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制作一门TED-Ed课程:两种动画形式呈现诗歌 – 译学馆
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制作一门TED-Ed课程:两种动画形式呈现诗歌

Making a TED-Ed Lesson: Two ways to animate slam poetry

In this short video,
在这段短视频中
we’re going to show you how we use
我们会向你演示 如何在TED课程中
two different animation techniques,
运用影像描摹
both rotoscoping and traditional hand-drawn
和传统的手工动画
animation in the TED-Ed Lesson.
这两种不同的动画技术
“Miss Gayle’s 5 Steps to Slam Poetry:
“Gayle小姐创作诗歌的五个步骤:
A Lesson of Transformation.”
关于转换的课程”
什么是诗歌比赛
为什么我们要用两种动画技术
A poetry slam is a competition
诗歌比赛是根据诗歌
in which poets are judged on their poems,
评判诗人水平的比赛
often for qualities of emotional power
通常根据诗歌是否富含感情
and lyrical resonance.
和韵律来评判
Our Lesson was created by Gayle Danley,
我们的课程是由Gayle Danley
a veteran slam poet
一位富有经验的诗人创办的
who spent decades teaching children
她花费了数十年 教育孩子们
to express themselves through spoken words,
要通过语言来表达自己
a Lesson, which offers a guide to creating poetry
这堂课给大家举了一个很好的例子
with immediacy and power,
教会大家如何创作
also serves as a great example of exactly that.
直白并且富有力量的诗歌
It’s a story told in the form of a poem
这个故事以诗歌的形式讲述
that packs a real emotional punch.
包含着真情实感
She introduces Tyler,
她要说的是Tyler
who’s sitting in an 11th grade writing class,
他正坐在11年级的写作课堂里
struggling with the assignment of having to write a poem
努力想完成基于自身经历
based on a personal experience.
写出一首诗的作业
The story is told from two perspectives,
这个故事是从两方面展现的
one external and one internal.
一个外部描述 一个内心刻画
Miss Gayle’s narration sets the stage
Gayle小姐的叙述大概描述了
of the outside world,
外部场景
and spoken word artist Pages D. Matan
配音艺术家Pages D·Matan
performs Tyler’s inner voice.
来演绎Tyler的内心世界
To set these two realms
为了展现
of inner- and outer-experience apart,
内心活动和外部场景这两个部分
a different animation technique was used
使用了不同的动画技巧
to illustrate each.
来分别描绘
The real world was animated by rotoscoping,
真实世界用到了影像描摹
with a frame-by-frame tracing of live-action footage
用黑白线条风格的脚本 一张接一张
in black and white line art.
来描绘动态镜头
The animation depicting the inner-stream
动画对Tylor内心活动
of consciousness world of Tyler’s memories
意识领域和记忆的描绘
was traditionally drawn on paper,
采用了画在纸上的传统方式
featured watercolored backgrounds
特意使用了水彩填充
and a more expressionistic design.
以及更富有表现力的设计
Once deciding on this general approach,
一旦决定了整体的手法
the project went right into pre-production.
这个动画就可以开始前期制作
什么是前期制作
它为什么很重要
In animation, pre-production is the planning stage.
动画中的前期制作就是准备阶段
It’s all the decisions that need to be made before going
在具体开始制作之前
and actually making the thing in its final form.
所有的东西都必须定下来
This can include developing
包括每一个画面的
the look or design of the piece,
外观或者设计
experimenting with colors and camera angles,
用哪些颜色还有画面的角度
revising the script, and so on.
修改脚本等等
All these decisions are important
所有的决定都很重要
because they determine how much work and time
会关系到动画的工作量
the production will take.
以及需要多长时间
Extra time spent here figuring things out
多花点时间解决这些问题
can often save a lot of time down the road.
常常能使后期制作节省更多时间
For our project, a storyboard was first created,
在这个例子里 我们先创建了一个故事脚本
in which the framing, composition, and imagery
定下每个镜头的
for each shot was determined.
框架 素材及意象
Then an animatic was made,
一部动画就可以创作出来了
which is basically a movie of the storyboard.
它可以说就是脚本的电影化
This helped us figure out the timing of each shot.
这样可以帮助我们决定每个镜头的时长
It also helped us get an idea
影像描摹和传统动画
of how well everything would flow together visually
一旦结合
between our rotoscoped
会让我们了解到
and traditionally animated scenes
所有的素材结合在一起的场景
once they were assembled.
是多么自然
影像描摹是如何发挥作用的
动画是如何结合起来的
