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营养学101:#1 大量营养素

MACRONUTRIENTS: THE BASICS | Nutrition 101 Ep. 1

Hey guys, welcome back to my channel.
嗨朋友们 欢迎回到我的频道
If you guys are new here, welcome, my name is Becca,
如果你是第一次看我的视频 十分欢迎 我是贝卡
and I am a registered dietitian.
我是一名注册营养师
And I make lots of videos here on my channel about
在我的频道里
nutrition and health, wellness and
有很多关于营养和健康的视频
a little bit of lifestyle as well.
也有一些关于生活方式的视频
But today’s video is actually going be the start of my new series
但是今天我们要开启一个全新系列
which is going to just be nutrition 101.
叫做营养学101
So basically with this series,
在这个系列里
I just wanna go back to basics
我会谈到比较基础的知识
and just go through like very basic principles of nutrition,
比如介绍一些营养学的基本原理
whether it’s food or just has to do with biology.
既有和食物相关的 也有和生物学相关的
I feel like to me this is common sense,
对我来说这都是常识
and it’s just ’cause I’ve been taught already.
因为我学习过这方面的知识
And I now wanna teach you guys
现在我想把这些知识分享给你们
so that you just have this, you know,
这样你们也可以具备
basic knowledge when it comes to nutrition.
基本的营养知识
So when you are going about your daily life
当你在日常生活中
and making food choices and health choices,
需要在食品和健康方面作出选择的时候
you can just maybe be a little bit better equipped
你就会有能力
to make these decisions in an educated way.
从更科学的角度做决定
So what I am gonna be talking about in today’s video,
所以今天视频的内容
if you haven’t already seen the title,
如果你还没看过标题的话
is macronutrients which are carbohydrate, protein and fat.
是包括碳水化合物 蛋白质和脂肪在内的大量营养素
So we are going back to the basics.
下面我们开始介绍基础知识
So our very first macronutrient is carbohydrate.
第一个要讲到的大量营养素是碳水化合物
And carbs are basically made up of
碳水化合物的基本组成包括
either mono-, di-, polyor- even oligo-saccharides.
单糖 二糖 多糖以及低聚糖
And they are basically just sugar structures
它们基本上都是糖类结构
that vary in complexity depending on the type of carbohydrate.
其复杂程度取决于碳水化合物的类型
Foods that are rich in carbohydrate are gonna be any kind of grain product,
碳水化合物含量比较高的食物包括所有谷物产品
whether that is something that is made from flour
无论是用面粉做的食物
or just the intacted grain itself.
还是未加工过的谷物本身
Fruit is also mainly just carbohydrates.
还有水果也是主要由碳水化合物组成
Any kind of starchy vegetables, so your peas, or your corn,
以及任何富含淀粉的蔬菜 例如豌豆 玉米等
those are very starchy, they contain a lot of carbohydrates.
淀粉含量高的食物就会含有大量碳水化合物
So beans and…… or legumes, pretty much the same thing,
所以豆子或者说豆科植物 成分都差不多
they contain a lot of starchyness as well,
它们都含有大量淀粉
so therefore they contain carbohydrate.
也就是含有大量碳水化合物
And also anything that is sugary,
另外 任何含糖的食物
so whether it’s like baked goods or sweet beverages,
无论是烘焙食品还是甜甜的饮料
anything that contains a lot of sugar
任何含糖量高的食物
is also going to contain a lot of carbohydrates,
也含有很多碳水化合物
because sugar is a simple carbohydrate.
因为糖本身就是一种简单的碳水化合物
Probably the most important thing to understand when it comes to carbohydrates
了解食物中的碳水化合物最重要的一点
is whether or not they are whole or refined.
是判断它们是否经过加工
And this typically just refers to grain products.
这通常是指谷物产品
So whole grains are obviously any kind of grain that is intacted.
全谷物明显就是一种未经加工的谷物
So if it’s, you know, oats, or quinoa
比如常见的燕麦或藜麦
those are whole grains that are completely intacted.
它们是完全未经加工的全谷物
Hum……but we also have whole grain products.
还有一些全谷物产品
So whether it’s whole grain or whole wheat bread,
无论是全谷物还是全麦面包
