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螳螂虾的杀戮

MANTIS MURDER SHRIMP (Slow Motion) - Smarter Every Day 121

好的 嗨 我是Destin欢迎回到Smarter Every Day
Yeah. Hey it’s me Destin, welcome back to Smarter Every Day.
我已经在网上看过很多关于螳螂虾发动攻击的视频
So I’ve seen enough videos on the internet of a mantis shrimp punching
但从力学层面上来看我不是很明白
but I don’t understand it, like at the mechanical level.
所以今天在Smarter Every Day
So today on Smarter Every Day
我妹妹将会帮助模拟三个看似毫无关联的东西
my sister has volunteered to model three seemingly unrelated objects
来帮助我们更好地了解这一行为
to help us understand this a little bit better.
但首先让我们来到詹姆斯·库克大学在慢速下观看螳螂虾的出击
But first, let’s go to James Cook University and watch one punch in slow motion.
-好的 我们现在去哪儿?
OK where are we going?
-我们在
-We’re gonna
我们正在前往一个叫做Yorkeys Knob的地方
We’re gonna go to a place called Yorkeys Knob.
-得了吧你
– Shut up!
-那就是它的名字
– That’s the name of it.
-我们去捉些螃蟹
– To get some crabs.
-并不是!
– We’re not!
-……从Yorkeys Knob
– From Yorkeys Knob.
(Destin)[大笑]我倒是希望我可以……但我不能
(Destin) [laughs] I was hoping I could use that.. but… I can’t.
-是真的 这地方真的叫Yorkeys Knob
– It’s true, the place is called Yorkeys Knob.
(Destin)好吧你没在开玩笑
(Destin) You weren’t lying.
所以 Yorkeys Konb 现在我要去找些螃蟹
So Yorkeys Knob, now I have to find crabs.
-那只 这只不错 抓住那只 抓住了吗?
– That one. That’s a good one. Grab that one. Got him?
-抓住了
-Got him.
-好家伙
– There you go.
把螃蟹放在试管里
Crabs in test tubes.
(Destin)不得不说我从来没看过这个
(Destin) I have to say, I’ve never seen that before.
-开始了 这会很刺激
– It works. It’ll be cool.
我们将要做的就是把装有螃蟹的试管放下去
So what we’ll do is we’ll take one of the test tubes with the crab in it,
把螃蟹固定在那儿
we’ll put the test tube down here which will keep the crab there.
他(指螳螂虾)会出来然后……砰!攻击螃蟹并击碎试管
He’ll come out and go.. bang! Hit the crab and smash the test tube.
(Destin)真的?这是一只……一只孔雀螳螂虾
(Destin) Really? So the mantis shrimp is.. it’s a peacock mantis shrimp.
-没错
– Yep.
-看那个家伙 它看起来真厉害 它们能比其他动物识别出更多的颜色吗?
– Look at that joker. It’s pretty awesome. Hey don’t they see more colors than any other animal?
-是的 他们有惊人的色彩视觉系统它们的眼睛分为三个部分
– Yeah. They’ve got incredible vision and their eyes are set up in parts of three.
上 中 下三个部分的视野各有不同
So the top bits look in a different part from the middle, which look at a different part from the bottom.
-有点像我们视网膜上的中央凹-不大一样
– Kind of like the fovea on our eyes. – It’s different from them.
-好的-行
– Ok. – Yeah.
[水流声]
[Water flowing]
-出来了 移动那只小螃蟹
– Out we come. Move little crab.
[大声一击]-砰!
[LOUD CLICK]- Bang!
-它出击了
– It triggered.
-把他(指螃蟹)拿出来
– Pull him out.
[砰][击碎试管]
[Bang] [Breaking the test tube]
(Destin)耶 真刺激
(Destin) Yeah, that’s crazy.
让我们回放录像再看一遍
So let’s back it up and watch again
你会注意到 在撞击的瞬间产生了一个气泡
and you’ll notice that there’s a cavitation bubble generated at the exact point of impact.
[慢速回放]
[Replaying in slow motion]
好的 首先 螳螂虾并不是一种虾
OK first of all, a mantis shrimp isn’t even a shrimp.
它实际上是一种口脚类动物
It’s actually a stomatopod.
我们把它叫做虾是因为它们有几分相像
We call it a shrimp because it kinda looks like it.
但我们也把它称为“螳螂”因为它像一只用前臂捕食的螳螂
But we also call it a mantis because it’s similar to a preying mantis with its forearms.
他们有着相似的猎食策略
They have similar hunting strategies.
Seymour博士说 这一击速度太快以至于无法由肌肉运动单独完成
Dr. Seymour says that punch is so fast that it can’t be accomplished by muscle movement alone.
一定有什么别的东西在运作
There has to be something else going on,
这启发了Shelia Patek
which brings up Shelia Patek.
信不信由你 Patek博士认为这种薯片的的形状