For the rotoscoped shots, we first had to create
为了完成影像描摹 我们首先
the live action footage to be traced.
拍摄了一些真实活动的脚本
Working with what we had in our humble office,
在自己简陋的办公室里
we created a classroom of desks
我们用一张桌子
using only one small table.
搭建了一个摆满桌子的教室
We shot this multiple times
我们根据情节脚本需要
from each angle the storyboard called for,
多次拍摄了不同角度
each time with a different volunteer
每一次从我们的同事中
from among our co-workers.
挑选出不同的志愿者
Our source footage elements
我们的脚本素材
then needed to be composited,
需要在影像描摹之前
or assembled and arranged together,
合成或者组合
before we could rotoscope them.
然后按顺序排列
A composite is a special effects term
合成是一种特效术语
for a shot that combines two or more elements in it
是指一个镜头用到了一种或多种
that were created separately.
单独拍摄的素材
To do this, we used After Effects,
为了完成这样的效果 我们使用了“后期效果“
a digital compositing and motion graphics program.
一个数字合成以及使画面动起来的软件
The first step was to isolate
第一步是通过
the part of the frame we needed
去掉不需要的区域
by masking off the unnecessary negative space,
或者是我们不需要的部分
or parts of the frame we didn’t need.
得到我们每一帧需要的画面
The individual shots were then each layered
每个独立的镜头都是由
into one composite shot,
不同的图层合成
resized and arranged appropriately
调整大小 合理排列顺序
to create the illusion of them
来创造一个
all being there in perspective at the same time.
大家同时处在这个画面的假象
Every third frame was then exported
每三帧都由
as an image sequence,
图像的顺序输出
ready to be rotoscoped.
接下来可以影像描摹了
The tracing was done digitally,
描摹是在电子设备上
drawn directly on a Cintiq monitor.
使用新帝(Cintiq)手绘设备
传统的手绘与影像描摹有什么不同
The rest of the animation
动画的剩余部分
was done by hand on paper.
是在纸上手绘的
Unlike rotoscoping,
与影像描摹不同的是
here the timing and motion of the animation
这里的时间和动画如何动起来
was all planned out by the animator ahead of time.
都是绘制者提前计划好的
An appropriate number of drawings were then done
完成足够数量的绘图后
to accomplish the movement.
就可以完成每一个动作
Each animation drawing is then scanned, registered,
扫描动画的每一张图
and sequenced together in the computer.
然后在电脑上给它们排序
That animation sequence is then composited
动画序列就可以
with the layered background art.
和分层的背景图合成
Camera moves are then plotted out and executed.
可以绘制出镜头的移动
诗歌与动画有什么相似之处
One way that poetry uses language
诗歌用语言
to communicate emotions and ideas
来表达情感和想法的一种方式
is through the use of metaphor.
是通过对比喻的运用
“Mama’s lies are footsteps too many to count
“妈妈的谎言多的数不清
making excuses on black snow.”
就像雪地上黑色的脚印”
Animation’s a medium that’s also uniquely well-suited
动画是一种独特的
to communicating emotions and ideas
通过可视比喻来
through visual metaphor.
表达作者情感和思想的方法
Applying the dual techniques
运用影像描摹
of rotoscoped and traditional animation,
和传统的手绘两种技术
each with their own inherent looks,
使我们可以通过它们固有的风格
allowed us to visually represent
直观地表示
the dual nature of the creative process
课程中描述的
described in the Lesson.
创作过程的双重性质
There’s the internal aspect of experience and memory,
在寻找灵感的时候
which is mined for inspiration,
内心活动就是主人公的经历和回忆
and there’s the external aspect
外部场景
of revealing it to the world
就是通过有结构化的陈述
through a structured presentation.
向外界展示
We combined both techniques for the last shots
在Tylor展示他的作品的那个镜头
of Tyler delivering his poem to the world,
我们结合了这两种技术
allowing us to convey in a direct, visual way
可以通过直观的 可视的方式
the power of that moment of communication
来传达内心世界向外界表达
when internal becomes external,
那一刻的力量
which, in both poetry and animation,
对于动画和诗歌来说
is where the magic happens.
都是奇妙的一瞬间

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视频概述

如何使用两种不同的技术手段制作动画

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张总的小蜜

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=onZEkLpQ0FA

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