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镁(Mg)——焦虑和抑郁的克星

Magnesium for Anxiety and Depression? The Science Says Yes!

Hi, I’m Dr. Tracey Marks, a psychiatrist,
大家好 我是精神科医生 翠西•马克斯
and I make mental health education videos.
我制作心理健康教育类的视频
Today, I’m talking about the critical role
今天我将讲讲你可能从没意识到的
magnesium plays in your mental health that you probably didn’t realize.
镁在心理健康中发挥的关键作用
Magnesium is considered one of the essential minerals
镁被视作 参与300多种不同身体机能运转的
that’s involved in more than 300 different body processes,
必要矿物质之一
including keeping your heart beating
它保持我们的心脏跳动
and maintaining electrical stability of your nervous system.
并且维持神经系统的电稳定性
Magnesium is used by the body to regulate serotonin and other neurotransmitters.
还被身体用以调节血清素和其他神经递质水平
And some researchers believe that low magnesium
一些研究人员认为
is the problem behind treatment-resistant depression.
低镁 是难治性抑郁症背后的一个问题
How could that be?
怎么会这样呢?
Well, magnesium is an NMDA receptor blocker.
镁是一种NMDA受体拮抗剂
Blocking NMDA increases the brain chemical called BDNF,
阻断NMDA受体的作用 会增加大脑中的化学物质BDNF
which is brain-derived neurotropic factor.
BDNF是一种脑源性神经营养因子
BDNF is like fertilizer for the brain cells.
就像是脑细胞的养料
Neuro means brain and trophic is Greek for feeding.
Neuro是指大脑 而trophic在希腊语中的意思是滋养
BDNF is one of the chemicals that’s responsible
BDNF是负责
for cell regrowth and neuroplasticity.
细胞再生和神经重塑的化学物质之一
Neuroplasticity is the ability to improve nerve connections
神经重塑是一种通过破坏受损神经
by destroying damaged nerves and growing new ones.
并促进新神经生长的方式来改善神经连接的能力
Think of it as neuro-flexibility.
我们可以把它看作神经灵活性
There’s another popular NMDA blocker called ketamine.
另一种常用的NMDA受体拮抗剂叫做氯胺酮
Ketamine was approved as a medication for treatment-resistant depression in 2019.
氯胺酮作为治疗难治性抑郁症的药物 于2019年被批准使用
Ketamine is a hallucinogen,
氯胺酮是一种致幻剂
and so it’s not very easy to take for depression,
所以通过服用它来治疗抑郁症并不容易
but it works very fast by its powerful effect on increasing BDNF.
但氯胺酮通过有效增加BDNF 作用速度非常快
I have a video talking more about ketamine for depression.
我有一个视频介绍了更多关于氯胺酮治疗抑郁症的内容
Magnesium also helps anxiety, and here’s how.
镁也能缓解焦虑 具体过程是这样的
You have NMDA receptors in your amygdala.
大脑的杏仁体内有NMDA受体
Those receptors control fear conditioning and avoidance behaviors.
这些受体参与调控恐惧条件反射和回避行为
Avoidance is key in maintaining phobias.
回避是恐惧持续存在的关键原因
I talk a little bit about it in the video that I did on safety behaviors.
我在讲安全行为的视频中也提到过这个问题
So blocking the NMDA receptors in the amygdala and the rest of your limbic system
因此 阻断杏仁体和其他边缘系统中的NMDA受体作用
decreases your fear response and avoidance, thus reducing anxiety.
会减少你的恐惧反应和回避行为 从而缓解焦虑
Another way magnesium helps anxiety is it decreases glutamate,
镁缓解焦虑的另一种方式是减少谷氨酸
which is a brain chemical that stimulates and excites the cells,
谷氨酸是大脑中刺激和激发细胞活性的化学物质
and it increases GABA, which slows cell activity.
镁还会提高可减缓细胞活动的GABA的水平
Benzodiazepines and most sleeping pills work by increasing GABA.
苯二氮卓类药物和大多数安眠药正是通过提高GABA水平发挥作用
