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你的劣势使你更有可能成功 – 译学馆
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你的劣势使你更有可能成功

Malcolm Gladwell: Disadvantages Can Improve Your Chance of Success | Inc. Magazine

想法实验室
Idea Lab
又一件大事 书的主题是
Another big thing, theme of the book is that
有一种概念叫值得型困境
there’s such a thing as a desirable difficulty.
你能解释是什么意思以及为什么是优势么?
Can you explain what that is and why it can be advantages?
好的 所以这个非常有趣的概念来自于
Yeah, so this is this really interesting notion comes from
嗯 这些在加州大学研究夫妻心理学的团队
umm…these husband-and-wife psychology team at UCLA I call the Bjork’s
我称之为比约克 他们研究学习 看起来他们对学习非常感兴趣
and they study with learning, look they were very interested in learning.
你知道对于学习的传统概念是
And you know the conventional notion with learning is
在一定程度上我可以让你的任务更轻松
to the extent that I make your task easier,
你也可以学到更多东西
you would learn more.
如果我允许你读物理学
If I allow you to read physics,
在一本词句优美 阐述清晰的书上学习物理学
learned about physics in a book that is written beautifully and clearly.
会比用一本由德语翻译过来的
You will learn physics better than if I give you
写得很烂的教材学的更好
a terribly written book translated from the German.
嗯 他们说你熟知的这些是对的 但是有例外
Umm… And they said what you know that’s true, but there are exceptions.
也有一些案例 比如我给你更难的任务
There are also cases where if I make the tasks
你将会学得更好
slightly harder for you, you’ll learn better.
因为当我让它更难点 你会被强迫集中注意力
Because if I make it a little bit harder maybe you’ll be forced to concentrate more
或者有可能你会读三遍而不是读一遍
or maybe you will maybe you have to read it three times instead of once.
这就是我想让你做的 我想让你读它
And in that fact that’s what I want you to do I want you to read it
我想强迫你读三遍 因为这样你就会理解它
I want to force you to read it three times because you’ll get it.
所以我开始探索所有这些区域
So I began to explore all these areas where
你可以区分不值得型困难和值得型困难
you could distinguish desirable from undesirable difficulties.
这里是否有某种类型的困难
Was there a category of obstacles
是会对进步产生有效效应的呢?
that had the net effect of making you further ahead?
我喜欢那个想法 在书中的那部分那样说
I love that idea. I… that the section in the book where I say,
“看!让我们来看一下
“Look! Let’s look at things that we conventionally understand as
是否在某些情况下 那些我们常认为是不值得型的困难
undesirable difficulties and see whether there are circumstances
对特定类型的人来说
and for certain kinds of people,
属于值得型困难”
for whom those kinds of difficulties, are desirable.”
所以难语症会是个经典的例子
So dyslexia would be a classic example.
我在书里有一整章是讲关于难语症企业家的
I have a whole chapter in that book on dyslexic entrepreneurs.
嗯 有一个关于做生意的例子被写下来了
Umm…there’s an example of being written on the business
我总是忘记书里的东西
I always forget within the book
有一个真的很有趣的事实是
So this is really interesting fact that
占比很大 成功的企业家中难语症患者的占比
a very large percentage, a much larger percentage of
比普通人中难语症患者的占比
successful entrepreneurs are dyslexic than
大很多
in the general population.
许多人如理查德·布兰森 保罗·福勒
And many of the Richard Branson, Paul Fowler,
查尔斯·施瓦布 Cisco公司的约翰·钱伯
Charles Schwab, John Chambers at Cisco,
还有 克雷格·麦考 大哥大的创始人
I could go on, Craig McCaw, the cellphone pioneer.
列出的这些人都患有难语症 对吧?
The list of these guys are all dyslexic, right?
美国捷蓝航空公司的大卫·尼尔曼
David Neeleman at JetBlue,
如果你和他们交谈 他们会这样解释
and if you talk to them they will explain to you that
他们并不认为是因为克服了困难他们才成功的
they don’t think they succeeded in spite of their disability,
他们认为正是残疾促进了他们的成功
they think they do succeeded because of it.
对于他们 如果你还想 我曾经
Umm…for them and if you want and I sat down with
和大约24个这样的人坐在一起
two dozens of these guys.
哦 天呐 我对我的书的开头非常着迷
Oh god, I get so obsessed at the beginning of my book
这本书中间部分主要是和难语症企业家对话
as the main in the middle of my book was talking to dyslexic entrepreneurs.
嗯 他们的故事都是一样的
Umm… And their stories are all the same,
当他们回顾过去时会告诉你说
they all look back and will tell you you know if it hadn’t have been
如果不是因为我们在二三四年纪没办法读
the fact that I couldn’t read or read well
或没办法读得很好的事实 我绝不会成功
in second and third, in fourth grade. I would never have…
然后他们开始列出所有他们被强迫做的事情
And they start listing all the things they were forced to do
那些被证明是有利的事情
that proved to be alternatively advantageous.
我将不会学会如何聆听
I would never learn how to listen.
在二年级的时候我不会被强迫
I would never been forced in second grade that I was
和班里最聪明的孩子交朋友
I made friends with the smartest kid in the class
而且我一般都说服他为我做作业
and I basically convinced him to do my homework for me.
我没办法告诉你我听过多少次这样子的事情了
I can’t tell you how many times I heard that from this one.
所以在那个年龄他们就在学习委托了
So what they’re learning at that age they’re learning delegation.
他们学习怎样和人交流 怎样激励别人
They are learning how to communicate with other people, motivate other people.
组成一个团队 我的意思是
Form a team, I mean
