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一个跟踪和终结污染的交互式地图

Ma Jun: An interactive map to track (and end) pollution in China | TED

Choking smog, polluted waters, climate change.
令人窒息的雾霾 污染的水域 气候变化
This has been the environmental cost
这就是过去40年
of the tremendous growth in China over the past 40 years.
中国经济飞速发展所付出的环境成本
At the same time,
与此同时
hundreds of millions of people have put themselves out of poverty.
数以亿计的人摆脱了贫困
As an environmentalist in China, I have witnessed all of this firsthand.
作为中国环保主义者我亲眼目睹了这一切
The challenge we’re facing is:
我们面临的挑战是
Can we clean up as fast and as broadly
我们能否以目前快速发展的速度
as the massive development degrading our air, water and climate?
来净化空气 水源 改善气候
China has one point four billion people,
中国有14亿人口
still a fast-growing economy,
经济仍在快速增长
and is responsible for the biggest share of the current greenhouse gas emissions.
在目前温室气体排放份额中占比最大
China knows its global responsibility
中国知道自己的全球责任
and has pledged to be carbon-neutral by 2060.
并承诺到2060年实现碳中和
It means more than 10 billion metric tons of carbon emissions
这意味着超过100亿公吨的碳排放
must be stopped or be neutralized.
必须被阻止排放或被中和
How can we possibly do it?
我们怎么可能做到呢?
The pressing global climate situation requires each of us not just to do it,
全球气候严峻的形势要求每个人不仅要做
but to do it faster.
而且要做得更快
I believe there’s a chance for us to succeed,
我相信我们有机会成功
as I know it too,
我也知道我们会成功
now that I have seen work
因为我已经看到了
to help reduce the enormous environmental pollution.
为减少大量环境污染物做出的努力
It is the power of transparency,
这是透明度的力量
pollution information made public using mobile internet and other IT technologies
使用移动互联网和其他IT技术公开的污染信息
may empower millions of citizens to speed change
可以让数百万公民
by holding corporations and government agencies accountable.
通过问责公司和政府机构来加速变革
I personally got involved in the transparency drive
我个人参与了
for water pollution control.
水污染控制的透明度运动
Years ago, beside Lake Tai,
多年前
the third largest freshwater lake in China,
在中国第三大淡水湖太湖旁
I saw a group of fishermen using long ladles to scoop out the algae bloom.
我看到一群渔民用长柄勺舀出海藻
One fisherman said to me, “When I was young, on a hot day like this,
一个渔夫对我说 “幼时我在这样的大热天
I would have jumped into the lake for a bath.”
会跳进湖里洗澡”
“But now,” he said, “the fish are gone,
他说:“但是现在鱼都没有了
and we are paid to scoop out the algae.
我们被雇来清理海藻”
Pointing to those factories not far from the shoreline,
他指着那些离海岸线不远的工厂说
he said the lake would not be clean until they stop dumping.
只有他们停止排污 湖水才会变清澈
Years of research made me understand how hard it is to check the dumping.
多年的研究让我懂得核查排污工作有多难
With weak enforcement,
由于执法不力
the cost of violations was often too low,
违规的成本往往过低
and those who cut corners became more competitive in the market.
那些偷工减料的人在市场上变得更有竞争力
This region happens to be one of the biggest centers
这个地区恰好是
of the global supply chain for electronic gadgets and for clothes.
全球电子产品和服装供应链的最大中心之一
But those multinational brands sourcing locally
但那些在中国本土采购的跨国品牌
were not very helpful at the beginning.
一开始起到的作用不大
Many would argue, “In China, I don’t know who is polluting,
很多人会说 “在中国我不知道谁在污染环境
so I would buy from the cheapest.”
所以我会买最便宜的”
This is going to add further pressure on those local suppliers
这将进一步加大那些本地供应商的压力
to race down to the bottom for their contracts.
迫使他们竞相以最低价格获得合同
But I told them I have a map
但我告诉他们我有张地图
that can help them figure out who is polluting.
可以帮他们找出谁在污染
From 2006,
从2006年开始
we began to compile corporate monitoring data
我们开始将企业监控数据
data into a database known as the Blue Map.
汇编成一个名为“蓝色地图”的数据库
We started with only two thousand records of violations,
我们开始时只有2000条违规记录
but through years of promotion of enforcement and transparency,
但经过多年的执法力度和透明度的提升
that number has topped two million.
这个数字已经超过了200万
The missing dots
当一群(电子)和纺织品牌
in the global supply chain’s environmental management
开始将他们的供应商名单
began to be connected when a group of [electronic] and textile brands
与我们的违规者名单进行比较时
started comparing their list of suppliers with our list of violators.
全球供应链环境管理中缺失的点开始联系起来
Let me explain how it works.
让我来解释一下它是如何工作的
This is the Blue Map for the Yangtze River Delta,