Believe it or not, Dr Patek has determined that the shape of this potato chip
正是螳螂虾重击的秘密之所在
is the secret to the punch of the mantis shrimp.
认真地
Seriously.
这种形状被称为双曲抛物体 如果你学过微积分 你一定见过它
This shape is called a hyperbolic paraboloid, and if you’ve ever taken calculus you’ve seen it.
它大体呈马鞍状 非常牢固
It’s basically a saddle shape and they’re super strong.
这个鞍状物位于锤节的两端 口脚类动物用它的肌肉把它们像弹簧一样压缩起来
This saddle is located on top of the smasher, and the stomatopod uses his muscles to compress it like a spring
然后用一个闭锁机制将它们收回
and he holds it back with a latch mechanism.
然后他释放势能
He then releases this potential energy
驱动掌节高速向前
and it drives the club forward at a much higher velocity
这比单独用肌肉牵拉快得多
than would be possible with muscle alone.
所以下一次当你吃薯片的时候
So the next time you eat one of these
要记得有另一只动物
remember there’s another animal eating
在用同样的模型捕食
with the same shape you are,
只有他在海洋深处
only he’s doing it at the bottom of the ocean
将那个模型与它肢体的顶端融为一体
and he’s got that shape integrated into the top of his arm.
如果你之前玩过扳手你就会明白这种运作机制
If you’ve ever played with a vice clamp before,you’ve seen this type of mechanism.
你可以慢慢地压紧它 这里需要一个扭矩操作将它锁住
You can slowly clamp down on the tool, which uses a cam-over action to lock it in place,
如果你操作正确并握紧它你就可以积蓄应变能
and if you have it set right and squeeze it hard, you store mechanical strain energy.
当你扳动锁扣 能量释放出来使力臂迅速向前弹射
When you trip the latch the energy’s released and the arm flies forward real fast,
但仔细想一想
but think about this.
螳螂虾用它们小巧的锤节撬开坚硬的贝壳 对吧?
Mantis shrimp use their little clubber to break open shells that are really hard, right?
那么为什么碎的是贝壳而不是它的锤节呢?
So why does the shell break and the club doesn’t?
我们来看另一段短片
Let’s watch another clip.
这是Seymour博士用一只螃蟹去喂螳螂虾这一次没有试管
This is Dr Seymour feeding a crab to the stomatopod except this time there’s no test tube.
-它在敲击……它在轻敲石头
– It’s flicking the.. It’s flicking the rock.
喔!
Ohhhh!
-你看到了吗?
– Did you get it?
-我不知道 可能吧
– Dunno, might have.
-喔~我真同情那只螃蟹[大笑]
– Ohhhh I feel for that crab. [laughs]
[慢速回放]
[Replaying in slow motion]
[砰]
[bang]
(Destin)拉近再看一次 看看你能否看清那个鞍状物释放能量
(Destin) Watch again closer and see if you can see the saddle release the energy.
-看这儿
– Look at that.
-真是不幸
– Good grief.
直接断成了两半
Snapped it straight in half.
我们现在在讨论严肃的力学问题
We’re talking about serious forces here.
在工程学上 我们将两样材料
In engineering we take two materials
结合在一起形成复合材料
and we combine them together into composites
使它们更坚固
to make them stronger.
例如 胶合板
For example plywood
就是用多层纤维方向互相垂直的单板胶合而成的
is made of many layers of wood with the fibers oriented in two different directions.
而螳螂虾则用一种叫做几丁质的有机高分子使之更进一步
Mantis shrimps however take this to the next level with an organic polymer called chitin.
在哈佛大学生物工程研究所的研究人员发现
At the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard,
这些纤维并不像胶合板一样只扭转向两个基本方向
they determined that these fibers aren’t rotated only in two principle directions like plywood,
它是一整个螺旋结构给这个结构向多个不同方向的力
it’s an entire helix, which gives the structure strength in many different directions.
然后这些纤维一起束进一个矿物化基质中
These strands are then bonded together in a mineralized matrix
使其整体变为一个强有力的攻击物
which makes the whole thing an incredibly strong smasher.
但比这更疯狂的还在后面
But it gets crazier than that.
研究小组将一个锤节的切片放入同步加速器中
The team put a section of the smasher in a synchrotron
来分析组成它的材质
so they could analyze the material makeup.
同步加速器!它就像一个粒子加速器
A synchrotron! That’s like a particle accelerator.
