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人善如何不被欺?

Machiavelli’s Advice For Nice Guys

政治理论
马基雅维利对好人的忠告
马基雅维利是一位16世纪佛罗伦萨的政治思想家
Machiavelli was a 16th century Florentine political thinker
对那些没能取得多大成功的好人 他给出了强有力的建议
with powerful advice for nice people who don’t get very far.
他的思想围绕一个有点令人难以接受的中心观察事实为中心:
His thought pivots around a central , uncomfortable observation:
“坏人”更容易获得成功
that the “wicked” tend to win;
因为相比“好人” 他们有一个巨大的优势:
and they do so because they have a huge advantage over the “good”:
他们愿意用最黑暗的计谋、最狡诈的手段来推进他们的事业
they are willing to act with the darkest ingenuity and cunning to further their cause.
他们不会被这个从不改变的呆板的敌人所阻碍:原则
They are not held back by those rigid opponents of change: principles.
他们会说谎 弯曲事实 威胁别人 变得凶暴
They will be prepared to outright lie, twist facts, threaten, get violent.
当形势逼人时 他们也会采用诱惑欺骗 利用个人魅力和甜言蜜语 把别人搞得晕头转向 心不在焉
They will also, when the situation demands it, know how to seductively deceive, use charm and honeyed words, bedazzle and distract.
就这样他们征服了世界
And in this way they conquer the world.
一般认为做一个好人很大程度上就意味着行为端正
It’s routinely assumed that a large part of what it means to be a good person is that one acts well.
不仅要取得好结果
One doesn’t only have good ends;
还要忠实于好途径
one is committed to good means.
所以 一个人如果想要一个更严肃认真的世界 就得靠严肃认真的说理来赢得人心 而不是投机取巧
So, if one wants a more serious world, one needs to win people over through serious argument, not click bait.
如果想要一个更加公平的世界
If one wants a fairer world, one has to
就得采用明智温和的办法说服不公平的机构心甘情愿地认输 而非恐吓
judiciously and gently try to persuade the agents of injustice to surrender willingly, not through intimidation.
如果一个人想让人们善良 就得对他的敌人善良 而不是残忍
And if one wants people to be kind, one must show kindness to one’s enemies, not ruthlessness.
这听起来好极了
It sounds splendid.
但是马基雅维利无法忽视一个不容置喙的问题:这根本不起作用
But Machiavelli couldn’t overlook an incontrovertible problem: it doesn’t work.
当他整体回顾佛罗伦萨和意大利的历史时
As he looked back over the history of Florence and the Italian states more generally,
他发现好王子、政治家、商人的境况总会很困窘
he observed that nice princes, statesmen, and merchants always come unstuck.
他为此写下一本书——也是我们今天得以了解他的原因——《君主论》
That’s why he wrote the book for which we know him today: “The Prince”,
一本指导性情良善的君主如何不自掘坟墓的实用谏言书 简短但内容丰富
a short, dazzling manual of advice for well disposed princes on how not to finish last.
简短地说 答案就是要尽善尽美 但不要拘泥于此
And the answer, in short, is to be as nice as one wished, but never to be overly devoted to acting nicely,
事实上 在必要的时候 要知道如何借用世界上最愤世嫉俗
and indeed to know how to borrow, when need to be, every single trick employed by the most cynical,
最卑鄙 最肆无忌惮 最恶毒的人用过的每一个诡计
dastardly, unscrupulous, and nastiest people who have ever lived.
马基雅维利了解人们那些总是适得其反的为善执念是如何产生的
Machiavelli knew where our counterproductive obsession with acting nicely originated.
西方人是在万世救主耶稣的慈悲为怀的故事熏陶下长大的
The West was brought up on the Christian story of Jesus of Nazareth,
这个来自加利利的好人总是与人为善 最后成为了万王之王、永恒之主
the very nice man from Galilee who always treated people well and wounded up as the king of kings and the ruler of eternity.
但是马基雅维利指出 在这个让人慨然喟然的传说中 虽然最终善良采用温和的手段取得了胜利 但有一个麻烦的细节:
But Machiavelli pointed out one inconvenient detail to this sentimental tale of the triumph of goodness through meekness:
从现实角度看 耶稣的人生是一个彻底的悲剧
from the practical perspective Jesus’ life was an outright disaster.
这个高尚的灵魂被践踏和蔑视 被轻视和嘲笑
This gentle soul was trampled upon and humiliated, disregarded and mocked,
从他的一生来看 抛开所有神圣的光环 他是历史上最失败的人之一
judged in his lifetime and outside of any divine assistance, he was one of history’s greatest losers.
获得实际影响力的关键就在于克服这个故事中出现的种种困难
The clue to being effective lies in overcoming all vestiges of this story.
《君主论》并非像人们惯常臆断的那样 是一本成为暴君的指南
“The Prince” was not, as is often thought, a guide to being a tyrant;
而是一本关于好人应该向暴君学习什么的指南
it’s a guide about what nice people should learn from tyrants.
一本告诉你如何获得实际影响力而非仅仅做个好人的书
It’s a book about how to be effective-not just good.
一本引用了很多纯良却无能的人的例子的书
It’s a book haunted by examples of the impotence of the pure.
世人敬仰的君主——今天我们可能还要加上CEO 政治运动家 思想家
The admirable prince- and today we might add CEO, political activist, or thinker-
应该从身边最圆滑、最狡诈的操纵者身上学习每一课
should learn every lesson from the slickest and most devious operators around.
他们应该知道如何恐吓和威胁 哄骗和欺凌 下套和诱骗
They should know how to scare and intimidate, cajole and bully, entrap and beguile.
好政治家要向坏政治家学习 真诚的企业家要向圆滑的企业家学习
The good politician needs to learn from the bad one, the earnest entrepreneur-from the slick one.
最终是我们所取得的成就决定我们是谁 而不是想象的蓝图
We are all, ultimately, the sum of what we achieve, not, what we intend.
如果我们注重智慧、善良、认真和美德
If we care about wisdom, kindness, seriousness, and virtue,
但却拘泥于此 最终 我们会像马基雅维利警告的那样一无所成
but only ever act wisely, kindly, seriously, and virtuously, we will, Machiavelli warns us, get nowhere.
我们要从意料之外的地方学习 比如那些我们心底最为蔑视的人
We need to learn lessons from an unexpected source: those we temperamentally most despise.
关于如何实现内心的渴望他们能教会我们最多 但他们也在竭力阻挡我们实现这渴望
They have the most to teach us about how to bring about the reality we yearn for, but, that they are fighting against.
我们需要与他们势均力敌的武器
We need weapons of similar grade steel to theirs.
最终 我们应该更注重取得实际成效 而非灵魂崇高
Ultimately, we should care more about being effective than about being nobly intentioned.
是时候想点实际的目标了 真正来衡量我们的是我们所取得的成就
It’s now enough to dream well. The true measure is what we achieve.
目的是让世界更美好 而不是栖居在美好的意图和温暖的心灵所带来的宁静的安慰中
The purpose is to change the world for the better, not reside in the quiet comforts of good intentions and a warm heart.
这一切马基雅维利都懂 他之所以打破我们内心的平静 是因为他洞察我们的自私自利之处
All this Machiavelli knew. He disturbs us for good reason because he probes us where we are at our most self-serving.
我们告诉自己之所以我们没成功是因为我们太纯洁、太好、太善良
We tell ourselves we didn’t get there because we’re a little too pure, good, and kind.
马基雅维利的话如醍醐灌顶 让我们明白了我们困窘是因为我们目光太短浅
Machiavelli bracingly informs us we are stuck because we have been too short sighted
以至于从不愿向真正有见识的人去学习:我们的敌人
to learn from those who really know: our enemies.

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视频概述

我们从小就被教导要做一个好人,要恪守美德,保持正直、善良、真诚、公正,但是事实上成功的却总是坏人,为什么?好人应该怎么办?

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GTQlnmWCPgA

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