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制作一门TED-Ed课程:动画版僵尸 – 译学馆
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制作一门TED-Ed课程:动画版僵尸

Making a TED-Ed Lesson: Animating zombies

You might remember a pair of TED-Ed Lessons
你也许还记得TED-Ed有两集
written and performed by two educators,
是两个教育学家编写和制作的
Brad Voytek and Tim Verstynen.
他们是Brad Voytek和Tim Verstynen
These two scientists used a drooling,
这两个科学家用一个流口水
hag-faced, animated zombie
还长着女巫脸的动画僵尸来做模型
as a mechanism to model the symptoms and medical diagnosis process
展示了 不同神经病的发病症状
for various neurological conditions.
及其医学诊断过程
For example, they spent time debating
例如 他们花了很长时间讨论
whether the zombie’s stiff gait
僵尸步伐僵硬
was caused by basal ganglia damage,
是像患有老年痴呆症的人那样
like that in Parkinson’s patients,
由基底神经节损害造成的
or by severe damage to the cerebellum,
还是因为小脑严重受损
which can cause ataxia.
导致运动机制失调
In each Lesson, Brad and Tim certainly showed us
Brad和Tim在视频里向我们确切地展示了
how the walking dead can help us understand neuroscience,
僵尸是如何帮助我们理解神经学的
but how can the walking dead help us understand animation?
但行尸走肉怎么帮助我们理解动画?
Or, more simply put,
或者 简单的说
how did this one-eyed, decaying,
如何让这个独眼 腐烂的
and very much dead pile of pixels walk?
一堆死像素点走起来呢?
Puppet animation is a relatively quick solution to creating 2-D animation of a hand-drawn character.
木偶动画对创作手绘二维动画人物来说 是相对便捷的选择
Since the character does not need to be drawn over and over again,
因为我们不需要反复画出人物形象
it can be animated by moving each element individually.
只要独立的移动每一个元素 就可以让它动起来
Aside from their portrayal in a few great modern zombie flicks,
除了几部经典现代僵尸电影里展示的形象
these concocted carcasses are generally known
通常 我们对这些制作出来的僵尸的印象
for limited, stiff movements.
就是他们受限 僵硬的运动方式
Their traditional stride is perfect for puppet-style animation.
他们传统的步伐非常适合做木偶动画
When designing a 2-D zombie puppet,
设计一个二维僵尸人偶
or any other type of puppet,
或其他类型的人偶时
it is important to find a design that is both fun and functional in a flat environment.
在平面上呈现出一个有趣又好用的设计就很重要
For example, you might not want to puppetize, say, Julie Andrews in the “Sound of Music”
比如 你不想让朱莉·安德鲁斯在《音乐之声》
as she spins in circles.
转圈的时候像个木偶一样
We used rotoscoping for her,
就可以对她使用转描机技术
but that’s another lesson.
但那是另一节课了
Always begin by sketching and designing your puppet in a neutral pose
一般开始的时候 木偶总是被设定成一个中性的姿势
like this.
就像这样
This will allow it to easily transition
这可以让它能轻松的
into and out of a variety of extreme positions.
适应一些高难度动作的转换
Once a character transitions from concept scratches to final design,
一旦角色由概念图过渡到最终设计
the next step is to break up the pieces
接下来就是把它打散
in order to assemble a puppet,
目的是重组一个木偶
keeping in mind that each element
你要始终牢记每一个元素
needs to have an appropriate amount of overlap
都要有恰当的重叠
so that the Zombie can bend at his joints.
这样才能保证僵尸的关节可以弯曲
An understanding of anatomy is an integral part of designing any 2-D or 3-D animated character
设计任何二维或三位动画角色 都要贯穿对解剖学的理解
that needs to move realistically in the context of its environment.
角色就会在上下文里表现得更真实
Regardless of the number of dimensions your character has,
不论你的角色是几维的
you’ll need to create a skeleton,
你需要建立一个骨架
which in animation terms is known as a rig.
用动画术语讲就是“操控绑定”
Once the rig is finalized
一旦这种绑定完成
and the range of motion is determined,
动作的范围就随之确定下来
the next step is to choose anchor points.