真是可怕的科学
This is crazy science.
他们轰击了它数百次
They bombarded it hundreds of times
来确定它的密度和该材质中晶体的局部取向
to understand the density and the local orientation of the crystals in the material,
你猜怎么着?
And guess what?
他们发现靠近表面的晶体被扭转至垂直于撞击处的方向
They found that the crystals near the surface were oriented perpendicular to the impact site
而当我们远离撞击处时它的方向会改变
and that orientation changed as we move away from the impact site.
基本上这种材质会在内部不同位置改变其成分和强度
Basically the material changes composition and strength at different locations on the inside.
撞击表层极其坚固 但内部构造转换流畅
The impact surface is incredibly hard, but the internal structure transitions smoothly
以此来使一次巨大的冲击负荷分配遍及该结构其余部分
to allow the distribution of a huge impulse load throughout the rest of that structure
这样它可以整天击打物体而不会损坏
so it can punch stuff all day long without breaking.
不像胶合板是一种由完全一样的单板堆叠胶合而成的常规复合材料
So instead of a normal composite like plywood, which are identical layers stacked up and glued together,
螳螂虾的锤节是一种多变的复合材料
a mantis shrimp club is a variable composite,
也就是说你可以根据需要随时改变这种材料的成分和强度
meaning you can vary the material makeup and the strength orientation wherever you need it.
这是一种惊人的巧妙的系统设计方式
This is an incredibly smart way to design a system.
总之 我希望你们能喜欢螳螂虾
In summary, I want you to love the mantis shrimp.
我希望你们喜欢它不仅仅是因为它出击的结构方式
I don’t want you to love it just because of the mechanics of how it throws the punch.
也不是因为它的透明结构中多变成分的化学因素
Not because of the chemistry of the variable composition of the crystalline structure.
或是光学……它可以看到圆偏振光
The optics.. It can see circularly polarized light.
这是一种非常非常惊人的小动物
This is an incredible, incredible animal,
我希望你们每次吃到这样的薯片时能想起它
and I want you to think about it every time you eat a chip like this.
你们能为我做到吗?
Can you do that for me?
好的 我希望你们能喜欢对螳螂虾出击方式的学习
OK I hope you enjoyed learning how mantis shrimp club.
它是关于双曲抛物体
It’s all about the hyperbolic paraboloid,
或者说我CAL3老师教我的hyperwolic pawabawoid
or as my Cal 3 teacher taught me, *hyperwolic pawabawoid.
总之 我是Destin这里是Smarter Every Day
Anyway, I’m Destin, you’re getting Smarter Every Day.
如果你有兴趣支持我的疯狂之旅请到“Audible”的网站支持我们的频道
If you’re interested in supporting the crazy trips I do, please consider supporting on Audible.
网址是Audible.com/SMARTER你可以获取你想要的任何有声读物
Audible.com/SMARTERYou can get any audiobook you want.
做本期视频时我正在听《海底两万里》因为我想增进对海洋生物的了解
I listened to 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea when I did this series because I wanted to learn more about marine life.
儒勒·凡尔纳的作品
Jules Verne nailed it.
《海底两万里》在Audible.com/SMARTER下载
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, audible.com/SMARTER.
非常感谢你们的支持我会在视频简介里留下链接
Thank you so much for your support.I’ll leave a link in the video description.
我是Destin 这里是Smarter Every Day祝你好运
I’m Destin, you’re getting Smarter Every Day.Have a good one.
是Derek!他的视频比我更火爆[大笑]
It’s Derek! He video bombed me. [laugh]
(Destin)吼!
(Destin) Ho!
-[大笑]我们可以把照明灯打在薯片上
– [ laughs] We could bring the lighting down on the chip please.
完美
Perfect.
[大笑]
[laughs]
这真是傻透了
That was really dumb.
(Destin)这就是我这样做的原因
(Destin) Which is why I think I’m gonna use it.

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视频概述

本视频将介绍在动物攻击速度排行榜上排名第二的螳螂虾的攻击武器锤节的结构和运作原理

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

衿一

审核员

瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LXrxCT0NpHo

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