他们 他们做这些事儿(在团队构建中)
they… and they do that in,
布莱恩·格瑞泽 这位好莱坞的制作人也患难语症
Brian Grazer, the Hollywood producer who’s dyslexic.
他整个的事情是
His whole things was a
他会 他会搞清楚怎样
he would, he figured out how,
测验不及格后
he would fail in tests
他会去找老师谈判 把成绩从D改成C
and he would go in and he would talk his grade up from D to C.
所以从这个中学的年龄开始
So from the age of this high.
他就在学习谈判 不是吗?
He’s learning to negotiation, right?
最后 他进大学时 在这个方面表现突出
By the end, by the time he’s in college, he’s brilliant at it.
然后他做了什么呢?他成为了一个好莱坞制片人
And then what he do? He becomes a Hollywood producer.
这是什么呢?
What is that about?
是和其他事物之间的谈判
It’s about negotiation among other things.
他一生都在练习
And he’s been practicing his entire life.
很奇怪的是他认为这和难语症一样困难
So this is a weird thing where he would say as difficult as my dyslexia was.
对所有这些人来讲 他们的童年都是不快乐的
And for all of these people, their childhood were not fun.
我采访过盖理·科恩 他是高曼的主席
I mean I interviewed Gary Cohn, who’s the president of Goldman,
他的每个家人都是诵读困难者
who’s per family the dyslexic.
他的童年听起来充满了黑暗和悲惨
His childhood just sounds, I mean, dark and miserable.
没人认为他能做家庭作业
No one thought he was capable of doing schoolwork.
他们认为他是
They thought he was,
他们很惊讶他居然能从高中毕业
they were amazed he even could graduate from high school.
嗯 尽管这样 他们回顾过去都会说
Umm… Despite that they all look back and say
它是值得型困难 它是
you know it was a desirable difficulty, it was…
我被教导 我被强迫学习一些东西
I was taught I was forced to learn stuff.
我甚至从未考虑过这些
I would never even have thought about.
嗯 所以我认为那是
Umm… So that’s that I think that’s such a
那真是个很美好的概念
that’s a really beautiful idea.
确切地说 但是你也曾提到了
Definitely, but you also mentioned
狱中有着不成比例的难语症人群
there are a disproportionate number of dyslexic people in prisons.
所以如何完美地创造值得型困难呢?
So what’s the perfect storm to make a difficulty desirable?
这个 这是个很重要的问题
That’s the, that’s the, that’s the million-dollar question.
我不认为 任何人
I don’t think anyone,
我认为并没有一个简单的答案 我认为这取决于你是谁
I don’t think there’s any kind of simple answer and I think it depends on who you are,
你的能力和你周围的支援系统
and what your capabilities are and what the support system around you are
以及你有多少其它劣势
and how many other disadvantages you have.
我的意思是 这个是
I mean it’s an, but I,
这类谈话我想从这本书开始
that’s the kind of conversation I want to start with this book.
这是经典的父母的谈话
So it’s classic parents conversation.
我 我想让我孩子尽可能少经历不值得型困难
I… I would like my child to have as few as possible undesirable difficulties
而尽可能多地经历值得型困难
and as many as possible desirable difficulties.
但是这是一个非常不同的谈话
But that’s a very different kind of conversation then
我认为作为家长 我的责任
I think my job as a parent
是去除我孩子成长路上的一切阻碍
is to remove every obstacle from the path of my child,
我认为 有些这样想的父母会
which I think, there are parents who do that thinking that’s gonna
在孩子没有意识到之前做好一切 不
put there child ahead not realizing, no.
为了学习真正需要学习的东西
In order to learn the things that really need to be learned.
我们需要面临一定程度的逆境
We require a certain level of adversity.
诀窍是弄清楚这逆境应该是什么样子的 对吗?
The trick is figuring out what that adversity ought to look like, right?
这就像我说过的那样
And that’s like I said something that’s that is a
这个只能根据具体情况决定
can only be decided on a case-by-case basis.
无论是与我还是任何这样的人相比
This is gonna be different for you than it’s for me
对你来说都是不同的 获得高曼的盖里·科恩
or for any of this, you know for Gary Cohen get Goldman
他可能有150的智商
who probably have IQ of 150.
他还有一个完全信任他
And who has a grandfather who totally believed in him
并且最亲近的祖父
and the person who he was the closest in.
他身边有两个非常强​​大的家庭
He had two and it’s pretty strong family around him.
这是三大优势 对吧
It’s got three really big advantages, right?
有人相信 有了天生的高水平智力
Someone believes in them, high level of native intelligence,
他就可以克服很多困境
he can go through a lot of Hell.
这个观点很酷并且结果也是不错的
It’s cool and still come out okay.
但是现在想象如果一个人没有
But now imagine someone who didn’t have
正常的智力 他的家人不支持他
a stratospheric IQ, whose family wasn’t supportive
并且他还有其他劣势
and who had other disadvantages,
每天早上醒来还要面临饥饿问题
had woke up every morning hungry.
那么很难认同他们的难语症会
Now it’s hard to see that their dyslexia
很轻易变成值得型困难的观点 对吗?
would easily be a desirable difficulty, right?
这听起来对我来讲就像骆驼背上的稻草
That sounds to me that would be the straw broke the camel’s back
如果让我用隐喻来讲
if I might make all kinds of metaphors.
但是 这取决于 你知道那种
But umm… so it depends, you know sort of…
这是个复杂的问题
It’s a complicated question.
[股份有限公司]
[Inc.]

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你的劣势使你更可能成功以及介绍了什么是值得型困难

听录译者

。蓝

翻译译者

侧耳倾听

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审核员SX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iXTZ6SOVmdo

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