or any kind of bread product that’s made from whole wheat or whole grain flour.
或者是用全麦粉或者全谷物粉制作的面包
With whole grains or whole grain products,
全谷物或者全谷物产品
they pack a much more nutritious punch,
它们的营养物质要更多一些
because they are far less processed than their cousin “refined carbohydrates”.
因为它们的加工过程远少于“精制碳水化合物”
And therefore they still have a lot of their fibre
所以它们的纤维含量很高
and their nutrients are intacted.
营养成分也没有被破坏
Now when it comes to refined grains,
但是精制谷物
they are much more processed and refined down,
经历了更多的加工和提炼
and therefore have fewer nutrients
它们的营养成分变少了
and also are basically like no in void of fibre.
且缺少纤维
So basically how they refine grains is,
比方说在小麦加工的时候
let’s just take like a wheat kernel for example,
会把它们的外壳剥掉
it has an outer layer called the bran,
小麦的最外层叫做麦麸
it also has an inner layer called the endosperm,
里面一层叫做胚乳
and then a germ in the middle,
最中间是胚芽
which is kinda of like a nucleus,
这有点像细胞核
this is how I like to think of it in a cell.
如果把它想像成一个细胞
And germ is where like the nutrition is at,
营养都集中在
that’s where all of the nutrients are.
胚芽所在的位置
And also the bran has,uh……contains a lot of fibre.
而麦麸中含有很多纤维
So when they make refined flour or any kind of refined grain,
但是厂家在精制面粉或任何精制谷物的制作过程中
what they do is they take off the bran,
会把麦麸去掉
and then they pull out the germ,
然后把胚芽取出来
and they just leave the endosperm
只留下胚乳
which is just like starchy, white, fluffy,
也就是那个白色 松软 富含淀粉的部分
doesn’t really have much going on.
基本上就没剩下什么了
So that is how they refine grains down
这就是精加工谷物的过程
and that is the reason why they are
这也是为什么精制谷物
hmm…… have fewer nutrients and a lot less fibre.
既缺乏营养又缺乏纤维
Carbohydrates are also the easiest to digest of all three macronutrients.
在三种大量营养素中 碳水化合物是最容易被消化的
They are broken down in our bodies pretty quickly.
它们可以在体内快速分解
The digestion of carbonhydrates actually starts in our mouth,
碳水化合物的消化过程从进入口腔就开始了
which is the only macronutrient, hmm…… the breakdown starts in our mouth.
它们也是唯一一种在口腔就开始消化的大量营养素
Just because they are basically simpler structures in comparison to protein and fat,
这是因为碳水化合物的结构比蛋白质和脂肪更简单
and they can just be broken down and digested much faster,
比较容易分解 消化起来也就更快
so they are not going to hold you over as longer as the other two.
因此它不像其他两种那么耐饥
And on top of that, if it’s a refined carbohydrate
另外 去除了纤维的
that has a lot of fibre taken out,
精制碳水化合物
it’s gonna be able to be broken down even faster.
它会(在体内)分解得更快
It’s gonna actually really negatively impact your blood sugar.
这实际上会对你的血糖产生负面影响
Because the faster those carbohydrates break down into sugar,
因为碳水化合物越快地分解为糖
which is their smallest most basic molecule,
这些小分子
all of that sugar is just going to flood into your blood stream.
就会全部涌到血液当中
But that is for another topic
当然这是另一个话题了
cause I am gonna be doing a whole video on blood sugar.
我后面会制作一个关于血糖的视频
So stay tuned for that.
敬请期待哦
Next up we have protein, so protein is made up of amino acids.
下一个是蛋白质 蛋白质由氨基酸组成的
There are 20 types of amino acids in total,
氨基酸共有20种
but there are actually 9 amino acids that are “essential”,
但只有9种是“必需的”
meaning that we can not create them in our body.
也就是说我们体内无法合成这9种氨基酸
The other 11 amino acids we can shift some things around and create
其他11种可以通过物质转化体内合成
but 9 essential amino acids we actually have to consume in the diet
但是这9种必需氨基酸
in order to have them in our bodies.
只能从食物中获取