这是长江三角洲的蓝色地图
which covers the Lake Tai region.
覆盖了太湖地区
Each individual factory —
每一家工厂
and there are tens of thousands of them —
成千上万的工厂
is color coded.
都有颜色编码
Blue and green for “good,” red and yellow for “bad.”
蓝色和绿色代表“优” 红色和黄色代表“差”
The color codes are derived from the violations on record
颜色代码来源于记录在案的违规行为
and the confirmed public reporting.
和经过证实的公开报道
And we have put more than four million
我们已经在数字地图上标出了
of such dots on the digital map,
四百多万个这样的点
all color coded.
全部标记了颜色
Still, how can a map make change?
但是一张地图能改变什么?
This is one of the largest dyehouse suppliers.
这是最大的染坊供应商之一
It used to have multiple violation records,
它过去有多次违规记录
but insisted if they treat the waste but not their neighbors,
他们坚称如果自己处理废水 而其他工厂不处理
they would lose their business.
他们就会没有订单
But then five brands, starting from Gap,
但随后从Gap开始的5个品牌
all told this company it would lose their business
都告诉这家公司如果不妥善处理垃圾
if it would not treat the waste properly.
就会失去业务
Realizing that the sourcing code has changed,
意识到供应链的规则已经发生改变
the company spent millions of dollars
该公司花费了数百万美元
to bring more than 12 million metric tons
将超过1200多万吨
of textile wastewater contaminated by dyes and chemicals up to standards,
被染料和化学品污染的纺织废水处理达标
and then made further investments to cut the volume of wastewater.
然后进一步投资 以减少废水量
We did the same thing,
我们与当地的合作伙伴
along with our local partners, such as Green Jiangnan,
如绿色江南以及为苹果 戴尔 华为
with the electronic industry suppliers
和其他主要品牌生产零部件的电子行业供应商
that manufacture parts for Apple, Dell, Huawei and other major brands.
也进行了合作
Here is one of the largest [electronic] suppliers,
这里是最大的〔电子〕供应商之一
dredging the local canal to remove the heavy metals dumped in it.
正在疏浚当地运河以清除倾倒在河里的重金属
Victories like this build upon each other
这样的胜利建立在
to enable the supply chain management
彼此都在相同供应链管理
to reach further upstream through the supply chain,
能够通过供应链进一步向上游延伸
from garment factories to fabric mills to dyehouses to the dye manufacturers.
从服装厂到纺织厂 从染坊到染料制造商
Today, the color codes can mean the difference
如今颜色代码可以表示从大银行
between a company that secures a loan from a major bank,
获得贷款的公司
like the Postal Bank of China,
和没有获得贷款的公司之间的区别
and one that does not.
比如中国邮政银行的贷款
The application of the Blue Map data,
蓝色地图的数据
in green supply chain and green finance,
在绿色供应链和绿色金融领域的应用
has motivated more than fourteen thousand companies
已经促使1.4万多家公司
to address their violations or make disclosure.
解决了违规问题或进行披露
The scope of environmental transparency got further extended in China
雾霾威胁了数亿人健康
during its epic fighting against the severe smog,
在这场浩大的战斗中
which used to expose hundreds of millions of people to health hazards.
中国环境透明度的范围进一步扩大
In response to the public demand for disclosure,
为了满足公众对信息披露的要求
corporate online monitoring data were made open every hour or every two hours.
企业在线监控数据每小时或每两小时开放一次
The first of its kind in the world.
这是世界上第一个
At the same time, people were acquiring cell phones across China,
与此同时 中国各地的人们都在使用手机
so we developed a cell phone app
所以我们开发了一个手机应用程序
to enable people to access the air and water quality data.
使人们能够获得空气和水质数据
But the most unique function of the Blue Map app
但是蓝色地图应用程序最独特的功能
is for our users to access the records of emitters,
是供我们的用户查阅排放者的记录
then share through social media, tagging the official account.
然后在社交媒体上分享给官方帐号
Such kind of a microreporting
这样的微报告
has motivated some of the largest emitters to change behavior.
促使一些排放大量污染物的企业做出了改变
This is one of them,
这就是其中之一
a listed steel plant which used to breach the standards repeatedly.
一家曾多次违反标准的上市钢铁厂
The microreporting filed by the local Blue Map users and NGOs
由当地蓝色地图用户和非政府组织提交的微报告
has got a local agency to weigh in and require this company to clean up.
已经让当地机构介入并要求这公司进行清理
Eventually, the steel plant spent more than one billion dollars
最终 这家钢铁厂花费了十亿多美元
to make a very deep cut in its air emissions,
大幅度减少废气的排放
a contribution to the significant improvement of air quality
为显著改善包括北京在内的广阔区域
in a vast airshed, which includes my city, Beijing.
的空气质量做出了贡献
Despite all the successes,
尽管我们取得了一些成功
I have to acknowledge our mission is far from being accomplished.