Now, you may be thinking if magnesium is so good
现在你可能在想 既然镁如此有益
and it’s already in our food,
而且我们食物中就有
why would anyone be depressed or anxious?
那么为什么还会有人抑郁或焦虑呢?
We all eat magnesium, right?
我们都食用镁 对吧?
Wrong.
并不是
According to the National Institutes of Health,
美国国立卫生研究院的数据显示
68% of the population doesn’t eat enough magnesium,
68%的人镁摄入量不足
and that’s most of us, and there in lies the problem.
就是说我们中的大多数人都这样 这就是问题所在
Even if you consume enough magnesium,
即使你摄入了足够量的镁
stress and anxiety deplete magnesium levels,
压力和焦虑也会降低体内的镁水平
and here’s how that works.
下面我将介绍其过程
When you have a physical stress, like an illness or anxiety,
当你承担着身体压力 比如疾病或焦虑时
you get an increase in your sympathetic nervous system.
交感神经系统兴奋性增强
You get elevated levels of cortisol and adrenaline.
皮质醇和肾上腺素水平升高
These elevations make you excrete more magnesium through your urine,
这些激素水平的升高 會使你通过尿液排出更多的镁
so during times of stress and anxiety,
因此 在感到压力或焦虑时
even people with normal levels of magnesium
即使是镁水平正常的人
can become temporarily magnesium deficient.
也会出现暂时性缺镁
In one of the studies that I have referenced in the description,
在我描述里曾提到的一项研究中
the researchers saw this phenomenon
研究者们在期末考试周
when they studied a group of college students during final exams week.
对一大群学生进行调研时 发现了这一现象
The students had normal levels of magnesium before the exams
这些学生考试前镁水平正常
and became deficient while under the stress of exams.
但是在考试的压力下会缺镁
And if you have a temporary situation that can make your magnesium dip,
如果是暂时性的情况使你的镁水平降低
you can recover when that stress goes away.
压力消失后镁水平就会恢复正常
But imagine the person who has an anxiety disorder or who’s depressed,
但想象一下 患有焦虑症或抑郁症的人
that person becomes magnesium deficient,
他如果缺镁的话
and the magnesium deficiency keeps them anxious and depressed.
镁的缺乏会进一步导致继续焦虑和抑郁
It’s like a loop that feeds on itself.
就像一个永无止境的恶性循环
So anxiety depletes your magnesium,
焦虑会大量消耗我们体内的镁
and low magnesium makes you anxious or depressed.
而镁水平低又会引起焦虑或抑郁
How much magnesium do you need?
那我们到底需要多少镁呢?
The recommended daily amount for men is 400 to 420 milligrams,
男性每天推荐摄入量是400至420毫克
and for women, it’s 310 to 320 milligrams,
女性每天推荐摄入量是310至320毫克
and it’s always best to get your vitamins and minerals from nutrient-dense food.
而且最好从营养丰富的食物中获取维生素和矿物质
Nutrient-dense food is food that has a lot of minerals relative to the calories.
营养丰富的食物是指 相对于热量而言 含有大量矿物质的食物
The highest natural source of magnesium is pumpkin seeds,
镁含量最高的天然来源是南瓜籽
carrying a whopping 156 milligrams for one ounce.
每盎司含有高达156毫克的镁
Three ounces of cooked chicken breasts only contains 22 milligrams.
而三盎司熟鸡胸肉只含有22毫克镁
There are good reasons to take supplements.
服用镁补充剂是有充分理由的
Supplements are good if you just can’t eat enough through your food,
如果你不能通过食物摄取足够量的镁
or if you have digestion problems,
或者有消化方面问题 补充剂是有益的
and as we get older, we have less stomach acid,
随着年龄的增长 我们的胃酸会减少
which can lessen how much of it you absorb.
这也会影响镁的吸收
Another reason to take magnesium supplements is if you have depression or anxiety.
