Hey guys, welcome back to my channel.
If you guys are new here, welcome, my name is Becca,
如果你是第一次看我的视频 十分欢迎 我是贝卡
and I am a registered dietitian.
And I make lots of videos here on my channel about
nutrition and health, wellness and
a little bit of lifestyle as well.
But today’s video is actually going be the start of my new series
which is going to just be nutrition 101.
So basically with this series,
I just wanna go back to basics
and just go through like very basic principles of nutrition,
whether it’s food or just has to do with biology.
I feel like to me this is common sense,
and it’s just ’cause I’ve been taught already.
And I now wanna teach you guys
so that you just have this, you know,
basic knowledge when it comes to nutrition.
So when you are going about your daily life
and making food choices and health choices,
you can just maybe be a little bit better equipped
to make these decisions in an educated way.
So what I am gonna be talking about in today’s video,
if you haven’t already seen the title,
is macronutrients which are carbohydrate, protein and fat.
So we are going back to the basics.
So our very first macronutrient is carbohydrate.
And carbs are basically made up of
either mono-, di-, polyor- even oligo-saccharides.
单糖 二糖 多糖以及低聚糖
And they are basically just sugar structures
that vary in complexity depending on the type of carbohydrate.
Foods that are rich in carbohydrate are gonna be any kind of grain product,
whether that is something that is made from flour
or just the intacted grain itself.
Fruit is also mainly just carbohydrates.
Any kind of starchy vegetables, so your peas, or your corn,
以及任何富含淀粉的蔬菜 例如豌豆 玉米等
those are very starchy, they contain a lot of carbohydrates.
So beans and…… or legumes, pretty much the same thing,
they contain a lot of starchyness as well,
so therefore they contain carbohydrate.
And also anything that is sugary,
so whether it’s like baked goods or sweet beverages,
anything that contains a lot of sugar
is also going to contain a lot of carbohydrates,
because sugar is a simple carbohydrate.
Probably the most important thing to understand when it comes to carbohydrates
is whether or not they are whole or refined.
And this typically just refers to grain products.
So whole grains are obviously any kind of grain that is intacted.
So if it’s, you know, oats, or quinoa
those are whole grains that are completely intacted.
Hum……but we also have whole grain products.
So whether it’s whole grain or whole wheat bread,
or any kind of bread product that’s made from whole wheat or whole grain flour.
With whole grains or whole grain products,
they pack a much more nutritious punch,
because they are far less processed than their cousin “refined carbohydrates”.
And therefore they still have a lot of their fibre
and their nutrients are intacted.
Now when it comes to refined grains,
they are much more processed and refined down,
and therefore have fewer nutrients
and also are basically like no in void of fibre.
So basically how they refine grains is,
let’s just take like a wheat kernel for example,
it has an outer layer called the bran,
it also has an inner layer called the endosperm,
and then a germ in the middle,
which is kinda of like a nucleus,
this is how I like to think of it in a cell.
And germ is where like the nutrition is at,
that’s where all of the nutrients are.
And also the bran has,uh……contains a lot of fibre.
So when they make refined flour or any kind of refined grain,
what they do is they take off the bran,
and then they pull out the germ,
and they just leave the endosperm
which is just like starchy, white, fluffy,
也就是那个白色 松软 富含淀粉的部分
doesn’t really have much going on.
So that is how they refine grains down
and that is the reason why they are
hmm…… have fewer nutrients and a lot less fibre.
Carbohydrates are also the easiest to digest of all three macronutrients.
They are broken down in our bodies pretty quickly.
The digestion of carbonhydrates actually starts in our mouth,
which is the only macronutrient, hmm…… the breakdown starts in our mouth.
Just because they are basically simpler structures in comparison to protein and fat,
and they can just be broken down and digested much faster,
so they are not going to hold you over as longer as the other two.
And on top of that, if it’s a refined carbohydrate
that has a lot of fibre taken out,
it’s gonna be able to be broken down even faster.
It’s gonna actually really negatively impact your blood sugar.
Because the faster those carbohydrates break down into sugar,
which is their smallest most basic molecule,
all of that sugar is just going to flood into your blood stream.
But that is for another topic
cause I am gonna be doing a whole video on blood sugar.
So stay tuned for that.
Next up we have protein, so protein is made up of amino acids.
There are 20 types of amino acids in total,
but there are actually 9 amino acids that are “essential”,
meaning that we can not create them in our body.