但我必须承认我们的使命远未完成
There are still more than two million records of violations in the Blue Map.
在蓝色地图上仍有超过20万的违规报告
Today, we face massive tension between
今天 我们面临着环境保护
environmental protection and economic recovery,
和经济复苏之间激烈的冲突
brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic
这是由新冠疫情
as well as the looming climate catastrophe.
和令人生畏的气候灾难造成的
There’s a strong temptation, In local regions and cities,
某些城市和部分地区在强大的诱惑之下
to relax environmental regulations,
放宽了保护环境的要求
which has resulted already in a rather big rebound of the carbon emissions.
这已经导致了碳排放的大幅反弹
So China’s 2060 carbon neutrality pledge came at a critical moment.
因此在关键时刻中国做出了2060年碳中和承诺
But the implementation of it wouldn’t be easy.
但是实施起来并不容易
Remember the steel plant that already spent one billion dollars to clean up?
还记得那个已经花费十亿美元处理排放物的钢铁厂吗?
Now the new task is for us to review with it how to tackle
现在我们的新任务是审视
the 10 million metric tons of carbon emission.
如何应对这1000万吨的碳排放
And this is just zero point one percent
而这仅仅是我们在中国
of the carbon emissions that we need to stop or neutralize in China.
需要阻止或中和的碳排放的百分之零点一
Again, we must tap into the power of transparency.
我们必须再次利用透明度的力量
My team and I have launched a Blue Map for Zero Carbon,
我和我的团队已经发布了一份零碳的蓝色地图
a database that needs to bring China’s long-term national commitment
一个需要把中国的长期国家承诺
down to where that 10 billion tons of carbon are actually emitted.
降低到实际排放100亿吨的数据库
This is how a zero-carbon map looks like.
这就是零碳地图的样子
Each province and city is color-coded based on its level of emission.
每个省和城市根据其排放水平进行颜色标记
With trend analysis,
通过趋势分析
tracking when and at what level the carbon will peak and stop growing.
检测碳排放在什么时候达到峰值停止增长
As you can see, the cities of Beijing, Shanghai, are on track,
如你所见 北京 上海等城市正步入正轨
while others like Tangshan, like Yinchuan, still have a long way to go.
而其他像唐山 银川等仍有很长的路要走
To generate peer pressure and incentives
为了给企业带来同行业的压力和激励
we’re working wit h our partner, the Chinese Academy of Environmental Science,
我和我的同伴 中国政府环境研究部门
in assessing the local climate ambition,
共同研究了主要省市的气候 发展规划
performance and carbon-decoupling trends of major provinces,
和当地能源企业 材料企业过往表现
cities and energy and raw-material companies.
和碳排放量的趋势
One clear gap we identified is the lack of capacity i
一个明显的缺陷是 我们在量化污染
n measuring and reporting.
并公开报道的能力方面有所欠缺
Along with other partners,
我们与其他伙伴
we developed a digital carbon accounting platform.
共同开发了数字碳核算平台
So far, more than five thousand companies
到目前为止 已经有超过五千家公司
have been motivated by brands and banks
受到品牌和银行的激励
to calculate and report their carbon emissions or local emissions.
计算和报告他们的碳排放量或当地的排放量
But my dream is to empower millions of more businesses,
但我的梦想是让更多的成千上万的企业
to measure and to report and to reduce their emissions.
去衡量 去报告 去减少它们的排放
Bear in mind many of them are part of this global supply chain.
请记住它们中的许多都是全球供应链的一部分
If you know the product you consume day in and day out,
如果你知道你每天消耗的产品
often has 70 percent or more,
在供应链中碳足迹
and sometimes to up to 90 percent, of their carbon footprint
的70%或更多
in the supply chain,
有时甚至高达90%
would you join our efforts in motivating the big brands
你是否愿意加入我们的行列
and banks and investors
推动大品牌 银行和投资者
to green their global sourcing and investment?
实现全球采购和投资的绿色环保?
And it’s not just carbon.
不仅仅是碳
Today, we further expand the Blue Map
今天 我们进一步扩大蓝色底图
to cover waste and plastics and even biodiversity
将废物 塑料甚至生物多样性包括在内
so as to empower more people to join
以便让更多的人加入
this unprecedented global race to zero.
这场前所未有的全球零排放碳竞赛
The prize for winning this ongoing race is
赢得这场正在进行的比赛的奖励就是
nothing less than a better world for this generation and for the generations to come.
给这一代和未来一代人一个更好的世界
For mankind and for all the plants and animals that call this planet their home.
为了人类 也为了以这个星球为家的动植物
Thank you.
谢谢

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视频概述

本视频介绍了蓝色地图的作用和理念,呼吁更多的人加入减少碳排放和保护环境的队伍中。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

wen

审核员

审核员RN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wBRqxBvBWQE

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