服用镁补剂的另一个原因 是你有抑郁或焦虑的情况
Having those conditions suggests that you may still have reduced magnesium levels.
在这种情况下 你的镁水平可能处于较低水平
Antidepressants do increase magnesium levels,
抗抑郁药确实会提高镁的水平
but as I mentioned before,
但正如我之前说的
some people whose depression doesn’t get much better with antidepressants
有些服用抗抑郁药后却没有明显好转的抑郁症患者
may be stuck in depression because of low magnesium.
可能会因为镁水平低而一直处于抑郁状态
We still don’t have that much research evidence
我们还没有足够的研究证明
to support using magnesium as an add-on agent,
来支持将镁作为附加剂使用
so your doctor may not have recommended magnesium
所以医生可能没有推荐你服用镁
because nutrition and mental health are relatively new focus in medicine,
因为营养和心理健康在医学上是相对较新的焦点
but the research evidence is growing.
但研究证明是在不断增加的
Here’s what 225 milligrams of magnesium looks like, at least for the brand I use.
这是225毫克镁的样子 至少我使用的品牌是这样
They’re pretty big capsules,
胶囊很大
and it still doesn’t meet my daily requirement.
但仍不能满足我的日常需求
I’d still have to eat my ounce of pumpkin seeds to get closer to my requirement.
我还是得吃一盎司的南瓜籽才能将将满足我的需求
If you take other supplements,
如果你还服用其他营养补剂
it can be a chore getting down all these pills.
那吞下这些药可能是件苦差事
There are several different formulations of magnesium supplement.
有几种不同配方的镁补充剂
Here’s some of the popular options.
以下是一些常见的选择
Magnesium oxide has a lower absorption
氧化镁的吸收率较低
but a higher concentration of elemental magnesium.
但镁浓度较高
Because it’s not absorbed well, it can cause diarrhea.
由于吸收不好 氧化镁可能会引起腹泻
Sometimes it’s paired with calcium as a combination tablet,
有时它会和钙搭配作为复合剂使用
because calcium is constipating.
因为钙会导致便秘
Magnesium hydroxide is sold as the laxative called Milk of Magnesia.
氢氧化镁是作为泻药出售的 被称为镁乳
You don’t want to take it as a nutritional supplement,
你肯定不会想把它当作营养补剂用
because you don’t want to have diarrhea every day.
因为你不会希望自己每天都腹泻
Magnesium citrate is the most common form of magnesium supplementation,
柠檬酸镁是最常见的镁补充剂形式
and it’s better absorbed.
它更容易被吸收
Magnesium diglycenate and magnesium aspartate
甘氨酸镁和天冬氨酸镁的生物利用率
are more biologically available than magnesium oxide, but still less than the citrate version.
高于氧化镁 但低于柠檬酸镁
Biologic availability refers to how much of the pill your body actually uses.
生物利用率指的是你的身体实际利用了多少药物
Magnesium L-threonate is supposed to be more absorbed by the brain,
L-苏氨酸镁似乎更容易被大脑吸收
but the research on this is still new.
但这方面的研究还很新
The most common side effect associated with magnesium is diarrhea,
镁最常见的副作用是腹泻
and you see this most often with the oxide and hydroxide forms.
而镁的氧化物和氢氧化物 是最常导致该副作用的形式
So that’s magnesium, an important nutrient for your brain health.
这就是镁 一种对大脑健康很重要的营养元素
If you haven’t already seen it,
如果你还不够了解它的话
take a look at this video on gut health and depression.
看看这段关于肠道健康和抑郁的视频
Thanks for watching.
感谢收看
See you next time.
下期节目再见

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视频概述

本视频将带你探究,镁是否真的可以治疗抑郁症和焦虑症,又是如何发挥作用的。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bkgDhihL02M

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