So protein is in so many foods, it really is in almost everything,
蛋白质非常常见 几乎存在于所有食物
whether it’s a big amount or a small amount, it can be found in most foods.
只是有的含量高 有的含量低
However the foods that are most concentrated in protein,
富含蛋白质或者说
or considered as protein food,
被称为蛋白质食品的食物
would be animal products, so that would be meats, or eggs, or dairy,
包括动物类产品 比如猪肉 鸡蛋 牛奶这些
and then also fish, any kind of seafood also is going to pack a lot of protein.
还有鱼类 任何海鲜食品的蛋白质含量都很高
And then also good plant sources of protein would be nuts and seeds.
另外 坚果和种子是比较优质的植物蛋白质来源
And then also legumes, which is like all of your beans.
豆科植物也是 比如说所有的豆类
Unlike carbohydrates, proteins are more difficult for our bodies to digest and break down.
不同于碳水化合物 蛋白质在体内的消化分解要更难一些
Therefore, they help us to feel fuller longer or you know, increase our satiety.
因此 它能帮助我们长时间维持饱腹感或者说增加饱腹感
So when we eat protein at each meal or snack,
所以当我们在每顿饭或者零食中摄入蛋白质的时候
it really helps to, you know, boost up that feeling of fullness
它真的可以帮你增强饱腹感
and then it helps to last for a long time as well.
并长时间维持饱腹感
Our third macronutrient is fats.
我们要说的第三种大量营养素是脂肪
Fats seem to be getting a lot of attention nowadays,
现在脂肪得到了越来越多的关注
and honestly for a good reason, our bodies need fat.
老实说 我们的身体需要脂肪
Actually in every single one of our trillions of cells,
事实上 我们有数以万亿的体细胞
our cell membranes are actually phospholipid bilayers,
每个细胞的细胞膜都由磷脂双分子层组成
basically meaning they are made up of fat,
也就是说它们是由脂肪组成的
they keep the water in and also out, so it’s how our cells stay intacted.
它们可以控制水分子的进出 从而使我们细胞保持完整
That is just one of the reasons that fats are so integral
这也只是脂肪在我们身体的结构 系统和功能中
in our body structures and systems and functions.
不可或缺的原因之一
So all fats are made up of a what’s called glycerol backbone
脂肪的组成包括一个甘油主链
and there are three fatty acids that are attached.
和相连的三个脂肪酸
So the fatty acids that are attached could be
相连的脂肪酸可以是
short chain, medium chain or long chain.
短链 中链或者长链
And then fats in general can be saturated,
大部分脂肪都是饱和的
they can be unsatuated,
也可以是不饱和的
they can also be trans fats.
也可以是反式脂肪
So there is really a whole lot of variety when it comes to fat structures.
因此脂肪结构有很多不同类型
Trans fats are typically man-made or lab-made,
反式脂肪通常是人造的或实验室制造的
and they are almost completely eradicated from our food supply,
它们不会存在于我们的食物当中
because they are just so terrible for our health, especially our cardiac health.
因为它们会损害我们的健康 尤其是心脏
But saturated fats and unsaturated fats are still plentiful
不过饱和脂肪和不饱和脂肪会大量存在于
in our diets and in our food systems.
我们的日常饮食中
And if you wanna know more about that kinda of debate,
如果你想了解关于这部分的一些争论
and also like long chain and medium chain fatty acids that whole conversation
或者是关于长链和中链脂肪酸的介绍
I talked about that in depth in my coconut oil video,
在视频你是否应该食用椰子油中
whether or not you should eat coconut oil.
我都有详细讨论
And I also looked all of the current research, regarding that whole debate.
根据这些争论内容 我查阅了近期所有的研究
So if you guys are curious about that, you can go watch that video
所以你如果感兴趣的话可以去看看那个视频
cause it’s very in depth and thorough.
里面讨论得很深入
I’m just not gonna touch on that here, cause I just already have done it.
之前提过 这里我们就不多说了
and it’s a long conversation to be had.
这会是个很长的话题
Similar to proteins, there are essential fatty acids
和蛋白质类似 有一些必需脂肪酸
that we can not synthesize in the body,
也是我们在体内无法合成的