下一步就是选择锚点
Each piece of artwork has its own anchor point,
每一个插图都有自己独特的锚点
which essentially assigns the limb a hinge,
这可以让它的肢体连接起来
which in this case is a joint.
这就像关节一样
Next, line the artwork up
然后 再把这些图形组装起来
so that the anchor point for the forearm-elbow
以便让前臂肘的锚点
sits on the upper arm’s elbow area.
落在上臂肘的区域
Once all the artwork is in place,
一旦所有的插图就位
you can use an expression script
你就可以用一种表达式脚本
that creates links between the body parts.
让身体各个部分建立起联系
In this case, we used the expressions
这里 我们用到了After Effects的
provided in After Effects.
表达式功能
By parenting one layer to another,
通过把一个层放在另一个层的子列中
you could teach the forearm
你就能让小臂
to follow the upper arm
接合到上臂
and the hand to follow the forearm.
并把手接到小臂上
This is what’s called forward kinematics.
这就是所谓的正向运动
The alternative is inverse kinematics,
另一种方案是逆运动
in which a separate set of scripts control the motions.
就是运用独立的一系列脚本来控制动作
In this case, a controller is attached to the anchor point of the hand.
这种情况下 将控制器连接到手的锚点上
The animator then uses the controller
动画制作者通过控制器
to position the hand.
来确定手的位置
The scripts will then use an algorithm
之后 脚本将用一个算法
to make sure that the rest of the arm and body follows along.
确保胳膊的其它部分和身体紧接着运动
让僵尸动起来
Once the character is rigged,
一旦角色被绑定后
we can start animating.
我们就能开始制作动画了
Often times, puppet animation is done
木偶动画一般会做成
as straight-ahead action,
直接方式的动作
which means moving a character frame-by-frame from beginning to end.
也就是说从头到尾一板一眼的移动角色
Another approach is pose-to-pose animation,
另一种方案是 由姿势到姿势的动画
which involves choosing your key poses first,
其中包括选定核心姿势
and then filling in the intervals,
之后做补间动画
or in-betweens, later.
即在两张图之间补充
Regardless of the method of motion,
无论采用哪一种运动方式
it’s important to think of your 2-D puppet as a piece of paper.
重要的是把你的二维木偶想成一张纸
It can move across a surface
它能在表面移动
in a variety of poses,
并摆出不同的姿势
but it cannot move in perspective.
但因为它不具有透视感
If your character needs to turn its head,
如果你的角色需要转头
then you will need to create additional art.
你可能要创作一些额外的修饰了
We created three different zombie heads
我们做了三个不同的僵尸的头
and six different hands
和六只不同的手
to achieve different movements and angles
来完成不同的动作
that the neutral pose couldn’t accommodate.
以弥补中性姿势不能适应的角度
听起来有点复杂?不
You can recreate almost everything you’ve seen in this Lesson
只需要一支笔 一张纸和一台相机
with a pen, paper, and a camera.
你几乎能重制出我们这里学到的一切
The method is called cut-out animation,
这种技术就叫剪拼动画
and it was around well before the age of software.
它也是软件时代来临之前很流行的方式
To create a stumbling 2-D zombie,
为了做出一个摇摇晃晃的二维僵尸
or a speeding narwhal,
或一个疾驰的角鲸
or even an abstract character with some semblance of joints,
甚至是一个有很多关节的抽象角色
simply print,
简单的打印
cut,
剪切
and fasten your character’s limbs together
然后把角色的肢体接在一起
in a neutral pose.
组成一个中性的姿势就可以
You can use fasteners, string,
你可以用纽扣 线来固定
or even just place and move them each time.
或者直接放置和移动他们的肢体就行
All the same rules and theories that we use in the computer
所有我们在电脑上使用的规则和理论
apply to cut-out animation,
除了相机不同 都能应用剪切动画上
except under the camera, the only way to animate is straight ahead.
而用它创作动画的唯一方式就是直接方式

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本期来拿僵尸为例,讲讲动画制作吧

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视频来源

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