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世界上最古老的地震站 – 译学馆
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世界上最古老的地震站

Making Artificial Earthquakes with a Four-Tonne Steel Ball

我在德国哥廷根市的维歇特地震观测站
I’m at Wiechert’s Earthquake Observatoryin Göttingen, Germany.
这是世界上最古老的
This is the oldest working seismic station,
仍在使用的地震站—地震探测器
— earthquake detector — in the world.
但这里同样有一些特别的科学设备
But there’s also a more unusual bitof scientific equipment here:
一个能被抬到离地面14米高
a four-ton steel ball that can
再落下的四吨钢球
be raised up 14 metres above the ground and then dropped,
因为如果能让地面震动
because it’s a lot easier
设置和校准地震探测器
to set up and calibrate an earthquake detector
就容易多了
if you can make the ground shake yourself.
我们这里的设备从1903年开始使用
– The equipment we have herestarted to work in 1903,
现在它仍在运转
and it’s still working.
维歇特创造了第一个可操作的地震仪
Wiechert was the one who createdthe first real working seismometer.
地震运动被记录在熏烟纸上
These things record on smoked paper.
这是一张普通的白纸
This is ordinary white paper.
我们用煤油灯的火焰将纸熏黑
We take the flame of a paraffin burner to get soot onto that paper.
我们应该是世界上唯一这么做的人
We think we are the only ones in the world who are doing that.
维歇特有一个理论是说地震波
Wiechert had a theorythat seismic waves allow you
能让你看到地球内部
to look into the inside of our planet.
他的助手明特洛普要证明维歇特的理论
His assistant, Mintrop, had toprove Wiechert’s theory.
他开始计算
He started to calculate,
他发现如果拿一个大约四吨重的球
and he found out if he takes a ball of about four tonnes
从高处扔下就能制造一场小型的地震
and drops it, then he iscreating a small earthquake,
这场小型地震足以检验埃米尔·维歇特的理论
an earthquake big enoughto check the theory of Emil Wiechert.
一个世纪以前这里的研究人员
– The researchers here a century
能制造一个微型的人造地震 然后测量它
ago could create a tiny artificial earthquake and then measure it.
然后呢?
So what? Well,
地球的震动以两种方式通过地面
earth tremors movethrough the ground in two ways.
P波 即主波 会在波前进的方向
The P-waves, or primary waves,compress the ground back and forth
来回挤压地面 把它们压在一起
in the direction that the wave is travelling,squeezing it together.
移动稍慢一些的是S波 即次波
Travelling slightly slower are the S-waves,the secondary waves,
它左右切割地面
which shear the ground side-to-side.
这些波的持续时间 波长和强度都不同
And those waves behave differently,in duration, and wavelength, and intensity,
这取决于它们经过的地面
depending on the groundthey’re travelling through. So,
所以 如果你和明特洛普一样聪明
if you’re clever,and Mintrop was clever,
你可以在一个区域周围设置地震探测器
then you could set up seismicdetectors all round an area,
从高处扔下一个四吨重的钢球
create a small artificial earthquake by, say,
制造一场小型的人工地震
dropping a four-ton steel ball,
利用地球内部的声波反射
and use the reflectionsfrom within the earth
不需要挖掘就可以构建地底下的图景
to build up a picture of what was below without having to dig.
这个知识被传播到了全世界
– This knowledge spreadall over the world.
明特洛普接到了墨西哥石油钻探公司的邀请
Mintrop got an invitation to Mexicofrom an oil-drilling company.
他们有一块油田
They had an oil field.
他们问明特洛普能否测量油田的大小
They asked Mintrop if he could measure the size of that oil field.
他说 “我不知道 我们在哥廷根没有油田”
He said,”I don’t know. We don’thave oil fields in Göttingen,”
但他接受了去墨西哥的邀请
but he accepted the invitation to Mexico,
当然 他没随身带着球去
and of course he did nottake the ball with him,
因为在墨西哥 他能做这里不允许做的事
because in Mexico he was allowedwhat he wasn’t allowed here.
他被允许使用炸药
He was allowed to use dynamite.
他以惊人的准确度预测了这块油田的大小
And he measured the size of this oil field with incredible accuracy.
他有一个不太好的绰号 疯狂的德国人
He had the not-so-nice nicknameThe Crazy German.
他把装备藏在帐篷里 自己和保镖东奔西跑
He was running around with bodyguards,hiding his equipment in tents,
因为我们的美国朋友
because our American friends were very
非常渴望知道那些设备是怎么工作的
eager to find out how that works,
因为那是印钞的许可证
because that was thelicence to print money.
也就是说 100年前 当钢球第一次落下
– So, 100 years ago, with amuch older release mechanism,
落在那片曾经平坦的地面
and probably a lot more effort,
那是付出了比现在多得多的努力
that steel ball dropped for the first time
才试验成功的最古老的探测装置
onto what was thenpretty much flat ground.
现在有更好的设备来探索
Nowadays there’s much better equipment for figuring out what’s
地表之下有什么 然而
under the earth’s surface but, uh,
它不再那么激动人心了
it’s not quite as dramatic.
我告诉过你 你的相机会掉…
– I told you your camera would fall…!- [laughter]
它还在震动!
It’s still rolling!

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主要介绍了世界上最古老的探测器的发明及其成就

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vxfJbW6KDp4

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