and therefore have to consume in the diet.
因此我们必须通过日常饮食摄入它们
And those are linoleic acids (or our omega-6),
他们是亚油酸(或者说欧米伽-6)
and alpha-linolenic acids (or our omega-3).
和α-亚油酸(或者说欧米伽-3)
So some fat containing foods would be avocados, nuts and seeds,
含有脂肪的食物包括牛油果 坚果和种子
nut butters, or oils, so like avocado oil or olive oil, coconut oil things like that.
坚果黄油或油类 比如牛油果油 橄榄油 椰子油等
Also any kind of animal fats, so whether it’s fatty meats, or eggs or butter,
此外任何动物脂肪 不管是肥肉 鸡蛋或黄油
anything like that, or even dairy if it doesn’t have the fat skimmed out.
甚至是没有脱脂的奶制品都含有脂肪
Also chocolate is a pretty good source of fat as well.
巧克力也是一种非常好的脂肪来源
And just like proteins, fats also are more difficult to break down in the body.
和蛋白质一样 脂肪在身体里也是较难分解的
And therefore they give us that satiation,
因此它会带来饱腹感
or that feeling of fullness for a long time.
或长时间饱腹的感觉
Fats also take the longest to be recognized by the body during digestion,
在消化过程中 脂肪被识别的时间也是最长的
so you’re not going to feel as full of a like,
所以吃完高脂肪的食物
you know, a really high fat meal or snack
不会像吃完高碳水或者高蛋白的食物一样
as quickly as you would off of something that’s full of carbohydrates or protein.
很快感到饱腹
So you wanna definitely, you know, something keep in mind, something be aware.
所以你一定要记住
If you’re having a meal or snack that is really fatty,
如果你正在进行高脂肪饮食
you may want to scale back on the portion sides,
你可能想切去一部分
or just eat extra mindfully so that you don’t overeat.
或吃得时候注意一点 这样就不会吃太多
Because you’re just not gonna feel as full as quickly
因为当你的一餐中有很多的脂肪时
when there is a lot of fat that’s involved in that meal.
你不会很快地感觉到饱
So that is made for nutrition 101 of macronutrients.
以上就是营养学101的大量营养素部分
I hope that you guys found this video helpful.
我希望这个视频可以帮到你
Nutrition is complex and it’s complicated.
营养学知识很复杂
And to make matters worse it’s always changing.
而且作为一门科学
Because it’s a science.
它的内容也在不断更新
But I hope with these videos, I can just help you guys
但我还是希望可以通过这些视频帮到大家
a basic foundation when it comes to just nutrition knowledge,
对营养学知识有一个基本的了解
understanding food and how it interacts with the body.
了解食物和身体是如何相互影响的
Because it is so important,
因为这很重要
and it is like my life’s mission to make everyone
就像我的目标是让每一个人
just a more competent and educated eater.
成为一个更有能力 更有智慧的食客
If you did enjoy this video, please give it a thumbs up,
如果你喜欢这个视频 请给它点赞
because it helps me out and also
因为这对我有帮助
let’s me know that you guys like this type of video.
也能让我知道你们喜欢这类的视频
But if you have yet to subscribe,
如果你还没有订阅(我的视频)
I would absolutely love for you to join my little community here on Youtube,
诚邀你加入我的油管社区
have you as part of the fam, I would absolutely love it.
如果你已经加入 那我真的非常开心
And also you can follow me on Instagram and Snapchat.
另外 你们也可以在Ins和Snapchat上关注我
I’m on there most days out of the week,
我周内大多数时间都在线
and I would love to hang out with you on there as well.
我很喜欢在ins和Snapchat和你们互动
But that’s all for today’s video,
今天的视频到这就结束了
thank you guys for watching this video today,
感谢大家的收看
and I hope to see you in the next one, bye!
下个视频见 拜拜

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视频概述

糖类、蛋白质和脂肪是三种人体大量营养素,它们是由什么组成?在哪些食物里含量比较高吗?消化过程又有什么不同?来营养学101,跟注册营养师贝卡学习基本营养学知识,教你如何更聪明地进食。

听录译者

Cathy

翻译译者

一颗大橙子

审核员

审核员1024

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H0wvWMqDhA0

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