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用高锰酸钾点火

Make Fire with Potassium Permanganate

警告:此实验会产生火
Warning: This experiment produces flames.
因此一定要遵守消防操作安全规程
Fire safety protocols must be in place.
各位书呆子 大家好啊
Greetings fellow nerds.
在研究更高层次的知识之前 我们先看一个简单的视频
Another very simple video before we go back into some higher level stuff.
我们打算在不用火柴的情况下 用高锰酸钾来点火
We’re going to use potassium permanganate to make fire without matches.
首先我们来说说高锰酸钾本身
Now first a word about potassium permanganate itself.
它是最神奇的试剂之一
This is one of those weird reagents that’s either
根据你所居住的位置差异
very easy to find, or very hard to
它要么很容易找到 要么很难找到
find depending on where you live.
直到最近我才找到一种含高锰酸钾的家用品
Only recently did i find a domestic source,
它是砂石过滤器的再生剂
and it’s the regenerant for greensand-based water filters.
我已经在视频介绍中放了一个它的链接
I’ve included a link in the video description.
高锰酸钾是一个活性非常强的氧化剂
Now potassium permanganate is a very powerful and reactive oxidant.
它非常活泼 即使没有火柴和打火石
It’s so reactive that it can set fire to things
它也能点燃物体
even without matches or initial startup.
教科书上最为大众熟知的一个方法
The most famous textbook reaction for this is potassium permanganate and glycerol.
就是混合高锰酸钾和甘油 然后我们退后一步
Just mix them together and step back.
火就烧起来了
And there it goes.
我听说一些露营者就很喜欢
I hear some campers like to use this method
用这种有趣的方式来点火
as a fun way to start a fire when
因为用火柴和打火机点火看起来太普通了
matches and lighters are just too pedestrian.
而另一种与高锰酸钾作用效果很好的燃料就是制动液
Now another fuel that works well with potassium permanganate is brake fluid.
尤其是聚乙二醇制动液
In particular, you need polyethylene glycol based brake fluid,
也称为DOT-3制动液
also known as DOT 3 brake fluid.
它可能需要反应更长时间 到最终还是能燃烧的
It might take some time but eventually it’ll work.
现在你可能回忆起在我以前的视频里
Now if you might recall in a previous video
制动液和次氯酸钙的这个反应
i reacted brake fluid and pool chlorine and was
这也是点火的一种方式
able to generate fire that way.
我也曾经用乙二醇和防冻液试过
I also tried ethylene glycol or antifreeze and
然而当它反应时 没有起火
while it did react it did not catch fire.
但也许这次它会成功
But maybe it’ll work this time.
来让我们试试高锰酸钾和防冻液
So let’s try potassium permanganate and antifreeze.
看起来高锰酸钾能点燃防冻液 次氯酸钙却不能
Looks like potassium permanganate succeeds where pool chlorine failed.
我真是太惊讶了
I’m actually quite surprised.
现在你可能会问 高锰酸钾能否点燃更常见的燃料呢
Now you might be asking does potassium permanganate ignite more common fuels
比如石油 汽油或者柴油
like naptha, gasoline or diesel
这次 我把高锰酸钾和汽油混在一起
Here i am mixing potassium permanganate with gasoline.
就像你看见的 什么也没发生
And as you can see, not much happens.
这是因为汽油主要成分是烷烃类
This is because gasoline consists mostly of alkanes.
它们没有高锰酸钾能攻击的活性官能团
These don’t have reactive functional groups that the potassium permanganate can attack.
尽管我朋友试图说服我说
Although my friends that tried this
他们的汽油过一会就会燃烧了
say their gasoline did react after a while
但我觉得这也可能是因为汽油中的其他添加剂
so i guess maybe it depends on the additives in the gasoline
并且可能在不同地区也有差异
as well and might vary depending on region. Anyway,
不管怎样我们也可以滴加浓硫酸
we can still force the reaction forward
来促进反应的进行
by dripping in some concentrated sulfuric acid.
硫酸与高锰酸钾反应可以生成七氧化二锰
Sulfuric acid reacts with potassium permanganate to produce manganese heptoxide.
因此我们加硫酸后 反应变得非常快
And there we go, the reaction is very quick.
七氧化二锰是一种活性非常强的氧化剂
Manganese heptoxide is an extremely powerful and reactive oxidizer,
氧化性甚至超过高锰酸钾
even more so than potassium permanganate.
因此它能与烷烃类直接反应
So it can react with alkanes directly.
同时它也很容易伤害我们的皮肤
It’ll also destroy human flesh quite easily
在做实验时要尤其的小心
so be extremely careful when doing this experiment.
七氧化二锰很活泼甚至能点燃矿物油
Now it’s so reactive that it’ll even ignite mineral oil.
这里我准备了一堆新的高锰酸钾
So here i am with a new mound of potassium permanganate
然后用矿物油浸泡
and here i’m soaking it with mineral oil.
就如你看见的 什么也没发生
As you can see, nothing happens.
但当我们加入硫酸 产生七氧化二锰后
But when we add in sulfuric acid to make manganese heptoxideů
就会燃烧了
oh there we go.
而现在没有完全燃烧的原因就是
Now it’s not burning that much because the temperature
油的温度没有达到闪点
of the oil is below the flash point.
因此火焰不能持续地燃烧
So we cannot sustain a flame.
七氧化二锰也只点燃了其中一小部分
But the manganese heptoxide is igniting small portions of it nonetheless.
如果我们想要一个能持续燃烧的火焰
If we wanted a sustained fire
我们需要加热直到温度达到闪点
we’d need to heat this above the flash point.
接下来 我尝试让高锰酸钾和乙醇反应
Now moving on, i tried to react potassium permanganate with ethanol.
有趣的是 什么也没有发生
Interestingly enough, nothing happens.
高锰酸盐看起来仅仅只是溶解了
The permanganate just seems to dissolve.
如果这个反应发生 那么这个反应发生的十分缓慢
If it is reacting it’s reacting very slowly.
于是我试着滴加硫酸 反应立刻发生了
I tried dripping sulfuric acid and a reaction does occur,
但在产生火苗前
but the ethanol seems to boil away
乙醇好像就蒸发了
before it has a chance to ignite.
解决方法很简单
The solution is simple enough,
我们先将硫酸加入高锰酸钾里
first we add sulfuric acid to potassium permanganate
使其产生七氧化二锰 然后再加入乙醇
to produce concentrated manganese heptoxide.Then we add the ethanol.
氧化性极强的七氧化二锰会在乙醇蒸发之前
The extremely reactive manganese heptoxide heats up and ignites the ethanol
加热并点燃乙醇
before it has a chance to boil away.
总之 高锰酸钾都有很多用处
Anyway, potassium permanganate has a huge number of uses
而不仅仅是用来点火
not just for starting fires,
之后我将出一个单独的视频来探索这件事情
but i’ll explore those in separate videos.
谢谢观看
Thanks for watching.
特别感谢在patreon众筹网上支持我的人
Special thank you to all of my supporters
是他们的捐赠和科学指导
on patreon for making these science videos possible
使这些科学视频成为可能
with their donations and their direction.
如果你现在不是一个赞助人
If you are not currently a patron,
但想要支持这类科学视频的制作
but like to support the continued production of science videos like this one,
那么可以在这里或者视频描述中查看我的众筹网页面
then check out my patreon page here or in the video description.
最后真的很感谢所有人的支持
I really appreciate any and all support.

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视频概述

高锰酸钾可以点燃物体?让我们很随着真实的实验感受下吧

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

学药小仙女

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2S5HcClXRKs

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