The other 11 amino acids we can shift some things around and create
but 9 essential amino acids we actually have to consume in the diet
in order to have them in our bodies.
So protein is in so many foods, it really is in almost everything,
whether it’s a big amount or a small amount, it can be found in most foods.
However the foods that are most concentrated in protein,
or considered as protein food,
would be animal products, so that would be meats, or eggs, or dairy,
包括动物类产品 比如猪肉 鸡蛋 牛奶这些
and then also fish, any kind of seafood also is going to pack a lot of protein.
And then also good plant sources of protein would be nuts and seeds.
And then also legumes, which is like all of your beans.
Unlike carbohydrates, proteins are more difficult for our bodies to digest and break down.
Therefore, they help us to feel fuller longer or you know, increase our satiety.
So when we eat protein at each meal or snack,
it really helps to, you know, boost up that feeling of fullness
and then it helps to last for a long time as well.
Our third macronutrient is fats.
Fats seem to be getting a lot of attention nowadays,
and honestly for a good reason, our bodies need fat.
Actually in every single one of our trillions of cells,
our cell membranes are actually phospholipid bilayers,
basically meaning they are made up of fat,
they keep the water in and also out, so it’s how our cells stay intacted.
That is just one of the reasons that fats are so integral
in our body structures and systems and functions.
So all fats are made up of a what’s called glycerol backbone
and there are three fatty acids that are attached.
So the fatty acids that are attached could be
short chain, medium chain or long chain.
And then fats in general can be saturated,
they can be unsatuated,
they can also be trans fats.
So there is really a whole lot of variety when it comes to fat structures.
Trans fats are typically man-made or lab-made,
and they are almost completely eradicated from our food supply,
because they are just so terrible for our health, especially our cardiac health.
But saturated fats and unsaturated fats are still plentiful
in our diets and in our food systems.
And if you wanna know more about that kinda of debate,
and also like long chain and medium chain fatty acids that whole conversation
I talked about that in depth in my coconut oil video,
whether or not you should eat coconut oil.
And I also looked all of the current research, regarding that whole debate.
So if you guys are curious about that, you can go watch that video
cause it’s very in depth and thorough.
I’m just not gonna touch on that here, cause I just already have done it.
and it’s a long conversation to be had.
Similar to proteins, there are essential fatty acids
that we can not synthesize in the body,
and therefore have to consume in the diet.
And those are linoleic acids (or our omega-6),
and alpha-linolenic acids (or our omega-3).
So some fat containing foods would be avocados, nuts and seeds,
nut butters, or oils, so like avocado oil or olive oil, coconut oil things like that.
坚果黄油或油类 比如牛油果油 橄榄油 椰子油等
Also any kind of animal fats, so whether it’s fatty meats, or eggs or butter,
此外任何动物脂肪 不管是肥肉 鸡蛋或黄油
anything like that, or even dairy if it doesn’t have the fat skimmed out.
Also chocolate is a pretty good source of fat as well.
And just like proteins, fats also are more difficult to break down in the body.
And therefore they give us that satiation,
or that feeling of fullness for a long time.
Fats also take the longest to be recognized by the body during digestion,
so you’re not going to feel as full of a like,
you know, a really high fat meal or snack
as quickly as you would off of something that’s full of carbohydrates or protein.
So you wanna definitely, you know, something keep in mind, something be aware.
If you’re having a meal or snack that is really fatty,
you may want to scale back on the portion sides,
or just eat extra mindfully so that you don’t overeat.
Because you’re just not gonna feel as full as quickly
when there is a lot of fat that’s involved in that meal.
So that is made for nutrition 101 of macronutrients.
I hope that you guys found this video helpful.
Nutrition is complex and it’s complicated.
And to make matters worse it’s always changing.
Because it’s a science.
But I hope with these videos, I can just help you guys
a basic foundation when it comes to just nutrition knowledge,
understanding food and how it interacts with the body.
Because it is so important,
and it is like my life’s mission to make everyone
just a more competent and educated eater.
If you did enjoy this video, please give it a thumbs up,
because it helps me out and also
let’s me know that you guys like this type of video.
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have you as part of the fam, I would absolutely love it.
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I’m on there most days out of the week,
and I would love to hang out with you on there as well.
But that’s all for today’s video,
thank you guys for watching this video today,
and I hope to see you in the next one, bye!
Hey guys, welcome back to my channel.