几年前
A few years ago,
在全世界 出生一年内的新生婴儿死亡率
the number of babies dying in their first year of life in the world
仅一年就下降了5%
fell by five percent in just one year.
越来越多的孩子走进校园
More children are going to school
学习阅读和写作
and learning to read and write
接触到了互联网
and getting connected to the Internet
与从前相比 以令人难以置信的比率
and going on to go to university
进入大学深造
than ever before at an incredible rate,
世界上读大学最多的年轻人
and the highest number of young people going to university in the world
是女生而不是男生
are women, not men.
我可以源源不断地举出
I can give you good news story after good news story
这个星球上正在变好的事情
about what is getting better in the planet,
但是我们更倾向于关注
but we tend to concentrate
眼下的坏消息
on the bad news that is immediate.
我认为 丽贝卡·索尔尼特的描述颇为精确
Rebecca Solnit, I think, put it brilliantly,
她解释道:“循序渐进的累积 难以察觉的改变
when she explained: “The accretion of incremental, imperceptible changes
可以组成时代的进程 并成为时代的象征
which can constitute progress and which render our era
产生与过去显著的不同”——
dramatically different from the past” —
过去是那么的一成不变——
the past was much more stable —
“那些被自然演化过程中不变特性所掩盖的差异
“a contrast obscured by the undramatic nature of gradual transformation,
最终因偶然事件而被人们所重视”
punctuated by occasional tumult.”
不时地 会有可怕的事情不期而遇
Occasionally, terrible things happen.
你会在每周循环播报的晚间新闻中
You are shown those terrible things
看到那些可怕的事情
on the news every night of the week.
你并不知晓人口增长放缓了
You are not told about the population slowing down.
并不知晓世界的联系日益紧密了
You are not told about the world becoming more connected.
也不知晓理解方面突破性的进展
You are not told about the incredible improvements in understanding.
你并不知晓我们正试图
You are not told about how we are learning to begin
逐渐减少消耗与浪费
to waste less and consume less.
这是我最后一张地图
This is my last map.
在这张地图上 我们去掉了近海
On this map, we have taken the seas
以及其他几大洋
and the oceans out.
现在你看到的是
Now you are just looking
大约74亿人
at about 7.4 billion people
这张地图是以人口比例来绘制的
with the map drawn in proportion to those people.
你看到中国有超过10亿的人口
You’re looking at over a billion in China,
你能看到中国有世界上最大的城市
and you can see the largest city in the world in China,
但你并不知道它的名字
but you do not know its name.
你可以看到印度
You can see that India
位于世界的中心
is in the center of this world.
你可以看到欧洲位于世界的边缘
You can see that Europe is on the edge.
我们今天所在的埃克赛特
And we in Exeter today
在这个星球 遥远的边境
are on the far edge of the planet.
我们处于 远离欧洲的 一块岩石的碎片上面
We are on a tiny scrap of rock off Europe
我们这个地方拥有
which contains less than one percent
世界成年人口的1%还不到
of the world’s adults,
并且只拥有
and less than half a percent
世界儿童人数的0.5%还不到
of the world’s children.
我们生活在一个逐渐稳定的 步入城市化的世界
We are living in a stabilizing world, an urbanizing world,
一个老龄化的世界
an aging world,
一个互联互通的世界
a connecting world.
有许多许多事情需要担心
There are many, many things to be frightened about,
但是我们没有必要杞人忧天
but there is no need for us to fear each other as much as we do,
我们要看到自己现在 正生活在一个崭新的世界
and we need to see that we are now living in a new world.
非常感谢
Thank you very much.

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视频概述

你一定看过不少的地图吧,但今天看到的不同以往,同时还能学到新的知识,得到新的启发,不信就看看呗。

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收集自网络

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启点—飞雪群山

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iWaZEXBbQL0

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